Dual sector education

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Dual sector education is a system of tertiary education that includes substantial amounts of both vocational (skills-based) and higher (academic-based) education in the same institution.[1][2] Dual sector education is offered by colleges and universities worldwide, most prominently in Australia,[1] Austria, Germany,[3] Ireland, New Zealand,[1] Switzerland and the United Kingdom.[2] It differs from, and/or can also encompass, the similarly termed dual education system - which combines both vocational education within a school and an apprenticeship within a workplace.[3] Moodie distinguishes between single sector institutions which offer 97% of their teaching in one sector, mixed sector institutions which teach from 3% to 20% of their students in their smaller sector, and dual sector institutions which have substantial (> 20% of their load) in each of vocational and higher education.[4]


  1. ^ a b c Wheelahan 2000
  2. ^ a b Bathmaker et al. 2008, pp. 125–137
  3. ^ a b Reform to Vocational Education Archived February 20, 2006, at the Wayback Machine., Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung)
  4. ^ Gavin Moodie, Australia: the emergence of dual sector universities a draft of a chapter in Neil Garrod and Bruce Macfarlane (eds) Challenging boundaries. Managing the integration of post-secondary education, Routledge, Taylor and Francis, New York, pages 59-76.


Wheelahan, Leesa (2000), Bridging the Divide: Developing the Institutional Structures That Most Effectively Deliver Cross-Sectoral Education and Training, Leabrook (Australia): National Centre for Vocational Education Research, ISBN 0-87397-656-8 

Bathmaker, Ann-Marie; Brooks, Greg; Parry, Gareth; Smith, David (2008), "Dual-sector further and higher education: policies, organisations and students in transition"; Research Papers in Education, Volume 23; Issue 2, London (UK): Routledge, ISSN 1470-1146