Earthquakes in New Zealand
Earthquakes occur frequently in New Zealand as the country is situated in the collision zone between the Indo-Australian and Pacific tectonic plates, part of the Pacific Basin Ring of Fire, where many earthquakes and volcanoes occur. About 14,000 earthquakes occur in and around the country each year, of which between 150 and 200 are big enough to be felt. As a result, New Zealand has very stringent building regulations.
Most earthquakes in New Zealand occur along the main ranges running from Fiordland in the southwest to East Cape in the northeast. This axis follows the boundary between the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates. Large earthquakes are less common along the central Alpine Fault, where the plates are not subducting and the forces are accommodated in different ways.
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Quite early on, European settlers were faced with the reality of earthquakes in their new home. On 26 May 1840, the new settlement at Port Nicholson was struck by the first of a number of earthquakes and tremors. Today earthquakes are a common part of New Zealand society and people have become well equipped to deal with them. Each year sees at least one Magnitude 6.0 earthquake or above.
The New Zealand Earthquake Commission (EQC) provides public education to much of the country. As outlined in its statement of intent, it hopes to provide "public education about seismic hazards and methods of reducing or preventing seismic disaster damage." The EQC sponsors exhibitions on seismic hazards in the Te Papa Museum of New Zealand, and is responsible for social marketing campaigns. An extensive advertising campaign by the EQC across New Zealand's main television networks ran from June 2005 to June 2006. The adverts outlined the risks earthquakes pose to New Zealand and measures households can take to "Quake Safe their house." The slogan used throughout EQC Quake Safe campaigns is "Fix. Fasten. Forget." Additionally, in October 2006, many households received free "EQ-IQ" fridge magnets from the EQC.
Early settlers learned fairly quickly the importance of using appropriate building methods in an earthquake-prone country. The 1848 earthquake, centred in Marlborough, caused great damage to the brick and masonry buildings in Wellington, and the city was rebuilt mainly in wood; consequently it suffered comparatively little damage in the 8.2 magnitude earthquake of 1855, which lifted the land 2–3m.
Many buildings in Hastings and Napier were damaged in the 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake. New building regulations meant that any new buildings constructed afterwards attempted to take earthquake shaking into account in building design.
|Date||Location||Region||Magnitude (ML)||Magnitude (Mw)||Depth||Latitude||Longitude||Fatalities||Further information|
|8 July 1843||Near Wanganui||Manawatu||7.6||7.5||12 km||39.59°S||176.20°E||2||1843 Wanganui earthquake|
|16 Oct 1848||Blenheim||Marlborough||7.4||7.8||12 km||41.89°S||173.60°E||3||1848 Marlborough earthquake|
|23 Jan 1855||Lake Wairarapa||Wairarapa||8.2||8.2–8.3||33 km||41.198°S||175.20°E||9||1855 Wairarapa earthquake|
|23 Feb 1863||Waipawa||Hawke's Bay||7.5||39.57°S||176.34°E||1863 Hawke's Bay earthquake|
|5 Jun 1869||Christchurch||Canterbury||5.7||1869 Christchurch earthquake|
|1 Sep 1888||Lewis Pass||North Canterbury||7.0||7.1||12 km||42.59°S||172.55°E||1888 North Canterbury earthquake|
|16 Nov 1901||Cheviot||North Canterbury||6.8||12 km||42.74°S||173.35°E||1||1901 Cheviot earthquake|
|9 Aug 1904||Cape Turnagain||Hawke's Bay||7.0||7.2||16 km||40.40°S||176.40°E||1||1904 Cape Turnagain earthquake|
|9 Mar 1929||Arthur's Pass||Canterbury||7.0||12 km||42.83°S||171.83°E||1929 Arthur's Pass earthquake|
|17 Jun 1929||Murchison||West Coast||7.3||7.8||20 km||41.69°S||172.20°E||17||1929 Murchison earthquake|
|3 Feb 1931||North of Napier||Hawke's Bay||7.4||7.8||20 km||39.29°S||177.00°E||256||1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake|
|5 Mar 1934||Pahiatua||Manawatu||7.2||12 km||40.54°S||176.29°E||2||1934 Pahiatua earthquake|
|24 Jun 1942||Masterton||Wairarapa||6.5||12 km||40.95°S||175.68°E||June 1942 Wairarapa earthquake|
|1 Aug 1942||Masterton||Wairarapa||6.8||40 km||41.01°S||175.51°E||1||August 1942 Wairarapa earthquake|
|24 May 1968||Inangahua Junction||West Coast||6.7||7.1||12 km||41.75°S||172.04°E||2||1968 Inangahua earthquake|
|5 Jan 1973||Taupo||Waikato||7.0||7.0||163 km||39.03°S||175.26°E||1973 Taupo earthquake|
|2 Mar 1987||Edgecumbe||Bay of Plenty||6.1||6.5||10 km||37.88°S||176.80°E||1987 Edgecumbe earthquake|
|20 Dec 2007||Gisborne||East Cape||6.7||6.6||44 km||38.89°S||178.44°E||1||2007 Gisborne earthquake|
|25 Aug 2008||Hastings||Hawke's Bay||5.9||6.0||32 km||39.72°S||176.85°E||2008 Hastings earthquake|
|15 Jul 2009||Dusky Sound||Southland||7.8||12 km||45.76°S||166.58°E||2009 Fiordland earthquake|
|4 Sep 2010||Darfield||Canterbury||7.1||7.2||10 km||43.52°S||172.16°E||2010 Canterbury earthquake|
|22 Feb 2011||Christchurch||Canterbury||6.3||6.2||5.9 km||43.58°S||172.67E||185||2011 Christchurch earthquake|
|13 Jun 2011||Christchurch||Canterbury||6.4||6.0||6.9 km||43.56°S||172.73°E||1||June 2011 Christchurch earthquake|
|3 Jul 2012||South Taranaki Bight||Taranaki||7.1||6.3||229 km||40.00°S||173.75°E||2012 Opunake earthquake|
|21 Jul 2013||Cook Strait||Marlborough||6.5||6.5||17 km||41.61°S||174.33°E||2013 Seddon earthquake|
|16 Aug 2013||Lake Grassmere||Marlborough||6.6||6.5||8 km||41.73°S||174.15°E||2013 Lake Grassmere earthquake|
|20 Jan 2014||Eketahuna||Wairarapa||6.2||-||33 km||40.62°S||175.85°E||2014 Eketahuna earthquake|
|2 Sep 2016||Offshore East Cape||East Cape||7.1||7.1||55 km||37.01°S||179.63°E||2016 Te Araroa earthquake|
- Canterbury Earthquake Response and Recovery Act 2010
- List of disasters in New Zealand by death toll
- Shaky Isles – a nickname for New Zealand
- Tsunamis affecting New Zealand
- Volcanology of New Zealand
- McSaveney, Eileen (12 June 2006). "Earthquakes - What causes earthquakes?". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- Dench 2005, p. 57.
- EQC Statement of Intent  EQC Statement of Intent
- "EQC Annual Report 2006-2007"EQC Annual Report 2006-2007
- "EQC Annual Report 2005-2012" EQC Annual Report 2005-2006
- McSaveney, Eileen (21 September 2007). "Earthquakes - Building for earthquake resistance". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
- "M 8.2 - 8.3, Wairarapa, 23 January 1855". GeoNet. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- McSaveney, Eileen (2 Mar 2009). "Historic earthquakes – The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- "Where were New Zealand's largest earthquakes?". GNS Science. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- "New Zealand earthquake report - Sep 4 2010 at 4:35 am (NZST)". GeoNet. 4 September 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- "List of deceased - Christchurch earthquake". New Zealand Police. 3 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
- "New Zealand Earthquake Report Magnitude 6.2, Monday, January 20, 2014 at 3:52:45 pm (NZDT)". GeoNet. 21 January 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Dench, Alison (2005). Essential Dates: A Timeline of New Zealand History. Auckland: Random House. ISBN 1-86941-689-9.
- Eiby, G. A. (1957); Earthquakes (London, Frederick Muller) Page 159 has Table of (16) Major Earthquakes in New Zealand 1848–1942, from R. C. Hayes.
- Henderson, J (1937); The West Nelson Earthquakes of 1929, Bulletin No. 55 of Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (Wellington, Government Printer)