El Víbora

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El Víbora
CategoriesComics magazine
PublisherLa Cúpula
First issueDecember 1979
Final issueJanuary 2005
Based inBarcelona

El Víbora (meaning The Viper in English) was a Spanish language monthly alternative comics magazine published in Barcelona, Spain, between 1979 and 2005. The magazine was subtitled as "Comix for Survivors".[1]

History and profile[edit]

El Víbora was established in December 1979.[2][3] The founders were a group of Spanish cartoonists led by Josep Maria Berenguer.[1] Catalan comics publisher Josep Toutain financed and helped the establishment of the magazine[1] which was published by La Cúpula.[4]

Josep Maria Berenguer wanted to name the magazine as GOMA 3, a reference to Goma-2, an explosive notoriously used by the Basque terrorist/nationalist organization ETA during the 1970s.[1] However, the name was rejected by the Spanish authorities.[1]

El Víbora was published monthly[5] and had its headquarters in Barcelona.[6] The contributors included not only Spanish authors but also French and American ones,[2] including Peter Bagge, Robert Crumb and Charles Burns.[3][7] Native contributors were Max, Nazario, Mariscal and Pons.[1] Of them, Max created the characters of Gustavo, Peter Pank, Gallardo and Mediavilla.[1] Hernán Migoya served as the editor-in-chief of the magazine from 1992 to 1998.[1] The last editor was Sergi Puertas.[3]

The circulation of El Víbora was 45,000 copies in 1983.[3] It was 6,000 copies in 2004[3] just before its last issue in January 2005.[2] The magazine ran over 300 issues during its existence.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Hernan Miyoga (2 May 2012). "Josep Maria Berenguer, 1944-2012: The Last Libertine Publisher". The Comics Journal. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  2. ^ a b c "El Víbora. Spain". Afka. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d e "El Vibora Editor Confirms Potential Cancellation". Comics Reporter. 30 June 2004. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  4. ^ "A brief history of comics in Catalonia" (PDF). gencat.cat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 April 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  5. ^ Bart Beaty (2007). Unpopular Culture: Transforming the European Comic Book in the 1990s. University of Toronto Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-8020-9412-4. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  6. ^ David Vilaseca (Autumn 2008). "Queer Transitions in Contemporary Spanish Culture: From Franco to "La Movida"". Hispanic Review. 76 (4). Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  7. ^ a b "El Vibora #10". Comixjoint. Retrieved 29 January 2015.