- Abduction refers to the outward movement of an eye.
- Adduction refers to the inward movement of an eye
- Supraduction / sursumduction / elevation
- Infraduction / deorsumduction / depression
- Incycloduction / intorsion
- Excycloduction / extorsion
Forced duction test
The forced duction test is performed in order to determine whether the absence of movement of the eye is due to a neurological disorder or a mechanical restriction.
The anesthetized conjunctiva is grasped with forceps and an attempt is made to move the eye ball in the direction where the movement is restricted. If a mechanical restriction is present, it will not be possible to induce a passive movement of the eye ball
- Kanski, JJ. Clinical Ophthalmology: A Systematic Approach. Boston:Butterworth-Heinemann;1989.
- Forced duction - definition from Biology-Online.org
- Kunimoto D, Kanitkar K & Makar M. The Wills Eye Manual. Office and Emergency Room Diagnosis and Treatment of Eye Disease. Fourth Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004