Calhoun was raised in Chicago, where he played with Dick Davis (1947–49) and Ahmad Jamal (1951-52). Subsequently he worked with Horace Henderson (1952–54), Johnny Griffin (1954), Roy Eldridge, Billie Holiday, and Miles Davis. He joined Erroll Garner in 1955 and played with him through 1966, recording extensively and touring worldwide.
After his time with Garner, Calhoun played with Norvel Reed (1967–68), then ran a nightclub called Cal's in Chicago in 1972-74 and led a sextet at the Fantasy Club from 1975-80. From 1980 to 1986 he accompanied Lennie Capp, then joined the Chicago All-Stars alongside Irwin Hoffer for a tour of Europe.
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With Willis Jackson
- Bossa Nova Plus (Prestige, 1962)
- James M. Doran, "Eddie Calhoun". The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz.