|First issue||December 1979|
|Final issue||January 2005|
El Víbora (meaning The Viper in English) was a Spanish language monthly alternative comics magazine published in Barcelona, Spain, between 1979 and 2005. The magazine was subtitled as "Comix for Survivors".
History and profile
El Víbora was established in December 1979. The founders were a group of Spanish cartoonists led by Josep Maria Berenguer. Catalan comics publisher Josep Toutain financed and helped the establishment of the magazine which was published by La Cúpula.
Josep Maria Berenguer wanted to name the magazine as GOMA 3, a reference to Goma-2, an explosive notoriously used by the Basque terrorist/nationalist organization ETA during the 1970s. However, the name was rejected by the Spanish authorities.
El Víbora was published monthly and had its headquarters in Barcelona. The contributors included not only Spanish authors but also French and American ones, including Peter Bagge, Robert Crumb and Charles Burns. Native contributors were Max, Nazario, Mariscal and Pons. Of them, Max created the characters of Gustavo, Peter Pank, Gallardo and Mediavilla. Hernán Migoya served as the editor-in-chief of the magazine from 1992 to 1998. The last editor was Sergi Puertas.
- Hernan Miyoga (2 May 2012). "Josep Maria Berenguer, 1944-2012: The Last Libertine Publisher". The Comics Journal. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "El Víbora. Spain". Afka. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "El Vibora Editor Confirms Potential Cancellation". Comics Reporter. 30 June 2004. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "A brief history of comics in Catalonia" (PDF). gencat.cat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 April 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- Bart Beaty (2007). Unpopular Culture: Transforming the European Comic Book in the 1990s. University of Toronto Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-8020-9412-4. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- David Vilaseca (Autumn 2008). "Queer Transitions in Contemporary Spanish Culture: From Franco to "La Movida"". Hispanic Review. 76 (4). Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "El Vibora #10". Comixjoint. Retrieved 29 January 2015.