Ahmad Jamal

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Ahmad Jamal
Jamal in 2019
Jamal in 2019
Background information
Birth nameFrederick Russell Jones
Born(1930-07-02)July 2, 1930
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
DiedApril 16, 2023(2023-04-16) (aged 92)
Ashley Falls, Massachusetts, U.S.
  • Jazz
  • hard bop
  • modal jazz
  • cool jazz
  • post-bop
Years active1948–2020
Websitewww.ahmadjamal.com Edit this at Wikidata

Ahmad Jamal (born Frederick Russell Jones; July 2, 1930 – April 16, 2023) was an American jazz pianist, composer, bandleader, and educator. For six decades, he was one of the most successful small-group leaders in jazz.[1] He was a National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) Jazz Master and won a Lifetime Achievement Grammy for his contributions to music history.[2][3]


Early life[edit]

Jamal was born Frederick Russell Jones in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on July 2, 1930.[4] He began playing piano at the age of three, when his uncle Lawrence challenged him to duplicate what he was doing on the piano.[5] Jamal began formal piano training at the age of seven with Mary Cardwell Dawson, whom he described as having greatly influenced him. His Pittsburgh roots remained an important part of his identity ("Pittsburgh meant everything to me and it still does," he said in 2001)[6] and it was there that he was immersed in the influence of jazz artists such as Earl Hines, Billy Strayhorn, Mary Lou Williams, and Erroll Garner. Jamal also studied with pianist James Miller and began playing piano professionally at the age of fourteen,[7] at which point he was recognized as a "coming great" by the pianist Art Tatum.[8] When asked about his practice habits by a critic from The New York Times, Jamal commented that, "I used to practice and practice with the door open, hoping someone would come by and discover me. I was never the practitioner in the sense of twelve hours a day, but I always thought about music. I think about music all the time."[8]


External media
audio icon Ahmad Jamal On Piano Jazz, August 29, 2008, Piano Jazz[9]
audio icon Eric in The Evening; Ahmad Jamal, interview, January 18, 1989, Open Vault at WGBH[11]
video icon Ahmad Jamal – Interview – "American Classical Music", April 27, 2010, underyourskindvd[10]

Jamal began touring with George Hudson's Orchestra after graduating from George Westinghouse High School in 1948.[12][13] He joined another touring group known as The Four Strings, which disbanded when violinist Joe Kennedy Jr. left.[8] In 1950 he moved to Chicago,[2] performing intermittently with local musicians Von Freeman and Claude McLin,[14] and solo at the Palm Tavern, occasionally joined by drummer Ike Day.[15]

Born to Baptist parents, Jamal became interested in Islam and Islamic culture in Detroit, where there was a sizable Muslim community in the 1940s and 1950s.[16] He converted to Islam and changed his name to Ahmad Jamal in 1950.[17][12] In an interview with The New York Times a few years later, he said his decision to change his name stemmed from a desire to "re-establish my original name."[16] Shortly after his conversion to Islam, he explained to The New York Times that he "says Muslim prayers five times a day and arises in time to say his first prayers at 5 am. He says them in Arabic in keeping with the Muslim tradition."[16]

Jamal made his first records in 1951 for the Okeh label with The Three Strings[18] (which would later also be called the Ahmad Jamal Trio, although Jamal himself preferred not to use the term "trio"): the other members were guitarist Ray Crawford and a bassist, at different times Eddie Calhoun (1950–52), Richard Davis (1953–54), and Israel Crosby (from 1954). The Three Strings arranged an extended engagement at Chicago's Blue Note, but leapt to fame after performing at the Embers in New York City where John Hammond saw the band play and signed them to Okeh Records. Hammond, a record producer who discovered the talents and enhanced the fame of musicians like Benny Goodman, Billie Holiday, and Count Basie, also helped Jamal's trio attract critical acclaim.[12] Jamal subsequently recorded for Parrot (1953–55) and Epic (1955) using the piano-guitar-bass lineup.[19]

At the Pershing: But Not for Me[edit]

Jamal in Nashville, October 18, 2019

The trio's sound changed significantly when Crawford was replaced with drummer Vernel Fournier in 1957, and the group worked as the "house trio" at Chicago's Pershing Hotel.[20] The trio released the live album, At the Pershing: But Not for Me, which stayed on the Ten Best-selling charts for 108 weeks. Jamal's recording of the well-known song "Poinciana" was first released on this album.[21]

Perhaps Jamal's most famous recording, At the Pershing, was recorded at the Pershing Hotel in Chicago in 1958; it brought him popularity in the late 1950s and into the 1960s jazz age. Jamal played the set with bassist Israel Crosby and drummer Vernel Fournier. The set list expressed a diverse collection of tunes, including "The Surrey with the Fringe on Top" from the musical Oklahoma! and Jamal's arrangement of the jazz standard "Poinciana". Jazz musicians and listeners alike found inspiration in the At the Pershing recording, and Jamal's trio was recognized as an integral new building block in the history of jazz. Evident were his unusually minimalist style and his extended vamps,[22] according to reviewer John Morthland. The New York Times contributor Ben Ratliff said, in a review of the album, "If you're looking for an argument that pleasurable mainstream art can assume radical status at the same time, Jamal is your guide."[23]

After the recording of the best-selling album But Not For Me, Jamal's music grew in popularity throughout the 1950s, and he attracted media coverage for his investment decisions pertaining to his "rising fortune".[16] In 1959, he took a tour of North Africa to explore investment options in Africa. Jamal, who was 29 at the time, said he had a curiosity about the homeland of his ancestors, highly influenced by his conversion to the Muslim faith. He also said his religion had brought him peace of mind about his race, which accounted for his "growth in the field of music that has proved very lucrative for me."[16] Upon his return to the U.S. after a tour of North Africa, the financial success of Live at the Pershing: But Not For Me allowed Jamal to open a restaurant and club called The Alhambra in Chicago, which lasted barely one year.[24][25] In 1962, The Three Strings disbanded and Jamal recorded Macanudo with a full orchestra.[25] He then took a brief hiatus from performing.[17]

Return to music and The Awakening[edit]

In 1964, Jamal resumed performing after moving to New York, and started a residency at the Village Gate nightclub.[26] He recorded a new album, Extensions, with bassist Jamil S. Nasser in 1965.[27] Jamal and Nasser continued to play together from 1964 to 1972.[28] He also joined forces with Fournier (again, 1965–1966)[29] and drummer Frank Gant (1966–77),[30] among others. Until 1970, he played acoustic piano exclusively. The final album on which he played acoustic piano in the regular sequence was The Awakening. In the 1970s, he played electric piano as well; one such recording was an instrumental recording of "Suicide is Painless," the theme song from the 1970 film MASH, which was released on a 1973 reissue of the film's soundtrack album, replacing the original vocal version of the song by The Mash. It was rumored that the Rhodes piano was a gift from someone in Switzerland. He continued to play throughout the 1970s and 1980s, mostly in trios with piano, bass and drums, but he occasionally expanded the group to include guitar. One of his most long-standing gigs was as the band for the New Year's Eve celebrations at Blues Alley in Washington, D.C., from 1979 through the 1990s.[31][incomplete short citation]

Later career[edit]

In his 80s, Jamal continued to make numerous tours and recordings, including albums such as Saturday Morning (2013),[32] the CD/DVD release Ahmad Jamal Featuring Yusef Lateef Live at L'Olympia (2014), Marseille (2017), and Ballades (2019), featuring mostly solo piano.[33] Jamal was the main mentor of jazz piano virtuosos Hiromi Uehara, known as Hiromi[34][33] and Shahin Novrasli.[35][36][37][38]

In 1986, Jamal sued critic Leonard Feather for using his former name in a publication.[39]


On April 16, 2023, Jamal died from complications of prostate cancer at home in Ashley Falls, Massachusetts. He was 92.[40][41][2] His death was confirmed by his daughter, Sumayah Jamal.[42]

Style and influence[edit]

Jamal performing with bassist James Cammack in 2007

"Ahmad Jamal is one of the great Zen masters of jazz piano. He plays just what is needed and nothing more... every phrase is perfect."

—Tom Moon, NPR musical correspondent[43]

Trained in both traditional jazz ("American classical music", as he preferred to call it)[8] and European classical style, Jamal was praised as one of the greatest jazz innovators over the course of his exceptionally long career. Following bebop greats like Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie, Jamal entered the world of jazz at a time when speed and virtuosic improvisation were central to the success of jazz musicians as artists. Jamal, however, took steps in the direction of a new movement, later coined "cool jazz" – an effort to move jazz in the direction of popular music. He emphasized space between notes in his musical compositions and interpretations instead of focusing on the fast-paced bebop style.[44][2]

Because of this style, Jamal was "often dismissed by jazz writers as no more than a cocktail pianist, a player so given to fluff that his work shouldn't be considered seriously in any artistic sense".[45] Stanley Crouch, author of Considering Genius, offered a very different reaction to Jamal's music, claiming that, like the highly influential Thelonious Monk, Jamal was a true innovator of the jazz tradition and is second in importance in the development of jazz after 1945 only to Parker.[46] His unique musical style stemmed from many individual characteristics, including his use of orchestral effects and his ability to control the beat of songs. These stylistic choices resulted in a unique and new sound for the piano trio: "Through the use of space and changes of rhythm and tempo", wrote Crouch, "Jamal invented a group sound that had all the surprise and dynamic variation of an imaginatively ordered big band."[46] Jamal explored the texture of riffs, timbres, and phrases rather than the quantity or speed of notes in any given improvisation. Speaking about Jamal, A. B. Spellman of the National Endowment of the Arts said: "Nobody except Thelonious Monk used space better, and nobody ever applied the artistic device of tension and release better."[47] These (at the time) unconventional techniques that Jamal gleaned from both traditional classical and contemporary jazz musicians helped pave the way for later jazz greats like Bill Evans, Herbie Hancock, McCoy Tyner, Cedar Walton, Ethan Iverson, and Bill Charlap.[48][41][42]

Though Jamal is often overlooked by jazz critics and historians, he is frequently credited with having a great influence on Miles Davis. Davis is quoted as saying that he was impressed by Jamal's rhythmic sense and his "concept of space, his lightness of touch, his understatement".[1] Miles used to send his crew to concerts of Jamal, so they could learn to play like Miles wanted it.[49] Jamal's contrasts (crafting melodies that included strong and mild tones, and fast and slow rhythms) were what impressed Miles.[49] Jamal characterized what he thought Davis admired about his music as: "my discipline as opposed to my space."[50] Jamal and Davis became friends in the 1950s, and Davis continued to support Jamal as a fellow musician, often playing versions of Jamal's own songs ("Ahmad's Blues", "New Rhumba") until he died in 1991.[1]

Jamal, speaking about his own work, said, "I like doing ballads. They're hard to play. It takes years of living, really, to read them properly."[51] From an early age, Jamal developed an appreciation for the lyrics of the songs he learned: "I once heard Ben Webster playing his heart out on a ballad. All of a sudden he stopped. I asked him, 'Why did you stop, Ben?' He said, 'I forgot the lyrics.'"[8] Jamal attributed the variety in his musical taste to the fact that he grew up in several eras: the big band era, the bebop years, and the electronic age.[52] He said his style evolved from drawing on the techniques and music produced in these three eras. In 1985, Jamal agreed to do an interview and recording session with his fellow jazz pianist, Marian McPartland on her NPR show Piano Jazz. Jamal, who said he rarely would play "But Not For Me" due to its popularity after his 1958 recording, played an improvised version of the tune – though only after noting that he moved on to making ninety percent of his repertoire his own compositions. He said that when he grew in popularity from the Live at the Pershing album, he was severely criticized afterwards for not playing any of his own compositions.[51]

Jamal at Bozar in Brussels, Belgium (Jan 2014)

In his later years, Jamal embraced the electronic influences affecting the genre of jazz. He also occasionally expanded his usual small ensemble of three to include a tenor saxophone (George Coleman) and a violin. A jazz fan interviewed by Down Beat magazine about Jamal in 2010 described his development as "more aggressive and improvisational these days. The word I used to use is avant garde; that might not be right. Whatever you call it, the way he plays is the essence of what jazz is."[53]

Saxophonist Ted Nash described his experience with Jamal's style in an interview with Down Beat magazine: "The way he comped wasn't the generic way that lots of pianists play with chords in the middle of the keyboard, just filling things up. He gave lots of single line responses. He'd come back and throw things out at you, directly from what you played. It was really interesting because it made you stop, and allowed him to respond, and then you felt like playing something else – that's something I don't feel with a lot of piano players. It's really quite engaging. I guess that's another reason people focus in on him. He makes them hone in."[54]

Jamal recorded with the voices of the Howard A. Roberts Chorale on The Bright, the Blue and the Beautiful and Cry Young;[55] with vibraphonist Gary Burton on In Concert;[56][57] with brass, reeds, and strings celebrating his hometown of Pittsburgh;[58] with The Assai Quartet;[59] and with tenor saxophonist George Coleman on the album The Essence Part One.[60]

Awards and honors[edit]


As leader[edit]

Year recorded Title Label Notes Ref.
1951–55 The Piano Scene of Ahmad Jamal Epic Trio, with Ray Crawford (guitar), Eddie Calhoun and Israel Crosby (bass; separately) [73]
1955 Ahmad Jamal Plays Parrot Trio, with Ray Crawford (guitar), Israel Crosby (bass); also released as Chamber Music of the New Jazz by Argo [4]
1955 The Ahmad Jamal Trio Epic Trio, with Ray Crawford (guitar), Israel Crosby (bass) [74]
1956 Count 'Em 88 Argo / MCA Trio, with Israel Crosby (bass), Walter Perkins (drums) [74][75]
1958 Ahmad's Blues Chess Trio, with Israel Crosby (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums); in concert [76]
1958 At the Pershing: But Not for Me (Ahmad Jamal at the Pershing, Vol. 1) Argo Trio, with Israel Crosby (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums); in concert [58]
1958 At the Pershing, Vol. 2 Argo Trio, with Israel Crosby (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums); in concert [77]
1958 Ahmad Jamal Trio Volume IV Argo Trio, with Israel Crosby (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums); in concert [78]
1958 Portfolio of Ahmad Jamal Argo Trio, with Israel Crosby (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums); in concert [21]
1958 Poinciana Argo Trio, with Israel Crosby (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums) [79]
1959 Jamal at the Penthouse Argo With Israel Crosby (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums), orchestra; in concert [58]
1960 Happy Moods Argo Trio, with Israel Crosby (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums) [80]
1960 Listen to the Ahmad Jamal Quintet Argo Quintet, with Ray Crawford (guitar), Joe Kennedy (violin), Israel Crosby (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums) [81]
1961 All of You Argo Trio, with Israel Crosby (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums); in concert [58]
1961 Ahmad Jamal's Alhambra Argo Trio, with Israel Crosby (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums); in concert [58]
1961 Ahmad Jamal at the Blackhawk Argo Trio, with Israel Crosby (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums); in concert [82]
1962 Macanudo Argo With orchestra arranged and conducted by Richard Evans [83]
1964 Naked City Theme Argo Trio, with Jamil Nasser (bass), Chuck Lampkin (drums); in concert at the San Francisco Jazz Workshop [84]
1965 The Roar of the Greasepaint Argo Trio, with Jamil Nasser (bass), Chuck Lampkin (drums) [85]
1965 Extensions Argo Trio, with Jamil Nasser (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums) [27]
1965 Rhapsody Cadet With Jamil Nasser (bass), Vernel Fournier (drums), orchestra [86]
1966 Heat Wave Cadet Trio, with Jamil Nasser (bass), Frank Gant (drums) [87]
1967 Cry Young Cadet With Jamil Nasser (bass), Frank Gant (drums), choir [88]
1968 The Bright, the Blue and the Beautiful Cadet With Jamil Nasser (bass), Frank Gant (drums), choir [55]
1968 Tranquility ABC With Jamil Nasser (bass), Frank Gant (drums) [89]
1968 Ahmad Jamal at the Top: Poinciana Revisited Impulse! Trio, with Jamil Nasser (bass), Frank Gant (drums); in concert [4][28]
1970 The Awakening Impulse! Trio, with Jamil Nasser (bass), Frank Gant (drums) [58]
1971 Freeflight Impulse! Trio, with Jamil Nasser (bass), Frank Gant (drums); in concert at Montreux Jazz Festival [2][58]
1971 Outertimeinnerspace Impulse! Trio, with Jamil Nasser (bass), Frank Gant (drums); in concert at Montreux Jazz Festival [90]
1973 Ahmad Jamal '73 20th Century With orchestra, vocals [91]
1974 Jamalca 20th Century With orchestra, vocals [91]
1974 Jamal Plays Jamal 20th Century Quartet, with Jamil Nasser (bass), Frank Gant (drums), Azzedin Weston (congas) [91][92]
1975 Genetic Walk 20th Century With Calvin Keys and Danny Leake (guitar; separately), Richard Evans, Roger Harris John Heard and Jamil Nasser (bass; separately), Steve Cobb, Frank Gant, Morris Jenkins, Eddie Marshall and Harvey Mason (drums; separately) [92]
1976 Steppin' Out with a Dream 20th Century Quartet, with Calvin Keys (guitar), John Heard (bass), Frank Gant (drums) [93]
1976 Recorded Live at Oil Can Harry's Catalyst Quintet, with Calvin Keys (guitar), John Heard (bass), Frank Gant (drums), Seldon Newton (percussion); in concert [58]
1978 One 20th Century With various [94]
1980 Intervals 20th Century Quintet, with Calvin Keys (guitar), John Heard (bass), Harvey Mason (drums), Seldon Newton (percussion) [58]
1980 Live at Bubba's Who's Who in Jazz Trio, with Sabu Adeyola (bass), Payton Crossley (drums); in concert [58]
1980 Night Song Motown With Oscar Brashear and Robert O'Bryant (trumpet), Maurice Spears and Garnett Brown (trombone), Pete Christlieb (alto sax), Ernie Fields (baritone sax), Dean Paul Gant and Gil Askey (keyboards), Calvin Keys and Greg Purce (guitar), John Heard and Kenneth Burke bass), Chester Thompson (drums) [95]
1980 In Concert Personal Choice Some tracks trio, with Sabu Adeyola (bass), Payton Crossley (drums); some tracks quartet, with Gary Burton (vibraphone) added; in concert [56]
1982 American Classical Music Shubra Quartet, with David Adeyola (bass), Payton Crossley (drums), Selden Newton (percussion); in concert; reissued by Black Lion as Goodbye Mr. Evans (1984).

Recorded live in San Francisco, July 1982

1985 Digital Works Atlantic Quartet, with Larry Ball (bass), Herlin Riley (drums), Iraj Lashkary (percussion) [58]
1985 Live at the Montreal Jazz Festival 1985 Atlantic Quartet, with James Cammack (bass), Herlin Riley (drums), Selden Newton (percussion); in concert [58][97]
1986 Rossiter Road Atlantic Quartet, with James Cammack (bass), Herlin Riley (drums), Manolo Badrena (percussion) [58]
1987 Crystal Atlantic Quartet, with James Cammack (bass), David Bowler (drums), Willie White (percussion) [58][97]
1989 Pittsburgh Atlantic With James Cammack (bass), David Bowler (drums), orchestra [58]
1992 Live in Paris 1992 Verve Some tracks trio with James Cammack (bass), David Bowler (drums); some tracks trio with Todd Coolman (bass), Gordon Lane (drums); in concert [58]
1992 Chicago Revisited: Live at Joe Segal's Jazz Showcase Telarc Trio, with John Heard (bass), Yoron Israel (drums); in concert [2][97]
1992 Live at Blues Alley Blues Alley Musical Society [21]
1994 I Remember Duke, Hoagy & Strayhorn Telarc Trio, with Ephriam Wolfolk (bass), Arti Dixson (drums) [58][97]
1994 Ahmad Jamal at Home Roesch [74]
1994–95 The Essence Part One Birdology Most tracks quartet, with James Cammack (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums), Manolo Badrena (percussion); some tracks quintet, with George Coleman (tenor sax), Jamil Nasser (bass), Muhammad (drums), Badrena (percussion) [58]
1994–95 Big Byrd: The Essence Part 2 Birdology Most tracks quartet, with James Cammack (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums), Manolo Badrena (percussion); one track quintet with Joe Kennedy Jr. (violin), Jamil Nasser (bass), Muhammad (drums), Badrena (percussion); one track quintet with Donald Byrd (trumpet) replacing Kennedy Jr. [58]
1996 Live in Paris 1996 Dreyfus With George Coleman (tenor sax), Calvin Keys (guitar), Joe Kennedy (violin), Jeff Chambers (bass), Yoron Israel (drums), Manolo Badrena (percussion); in concert [98]
1997 Nature: The Essence Part Three Birdology Most tracks quintet, with James Cammack (bass), Othello Molineaux (steel drum), Idris Muhammad (drums), Manolo Badrena (percussion); one track sextet, with Stanley Turrentine (tenor sax) added [99][100]
1998 Ahmad Jamal with The Assai Quartet Roesch With string quartet [98]
2001 Picture Perfect Birdology Some tracks trio, with James Cammack and Jamil Nasser (bass; separately), Idris Muhammad (drums); some tracks quartet, with Mark Cargill (violin) added [98]
2000 Ahmad Jamal à l'Olympia Dreyfus Quartet, with George Coleman (tenor sax), James Cammack (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums); in concert; also known as Ahmad Jamal 70th Birthday [98]
2002 (released 2003) In Search of... Momentum Birdology Trio, with James Cammack (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums) [98]
2004 After Fajr Birdology Most tracks trio, with James Cammack (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums); one tracks quintet, with Donna McElroy and Vox One (vocals) added; in concert [98]
2007 It's Magic Birdology Quartet, with James Cammack (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums), Manolo Badrena (percussion) [101]
2008 Poinciana: One Night Only [102]
2009 A Quiet Time Dreyfus With James Cammack (bass), Kenny Washington (drums), Manolo Badrena (percussion) [103]
2011 Blue Moon Jazz Village With Reginald Veal (bass), Herlin Riley (drums), Manolo Badrena (percussion); nominated for a Grammy Award [104]
2012 Ahmad Jamal & Yusef Lateef/Live At The Olympia Jazz Village Ahmad Jamal piano, Yusuf Lateef saxophone, flute, vocals, Reginald Veal bass, Manolo Badrena percussion, Herlin Riley drums [105][106]
2013 Saturday Morning: La Buissonne Studio Sessions Jazz Village With Reginald Veal (bass), Herlin Riley (drums), Manolo Badrena (percussion) [32]
2016 Marseille Jazz Village Most tracks quartet, with James Cammack (bass), Herlin Riley (drums), Manolo Badrena (percussion); one track quintet with Abd Al Malik (spoken word) added; one track quintet with Mina Agossi (vocals) added [107][108]
2019 Ballades Jazz Village Most tracks solo piano; three tracks with James Cammack (bass) [2]


As sideman[edit]

With Ray Brown

With Shirley Horn

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Early 2001, p. 79.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Grode, Eric (April 16, 2023). "Ahmad Jamal, Jazz Pianist With a Measured Approach, Dies at 92". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 16, 2023.
  3. ^ a b "2017 Special Merit Awards: Sly Stone, Velvet Underground, Nina Simone". www.grammy.com. May 15, 2017. Retrieved April 16, 2023.
  4. ^ a b c Wang, Richard (November 26, 2013). "Jamal, Ahmad [Jones, Frederick Russell]". Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.A2275871.
  5. ^ Michel, Karen (December 31, 2014). "Ahmad Jamal, 'A Musical Architect Of The Highest Order,' Keeps on Building". Npr.org. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
  6. ^ Early 2001, pp. 79–85.
  7. ^ Wang, Richard and Barry Kernfeld. "Jamal, Ahmad". The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 2nd ed. Ed. Barry Kernfeld. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Web. April 17, 2012.
  8. ^ a b c d e Waltzer, Ben. "Always Making Jazz Seem New: The Pianist Ahmad Jamal Is an Innovator Who Finds Originality by Taking a Long at the Tradition of Small-Group Jazz." The New York Times, November 11, 2001: A27. Print.
  9. ^ "Ahmad Jamal On Piano Jazz". Piano Jazz with Marian McPartland. NPR. August 29, 2008. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  10. ^ "Ahmad Jamal – Interview – "American Classical Music"". Underyourskindvd. April 27, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  11. ^ "Eric in The Evening; Ahmad Jamal]". Open Vault at WGBH. January 18, 1989. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  12. ^ a b c Wang, Richard; Kernfeld, Barry (2003). "Jamal, Ahmad (jazz)". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.J221400. Retrieved April 20, 2023.
  13. ^ Kaufman, Gil (April 17, 2023). "Ahmad Jamal, Influential Jazz Pianist Dies at 92". Billboard. Retrieved April 20, 2023.
  14. ^ "Ahmad Jamal, An Architect of Modern Jazz, Dead at 92". Yahoo Sports. April 17, 2023. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  15. ^ Panken, Ted "It's Ahmad Jamal's 81st Birthday". Tedpanken.wordpress.com, Retrieved July 3, 2013.
  16. ^ a b c d e Walz, Jay (November 20, 1959). "Pianist-Investor Is a Hit in Cairo: Jazz Musician Ahmad Jamal Finds Muslim Faith Aids Him on African Visit." The New York Times. p. 14.
  17. ^ a b Amorosi, A. D. (April 17, 2023). "Ahmad Jamal, Pioneering Jazz Pianist Who Influenced Both Miles Davis and Hip-Hop, Dies at 92". Variety. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  18. ^ Myers, Mike (September 14, 2022). "Jazz news: Ahmad Jamal: Complete Okeh, Parrot & Epic". All About Jazz. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  19. ^ Jazz, All About (September 14, 2022). "Jazz news: Ahmad Jamal: Complete Okeh, Parrot & Epic". All About Jazz. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  20. ^ Siek, Stephen (2016). A Dictionary for the Modern Pianist. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-0810888807.
  21. ^ a b c Holley, Eugene (October–November 1994). "Ahmad Jamal: A Lasting Impression". American Visions. Vol. 9. pp. 46–47. Retrieved April 17, 2023 – via EBSCOHost.
  22. ^ Review by John Morthland, November 16, 2010.
  23. ^ Macnie 2010, p. 28.
  24. ^ "Ahmad Jamal Musician – All About Jazz". All About Jazz Musicians. Archived from the original on October 13, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  25. ^ a b Fordham, John (April 17, 2023). "Ahmad Jamal obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  26. ^ Cain, Sian (April 17, 2023). "Ahmad Jamal, influential jazz pianist, dies aged 92". The Guardian. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  27. ^ a b Ober, Chick (December 24, 1965). "Album By Errol Garner Scores With Old Tunes". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved April 18, 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
  28. ^ a b Voigt, John; Kernfeld, Barry (2003). "Nasser, Jamil (Sulieman)". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.J322500. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  29. ^ Kernfeld, Barry (2003). "Fournier, Vernel (Anthony)". Grove Music Online. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  30. ^ Kennedy, Gary W. (2003). "Gant, Frank". Grove Music Online. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  31. ^ Wang and Kernfeld, p. 1.
  32. ^ a b Fordham, John (September 26, 2013). "Ahmad Jamal: Saturday Morning – review". The Guardian. Retrieved April 18, 2023.
  33. ^ a b "Ahmad Jamal Makes Schermerhorn Appearance". Tennessee Tribune. October 17, 2019. Retrieved April 18, 2023 – via EBSCOHost.
  34. ^ Jackson, Grant (April 23, 2010). "Hiromi On Piano Jazz". NPR.org. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
  36. ^ Zisman, Marc (September 11, 2019). "Quand Ahmad Jamal rencontre Shahin Novrasli". QOBUZ.com (in French).
  37. ^ TAC, AZER (May 22, 2017). "Shahin Novrasli presented by legendary Ahmad Jamal in Paris". Azertag.az.
  38. ^ Jazz, MCG (May 13, 2017). "Ahmad Jamal presents Shahin Novrasli". AlleghenyCityCenter.org.
  39. ^ "Pittsburgh Jazz Festival Swings into Town" (September 6, 1986), Pittsburgh Courier, p. 5.
  40. ^ londonjazz (April 16, 2023). "RIP Ahmad Jamal (1930–2023)". London Jazz News. Retrieved April 16, 2023.
  41. ^ a b Seymour, Gene (April 16, 2023). "Ahmad Jamal, jazz pianist with a spare, hypnotic touch, dies at 92". The Washington Post.
  42. ^ a b Martin Johnson (April 16, 2023). "Ahmad Jamal, measured maestro of the jazz piano, dies at 92". npr.org. NPR. Retrieved May 1, 2023.
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  • Crouch, Stanley (2007). Considering Genius: Writings on Jazz. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-01512-2.
  • Early, Gerald, ed. (2001). Miles Davis and American Culture. Missouri Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-1-883982-38-6.
  • Macnie, Jim (March 2010). "Intricacy & Groove: At Home with Ahmad Jamal". DownBeat. Vol. 77, no. 3. pp. 26–31.

External links[edit]