Duke of Newcastle

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Dukedom of Newcastle
Creation date 1665 (first creation)
1694 (second creation)
1715 and 1756 (third creation)
Monarch Charles II (first creation)
William III and Mary II (second creation)
George I and George II (third creation)
Peerage Peerage of England (first creation)
Peerage of Great Britain (second and third creation)
First holder William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle
Last holder Edward Pelham-Clinton, 10th Duke of Newcastle
Remainder to the 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten
Special reminder for the third creation
Subsidiary titles Marquess of Clare
Earl of Ogle
Viscount Mansfield
Baron Cavendish of Bolsover
Extinction date 1691 (first creation)
1711 (second creation)
1988 (third creation)
Seat(s) Clumber Park

Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne is a title which has been created three times. The related title Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme has been created once to provide a slightly more remote special remainder. The title first was conferred in 1665 when William Cavendish was made Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne. He was a prominent Royalist commander in the Civil War. He had already been elevated as Viscount Mansfield in 1620, Baron Cavendish of Bolsover and Earl of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1621 and Marquess of the latter in 1643, and was created Earl of Ogle as main subsidiary title to the dukedom to be used as a courtesy style for his heir presumptive.

The titles became extinct in 1988, a year that saw the deaths of the distantly related ninth and tenth Dukes of Newcastle under Lyme.

Details of each creation[edit]

Family background

Cavendish was the son of Sir Charles Cavendish, third son of Sir William Cavendish and his wife Bess of Hardwick. William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire, was his uncle (see the Duke of Devonshire for further history of this branch of the family). Sir Charles Cavendish married as his second wife Catherine Ogle, 8th Baroness Ogle, daughter of Cuthbert Ogle, 7th Baron.

Details of first creation

In 1629 their son and namesake (then Earl of Newcastle upon Tyne) succeeded as ninth Baron Ogle. He was succeeded by his son, the second Duke, also a politician. His only son and heir apparent Henry Cavendish, Earl of Ogle, predeceased him. On the latter's death in 1691 all the titles became extinct, except the barony of Ogle which fell into abeyance between his four daughters (one of whom was Lady Elizabeth).

Details of second creation

One of these daughters, Lady Margaret, married John Holles, 4th Earl of Clare. In 1694 the dukedom was revived when he was created Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne. The Holles family descended from John Holles who was created Baron Haughton, of Haughton in Nottinghamshire, in 1616, and Earl of Clare in 1624. His second son was a politician Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles. Lord Clare was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Earl. He represented East Retford, Nottinghamshire in the House of Commons and served as Lord Lieutenant. His son, the third Earl, was briefly MP for Nottinghamshire in 1660. He was succeeded by his son, the aforementioned fourth Earl, who was raised to Duke in 1694; together with Lady Margaret he had one daughter but no sons and on his death in 1711 all his titles became extinct.

Third creation and Newcastle-under-Lyne additional title with special remainder
Sir Thomas Pelham-Holles KG, 1st Duke and Prime Minister of Great Britain

The Duke's sister, Lady Grace Holles (d. 1700), married Thomas Pelham, 1st Baron Pelham (see Earl of Chichester for earlier history of the Pelham family). On his uncle's death in 1711 their eldest son succeeded to the substantial Holles estates and assumed by Royal Licence the additional surname and arms of Holles. In 1714 the earldom of Clare was revived when he was created Viscount Haughton, and Earl of Clare, with remainder to his younger brother Henry Pelham, and the following year the dukedom was also revived when he was made Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne, with like special remainder. These titles were in the Peerage of Great Britain. In 1756 when his brother died without male issue and it was evident that the Duke would have no children the Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne was additionally created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne in Staffordshire (an alterate spelling of Newcastle-under-Lyme) with a different special remainder: to his nephew-by-marriage Henry Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln who rapidly took on the additional surname Pelham. For history of this title from the 1768 inheritance upon the 1st Duke's death, see Earl of Lincoln. His other titles became extinct except for the Pelham baronetcy (of Laughton) and the barony of Pelham (of Stanmer), which devolved to his first cousin once-removed, Thomas Pelham (for the history of these titles, see Earl of Chichester).

Extensive personal, transaction and estate papers of the Dukes are held in the Portland (Welbeck) and Newcastle (Clumber) collections at the University of Nottingham's Department of Manuscripts and Special Collections.

Dukes of Newcastle, first creation (1665)[edit]

also Marquess of Newcastle upon Tyne (1643), Earl of Newcastle upon Tyne (1628), Viscount Mansfield (1620) and Baron Ogle (1461)

Earls of Clare (1624)[edit]

also Baron Haughton (1616)

Dukes of Newcastle, second creation (1694)[edit]

also Earl of Clare (1624) and Baron Haughton (1616)

Dukes of Newcastle, third creation (1715)[edit]

also Earl of Clare (1714), Baron Pelham of Laughton (1706), Baron Pelham of Stanmer (1762) and Pelham Baronet, of Laughton (1611)
  • Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle (1693–1768), Prime Minister twice, a nephew of John Holles, 1st Duke of the second creation, died without male issue. At this point his father's baronetcy and barony of 1706, his own earldom and dukedom of 1715 became extinct.

Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyme (1756)[edit]

1st Duke: also Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1715), Earl of Clare (1714), Baron Pelham of Laughton (1706), Baron Pelham of Stanmer (1762) and Pelham Baronet, of Laughton (1611)
see also Earl of Lincoln

Principal seats and abodes[edit]

England
Extract from Gentleman's Magazine: Map of London & Environs, 1764
Wales
  • One Duke of the last creation bought retreat Cwm Elain, Dyfryn-Elain, Cwm-Toyddwr, Radnor from Sir Robert Peel. It parted from the Dukes before 1849.[3]
Hafod/Havod Uchtryd as improved by the fourth Duke
  • The 4th Duke bought very well-endowed-with land 'Hafod Uchtryd', by the Ystwith in Ceredigion from Thomas Johnes (d.1816) in a process from 1831 lasting until 1833 for £70,000, spent £20,000 on it and sold it for £95,000 to Henry Hoghton in 1846. He later added the Havod Arms inn four miles from the house in Llanfihangel y Creuddyn as an investment.[4][5][6]

Family tree[edit]

Family tree: Dukes of Newcastle


 
 
 
Sir William Cavendish
(c.1505–1557)
m.(3) Bess of Hardwick
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earls & Dukes of Devonshire
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Charles Cavendish
(1553–1617)
 
 
 
Frances Cavendish
(1548–1632)
m. Sir Henry Pierrepont
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF NEWC.-UPON-TYNE, 1665
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
William Cavendish,
1st Duke of Newcastle

(1592–1676)
 
 
 
Robert Pierrepont,
1st Earl of Kingston

(1584–1643)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
William Pierrepont
(c.1607–1678)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Cavendish,
2nd Duke of Newcastle

(1630–1691)
 
Frances Pierrepont
(1630–1695)
 
Grace Pierrepont
(1633–1702)
m. Gilbert Holles,
3rd Earl of Clare
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF NEWC.-UPON-TYNE, 1694
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Cavendish,
Earl of Ogle

(1659–1680)
 
Lady Margaret Cavendish
(1661–1716)
 
John Holles,
4th Earl of Clare,
1st Duke of Newcastle

(1662–1711)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Grace Holles
(c.1668–1700)
m. Thomas, 1st Baron Pelham
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF NEWC.-UPON-TYNE, 1715
DUKE OF NEWC.-UNDER-LYNE, 1756
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thomas Pelham-Holles,
1st Duke of Newcastle

(1693–1768)
P.M. 1754–56, 1757–62
 
Hon. Lucy Pelham
(1695–1736)
m. Henry Clinton,
7th Earl of Lincoln
 
Hon. Henry Pelham
(1694–1754)
P.M. 1743–54
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF NEWC.-UNDER-LYNE, 1756
(succeeded by special remainder, 1768)
 
 
 
 
 
 
George Clinton,
8th Earl of Lincoln
(1718–1730)
 
Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton,
9th Earl of Lincoln,
2nd Duke of Newcastle

(1720–1794)
 
Catherine Pelham
(1727–1760)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton,
Earl of Lincoln

(1750–1778)
 
Thomas Pelham-Clinton,
3rd Duke of Newcastle
10th Earl of Lincoln

(1752–1795)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham-Clinton,
4th Duke of Newcastle
11th Earl of Lincoln

(1785–1851)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Pelham Pelham-Clinton,
5th Duke of Newcastle
12th Earl of Lincoln

(1811–1864)
 
 
 
Lord Charles Pelham Pelham-Clinton
(1813–1894)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Pelham Alexander Pelham-Clinton,
6th Duke of Newcastle
13th Earl of Lincoln

(1834–1879)
 
 
 
Charles Stapleton Pelham-Clinton
(1857–1911)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Pelham Archibald Douglas Pelham-Clinton,
7th Duke of Newcastle
14th Earl of Lincoln

(1864–1928)
 
Henry Francis Hope Pelham-Clinton-Hope,
8th Duke of Newcastle
15th Earl of Lincoln

(1866–1941)
 
Guy Edward Pelham-Clinton
(1894–1934)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Edward Hugh Pelham-Clinton-Hope,
9th Duke of Newcastle
16th Earl of Lincoln

(1907–1988)
 
Edward Charles Pelham-Clinton,
10th Duke of Newcastle
17th Earl of Lincoln

(1920–1988)

Dukedom Extinct, 1988: the Earldom of Lincoln passed to the 10th Duke's 10th cousin, Edward Horace Fiennes-Clinton, 18th Earl of Lincoln. (See Earldom of Lincoln for more complete tree of the Earldom.)

See also[edit]

Other notable descendants (last creation)[edit]

  1. ^ 'Nottingham', in A Topographical Dictionary of England, ed. Samuel Lewis (London, 1848), pp. 446-461. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/england/pp446-461, accessed 30 September 2017.
  2. ^ 'London', in A Topographical Dictionary of England, ed. Samuel Lewis (London, 1848), pp. 129-170. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/england/pp129-170, accessed 30 September 2017.
  3. ^ Samuel Lewis, 'Dyfryn-Elain', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (London, 1849), pp. 317-320. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp317-320, accessed 30 September 2017.
  4. ^ Samuel Lewis, 'Cardiganshire', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (London, 1849), pp. 158-180. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp158-180, accessed 30 September 2017.
  5. ^ Samuel Lewis, 'Edern - Eidda', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (London, 1849), pp. 320-328. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp320-328, accessed 30 September 2017.
  6. ^ Samuel Lewis, 'Llanvihangel', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (London, 1849), pp. 129-147. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp129-147, accessed 30 September 2017.
  7. ^ www.medialens.org

References[edit]