|Region||Spain, Hispanic America, Philippines, Equatorial Guinea (see below)|
470 million (2016)
|Latin (Spanish alphabet)
|Signed Spanish (Mexico, Spain, & presumably elsewhere)|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Association of Spanish Language Academies
(Real Academia Española and 21 other national Spanish language academies)
Spanish (i//, español), also called Castilian (i//, castellano (help·info)), is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers across the world.
Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. The oldest Latin texts which show traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century,  and the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo, then capital of the Kingdom of Castile, in the 13th century. Beginning in the early 16th century, Spanish was taken to the colonies of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the Americas, as well as territories in Africa, Oceania and the Philippines.
Spanish vocabulary is thought to have been influenced from its beginnings by its contact with Basque and perhaps Germanic languages, as well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages, and later it absorbed many Arabic words during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. It also adopted words from non-Iberian languages, particularly the Romance languages Occitan, French, Italian and Sardinian, as well as from Nahuatl and other Indigenous languages of the Americas.
Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. It is also used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, and the Union of South American Nations, and by many other international organizations.
- 1 Estimated number of speakers
- 2 Names of the language
- 3 History
- 4 Grammar
- 5 Phonology
- 6 Geographical distribution
- 7 Dialectal variation
- 8 Relation to other languages
- 9 Writing system
- 10 Organizations
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Estimated number of speakers
It is estimated that more than 427 million people speak Spanish as a native language, which qualifies it as second on the lists of languages by number of native speakers. Instituto Cervantes claims that there are an estimated 470 million Spanish speakers with native competence and 560 million Spanish speakers as a first or second language, including speakers with limited competence and more than 21 million students of Spanish as a foreign language.
Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, and 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Western Hemisphere total some 418 million. In the European Union, Spanish is the mother tongue of 8% of the population, with an additional 7% speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. In 2011 it was estimated by the American Community Survey that of the 55 million Hispanic United States residents who are five years of age and over, 38 million speak Spanish at home.
Names of the language
|This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. (December 2014)|
In Spain and in some other parts of the Spanish-speaking world, Spanish is called castellano (Castilian) as well as español (Spanish), the language of the region of Castile, contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain such as Galician, Basque and Catalan.
The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas (lit. "the other Spanish languages"). Article III reads as follows:
El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. ... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas...
Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. ... The other Spanish languages as well shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities...
The Spanish Royal Academy, on the other hand, currently uses the term español in its publications, but from 1713 to 1923 called the language castellano.
The Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (a language guide published by the Spanish Royal Academy) states that, although the Spanish Royal Academy prefers to use the term español in its publications when referring to the Spanish language, both terms—español and castellano—are regarded as synonymous and equally valid.
Two etymologies for español have been suggested. The Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word espaignol, and that in turn from the Medieval Latin word Hispaniolus, 'from—or pertaining to—Hispania'. Other authorities attribute it to a supposed mediaeval Latin *hispaniōne, with the same meaning.
The Spanish language evolved from Vulgar Latin, which was brought to the Iberian Peninsula by the Romans during the Second Punic War, beginning in 210 BC. Previously, several pre-Roman languages (also called Paleohispanic languages)—unrelated to Latin, and some of them unrelated even to Indo-European—were spoken in the Iberian Peninsula. These languages included Basque (still spoken today), Iberian, Celtiberian and Celtic. Traces of Basque especially can be found in the Spanish vocabulary today, mainly in place names.
The first documents to show traces of what is today regarded as the precursor of modern Spanish are from the 9th century. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era, the most important influences on the Spanish lexicon came from neighboring Romance languages—Navarro-Aragonese, Leonese, Catalan, Portuguese, Galician, Occitan, and later, French and Italian. Spanish also borrowed a considerable number of words from Basque and Arabic, as well as a minor influence from Germanic languages through the migration of tribes and a period of Visigoth rule in Iberia. In addition, many more words were borrowed from Latin through the influence of written language and the liturgical language of the Church.
According to the theories of Ramón Menéndez Pidal, local sociolects of Vulgar Latin evolved into Spanish, in the north of Iberia, in an area centered in the city of Burgos, and this dialect was later brought to the city of Toledo, where the written standard of Spanish was first developed, in the 13th century.  In this formative stage, Spanish (Castilian) developed a strongly differing variant from its close cousin, Leonese, and, according to some authors, was distinguished by a heavy Basque influence (see Iberian Romance languages). This distinctive dialect spread to southern Spain with the advance of the Reconquista, and meanwhile gathered a sizable lexical influence from the Arabic of Al-Andalus, much of it indirectly, through the Romance Mozarabic dialects (some 4,000 Arabic-derived words, make up around 8% of the language today). The written standard for this new language was developed in the cities of Toledo, in the 13th to 16th centuries, and Madrid, from the 1570s. 
The development of the Spanish sound system from that of Vulgar Latin exhibits most of the changes that are typical of Western Romance languages, including lenition of intervocalic consonants (thus Latin vīta > Spanish vida). The diphthongization of Latin stressed short e and o—which occurred in open syllables in French and Italian, but not at all in Catalan or Portuguese—is found in both open and closed syllables in Spanish, as shown in the following table:
|Latin||Spanish||Ladino||Aragonese||Asturian||Galician||Portuguese||Catalan||Gascon / Occitan||French||Sardinian||Italian||Romanian||English|
Spanish is marked by the palatalization of the Latin double consonants nn and ll (thus Latin annum > Spanish año, and Latin anellum > Spanish anillo).
The consonant written u or v in Latin and pronounced [w] in Classical Latin had probably "fortified" to a bilabial fricative /β/ in Vulgar Latin. In early Spanish (but not in Catalan or Portuguese) it merged with the consonant written b (a bilabial with plosive and fricative allophones). In modern Spanish, there is no difference between the pronunciation of orthographic b and v, with some exceptions in Caribbean Spanish.
Peculiar to Spanish (as well as to the neighboring Gascon dialect of Occitan, and attributed to a Basque substratum) was the mutation of Latin initial f into h- whenever it was followed by a vowel that did not diphthongize. The h-, still preserved in spelling, is now silent in most varieties of the language, although in some Andalusian and Caribbean dialects it is still aspirated in some words. Because of borrowings from Latin and from neighboring Romance languages, there are many f-/h-doublets in modern Spanish: Fernando and Hernando (both Spanish for "Ferdinand"), ferrero and herrero (both Spanish for "smith"), fierro and hierro (both Spanish for "iron"), and fondo and hondo (both Spanish for "deep", but fondo means "bottom" while hondo means "deep"); hacer (Spanish for "to make") is the root word of satisfacer (Spanish for "to satisfy"), and hecho ("made") is the root word of satisfecho (Spanish for "satisfied").
Compare the examples in the following table:
|Latin||Spanish||Ladino||Aragonese||Asturian||Galician||Portuguese||Catalan||Gascon / Occitan||French||Sardinian||Italian||Romanian||English|
|filium||hijo||fijo (or ijo)||fillo||fíu||fillo||filho||fill||filh/hilh||fils||fillu||figlio||fiu||'son'|
|facere||hacer||fazer||fer||facer||fazer||fer||far/faire/har (or hèr)||faire||fairi||fare||a face||'to do'|
Some consonant clusters of Latin also produced characteristically different results in these languages, as shown in the examples in the following table:
|Latin||Spanish||Ladino||Aragonese||Asturian||Galician||Portuguese||Catalan||Gascon / Occitan||French||Sardinian||Italian||Romanian||English|
|molt||molt (arch.)||moult (arch.)||(meda)||molto||mult||'much,
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Spanish underwent a dramatic change in the pronunciation of its sibilant consonants, known in Spanish as the reajuste de las sibilantes, which resulted in the distinctive velar [x] pronunciation of the letter 〈j〉 and—in a large part of Spain—the characteristic interdental [θ] ("th-sound") for the letter 〈z〉 (and for 〈c〉 before 〈e〉 or 〈i〉). See History of Spanish (Modern development of the Old Spanish sibilants) for details.
The Gramática de la lengua castellana, written in Salamanca in 1492 by Elio Antonio de Nebrija, was the first grammar written for a modern European language. According to a popular anecdote, when Nebrija presented it to Queen Isabella I, she asked him what was the use of such a work, and he answered that language is the instrument of empire. In his introduction to the grammar, dated August 18, 1492, Nebrija wrote that "... language was always the companion of empire."
From the sixteenth century onwards, the language was taken to America and the Spanish East Indies via Spanish colonization of America. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, author of Don Quixote, is such a well-known reference in the world that Spanish is often called la lengua de Cervantes ("the language of Cervantes").
In the twentieth century, Spanish was introduced to Equatorial Guinea and the Western Sahara, and to areas of the United States that had not been part of the Spanish Empire, such as Spanish Harlem in New York City. For details on borrowed words and other external influences upon Spanish, see Influences on the Spanish language.
Spanish is a relatively inflected language, with a two-gender noun system and about fifty conjugated forms per verb, but with inflection of nouns, adjectives, and determiners limited to number and gender. (For a detailed overview of verbs, see Spanish verbs and Spanish irregular verbs.) Spanish syntax is considered right-branching, meaning that subordinate or modifying constituents tend to be placed after their head words. The language uses prepositions (rather than postpositions or inflection of nouns for case), and usually—though not always—places adjectives after nouns, as do most other Romance languages.
Its sentence structure is generally subject–verb–object, although variations are common. It is a "pro-drop", or "null-subject" language—that is, it allows the deletion of subject pronouns when they are pragmatically unnecessary. Spanish is described as a "verb-framed" language, meaning that the direction of motion is expressed in the verb while the mode of locomotion is expressed adverbially (e.g. subir corriendo or salir volando; the respective English equivalents of these examples—'to run up' and 'to fly out'—show that English is, by contrast, "satellite-framed", with mode of locomotion expressed in the verb and direction in an adverbial modifier).
Subject/verb inversion is not required in questions, and thus the recognition of declarative or interrogative may depend entirely on intonation.
The Spanish phonemic system is originally descended from that of Vulgar Latin. Its development exhibits some traits in common with the neighboring dialects—especially Leonese and Aragonese—as well as other traits unique to Castilian. Castilian is unique among its neighbors in the aspiration and eventual loss of the Latin initial /f/ sound (e.g. Cast. harina vs. Leon. and Arag. farina). The Latin initial consonant sequences pl-, cl-, and fl- in Spanish typically become ll- (pronounced [ʎ], [j], [ʝ], [ʒ], or [d͡ʒ]), while in Aragonese they are preserved, and in Leonese they present a variety of outcomes, including [tʃ], [ʃ], and [ʎ]. Where Latin had -li- before a vowel (e.g. filius) or the ending -iculus, -icula (e.g. auricula), Modern Spanish produces the velar fricative [x] (hijo, oreja, where neighboring languages have the palatal lateral [ʎ] (e.g. Portuguese filho, orelha; Catalan fill, orella).
(See History of the Spanish Language for more information)
The Spanish phonemic inventory consists of five vowel phonemes (/a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/) and 17 to 19 consonant phonemes (the exact number depending on the dialect ). The main allophonic variation among vowels is the reduction of the high vowels /i/ and /u/ to glides—[j] and [w] respectively—when unstressed and adjacent to another vowel. Some instances of the mid vowels /e/ and /o/, determined lexically, alternate with the diphthongs [je] and [we] respectively when stressed, in a process that is better described as morphophonemic rather than phonological, as it is not predictable from phonology alone.
The Spanish consonant system is characterized by (1) three nasal phonemes, and one or two (depending on the dialect) lateral phoneme(s), which in syllable-final position lose their contrast and are subject to assimilation to a following consonant; (2) three voiceless stops and the affricate /tʃ/; (3) three or four (depending on the dialect) voiceless fricatives; (4) a set of voiced obstruents—/b/, /d/, /ɡ/, and sometimes /ʝ/—which alternate between approximant and plosive allophones depending on the environment; and (5) a phonemic distinction between the "tapped" and "trilled" r-sounds (single 〈r〉 and double 〈rr〉 in orthography).
In the following table of consonant phonemes, /θ/ and /ʎ/ are marked with an asterisk (*) to indicate that they are preserved only in some dialects. In most dialects they have been merged, respectively, with /s/ and /ʝ/, in the mergers called, respectively, seseo and yeísmo. The phoneme /ʃ/ is in parentheses () to indicate that it appears only in loanwords. Each of the voiced obstruent phonemes /b/, /d/, /ʝ/, and /ɡ/ appears to the right of a pair of voiceless phonemes, to indicate that, while the voiceless phonemes maintain a phonemic contrast between plosive (or affricate) and fricative, the voiced ones alternate allophonically (i.e. without phonemic contrast) between plosive and approximant pronunciations.
Spanish intonation varies significantly according to dialect but generally conforms to a pattern of falling tone for declarative sentences and wh-questions (who, what, why, etc.) and rising tone for yes/no questions. There are no syntactic markers to distinguish between questions and statements and thus, the recognition of declarative or interrogative depends entirely on intonation.
Stress most often occurs on any of the last three syllables of a word, with some rare exceptions at the fourth-last or earlier syllables. The tendencies of stress assignment are as follows:
- In words that end with a vowel, stress most often falls on the penultimate syllable.
- In words that end with a consonant, stress most often falls on the last syllable, with the following exceptions: The grammatical endings -n (for third-person-plural of verbs) and -s (whether for plural of nouns and adjectives or for second-person-singular of verbs) do not change the location of stress. Thus, regular verbs ending with -n and the great majority of words ending with -s are stressed on the penult. Although a significant number of nouns and adjectives ending with -n are also stressed on the penult (joven, virgen, mitin), the great majority of nouns and adjectives ending with -n are stressed on their last syllable (capitán, almacén, jardín, corazón).
- Preantepenultimate stress (stress on the fourth-to-last syllable) occurs rarely, only on verbs with clitic pronouns attached (guardándoselos 'saving them for him/her/them/you').
In addition to the many exceptions to these tendencies, there are numerous minimal pairs that contrast solely on stress such as sábana ('sheet') and sabána ('savannah'); límite ('boundary'), limite ('[that] he/she limits') and limité ('I limited'); líquido ('liquid'), liquido ('I sell off') and liquidó ('he/she sold off').
The spelling system unambiguously reflects where the stress occurs: in the absence of an accent mark, the stress falls on the last syllable unless the last letter is 〈n〉, 〈s〉, or a vowel, in which cases the stress falls on the next-to-last syllable. Exceptions to those rules are indicated by an acute accent mark over the vowel of the stressed syllable.
Spanish is the primary language of 20 countries worldwide. It is estimated that the combined total number of Spanish speakers is between 470 and 500 million, making it the second most widely spoken language in terms of native speakers.
Spanish is the second most spoken language by total number of speakers (after Mandarin). Internet usage statistics for 2007 show Spanish as the third most commonly used language on the Internet, after English and Mandarin.
In Europe, Spanish is an official language of Spain, the country after which it is named and from which it originated. It is widely spoken in Gibraltar, although English is the official, international language. It is also commonly spoken in Andorra, although Catalan is the official language.
Spanish is also spoken by small communities in other European countries, such as the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. Spanish is an official language of the European Union. In Switzerland, which had a massive influx of Spanish migrants in the 20th century, Spanish is the native language of 2.2% of the population.
Most Spanish speakers are in Hispanic America; of all countries with a majority of Spanish speakers, only Spain and Equatorial Guinea are outside the Americas. Nationally, Spanish is the official language—either de facto or de jure—of Argentina, Bolivia (co-official with Quechua, Aymara, Guarani, and 34 other languages), Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (co-official with 63 indigenous languages), Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay (co-official with Guaraní), Peru (co-official with Quechua, Aymara, and "the other indigenous languages"), Puerto Rico (co-official with English), Uruguay, and Venezuela. Spanish has no official recognition in the former British colony of Belize; however, per the 2000 census, it is spoken by 43% of the population. Mainly, it is spoken by the descendants of Hispanics who have been in the region since the seventeenth century; however, English is the official language.
Due to their proximity to Spanish-speaking countries, Trinidad and Tobago and Brazil have implemented Spanish language teaching into their education systems. The Trinidad government launched the Spanish as a First Foreign Language (SAFFL) initiative in March 2005. In 2005, the National Congress of Brazil approved a bill, signed into law by the President, making it mandatory for schools to offer Spanish as an alternative foreign language course in both public and private secondary schools in Brazil. In many border towns and villages along Paraguay and Uruguay, a mixed language known as Portuñol is spoken.
According to 2006 census data, 44.3 million people of the U.S. population were Hispanic or Hispanic American by origin; 38.3 million people, 13 percent, of the population over five years old speak Spanish at home. The Spanish language has a long history and presence in the United States due to historic Spanish and later, Mexican administration over territories now forming the southwestern states as well as Florida, which was Spanish territory until 1821.
Spanish is by far the most common second language spoken and taught in the country, and with over 50 million total speakers, the United States is now the second largest Spanish-speaking country in the world after Mexico. While English is the de facto official language of the country, Spanish is often used in public services and notices at the federal and state levels. Spanish is also used in administration in the state of New Mexico. The language also has a strong influence in major metropolitan areas such as those of Los Angeles, Miami, San Antonio, New York, San Francisco, Dallas, and Phoenix; as well as more recently, Chicago, Las Vegas, Boston, Denver, Houston, Indianapolis, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Salt Lake City, Atlanta, Nashville, Orlando, Tampa, Raleigh and Baltimore-Washington, D.C. due to 20th and 21st century immigration.
In Africa, Spanish is official (along with Portuguese and French) in Equatorial Guinea, as well as an official language of the African Union. In Equatorial Guinea, Spanish is the predominant language when native and non-native speakers (around 500,000 people) are counted, while Fang is the most spoken language by number of native speakers.
Spanish is also spoken in the integral territories of Spain in North Africa, which include the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the Plazas de soberanía, and the Canary Islands archipelago (population 2,000,000), located some 100 km off the northwest coast of mainland Africa.
Within Northern Morocco, a former Spanish protectorate that is also geographically close to Spain, approximately 20,000 people speak Spanish as a second language, while Arabic is the de jure official language. A small number of Moroccan Jews also speak the Sephardic Spanish dialect Haketia (related to the Ladino dialect spoken in Israel). Spanish is spoken by some small communities in Angola because of the Cuban influence from the Cold War and in South Sudan among South Sudanese natives that relocated to Cuba during the Sudanese wars and returned in time for their country's independence.
In Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, Spanish was officially spoken during the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Today, Spanish in this disputed territory is maintained by populations of Sahrawi nomads numbering about 500,000 people, and is de facto official alongside Arabic in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, although this entity receives limited international recognition.
Spanish is present on Easter Island, as it was annexed as a Chilean province in 1888.
Spanish was an official language of the Philippines from the beginning of Spanish rule in 1565 to a constitutional change in 1973. During Spanish colonization (1565–1898), it was the language of government, trade and education, and spoken as a first language by Spaniards and educated Filipinos. In the mid-nineteenth century, the colonial government set up a free public education system with Spanish as the medium of instruction. This increased use of Spanish throughout the islands led to the formation of a class of Spanish-speaking intellectuals called the Ilustrados. However, Spanish was never spoken by the majority of the population.
Despite American administration after the defeat of Spain in the Spanish–American War in 1898, the usage of Spanish continued in Philippine literature and press during the early years of American rule. Gradually, however, the American government began increasingly promoting the use of English, and it characterized Spanish as a negative influence of the past. Eventually, by the 1920s, English became the primary language of administration and education. But despite a significant decrease in influence and speakers, Spanish remained an official language of the Philippines when it became independent in 1946, alongside English and Filipino, a standardized version of Tagalog.
Spanish was removed from official status in 1973 under the administration of Ferdinand Marcos, but regained its status as an official language two months later under Presidential Decree No. 155, dated 15 March 1973. It remained an official language until 1987, with the ratification of the present constitution, in which it was re-designated as a voluntary and optional auxiliary language. In 2010, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo encouraged the reintroduction of Spanish-language teaching in the Philippine education system. But by 2012, the number of secondary schools at which the language was either a compulsory subject or an elective had become very limited. Today, despite government promotions of Spanish, less than 0.5% of the population report being able to speak the language proficiently. Aside from standard Spanish, a Spanish-based creole language—Chavacano—developed in the southern Philippines. The number of Chavacano-speakers was estimated at 1.2 million in 1996. However, it is not mutually intelligible with Spanish. Speakers of the Zamboangueño variety of Chavacano were numbered about 360,000 in the 2000 census. The local languages of the Philippines also retain some Spanish influence, with many words being derived from Mexican Spanish, owing to the control of the islands by Spain through Mexico City until 1821, and then directly from Madrid until 1898.
Spanish was also used by the colonial governments and educated classes in the former Spanish East Indies, consisting of modern-day Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, and Micronesia, in addition to the Philippines. Spanish loan words are present in the local languages of these territories as a legacy of colonial rule. Today, Spanish is not spoken officially in any of these former Spanish territories.
Spanish speakers by country
The following table shows the number of Spanish speakers in some 79 countries.
|Country||Population||Spanish as a native language speakers||Native speakers or very good speakers as a second language||Total number of Spanish speakers (including second language speakers)|
|Mexico||122,273,473||113,347,509 (92.7%)||120,439,371 (98.5%)|
|United States||321,442,019||39,254,342 (13.1%)||41,343,921 (82% of the 55.4 mill. Hispanics + 2.8 mill. non Hispanics)||52,000,000 (including 7.8 million students and some of the 9 million undocumented Hispanics not accounted by the Census)|
|Colombia||48,620,000||47,770,000 (850,000 with other mother tongue)||48,231,040 (99.2%)|
|Spain||46,624,382||38,231,993 (82%)||46,064,889 (98.8%)|
|Argentina||43,590,368 ||40,300,000 ||43,328,826 (99.4%)|
|Venezuela||31,028,637||29,930,393 (1,098,244 with other mother tongue)||30,656,293 (98.8%)|
|Peru||31,488,625||26,481,934 (84.1%)||27,269,149 (86.6%)|
|Chile||18,191,884||17,910,284 (281,600 with other mother tongue)||18,064,541 (99.3%)|
|Guatemala||16,176,133||9,705,680 (60%)||13,976,179 (86.4%)|
|Dominican Republic||10,528,000||9,300,000||10,485,888 (99.6%)|
|Bolivia||10,958,089||6,355,692 (58%)||9,632,160 (87.9%)|
|Honduras||8,721,014||8,513,264 (207,750 with other mother tongue)||8,633,804 (99.0%)|
|France||65,635,000||477,564 (1% of 47,756,439)||1,910,258 (4% of 47,756,439)||6,685,901 (14% of 47,756,439)|
|El Salvador||6,520,675||6,090,000||6,501,113 (99.7%)|
|Brazil||206,120,000||460,018||460,018||6,056,018 (460,018 native speakers + 96,000 limited proficiency + 5,500,000 can hold a conversation)|
|Nicaragua||6,042,000||5,551,876 (490,124 with other mother tongue)||5,860,740 (97.0%)|
|Italy||60,795,612||1,037,248 (2% of 51,862,391)||5,704,863 (11% of 51,862,391)|
|Costa Rica||4,890,379||4,806,069 (84,310 with other mother tongue)||4,851,256 (99.2%)|
|Paraguay||6,854,536||3,907,086 (57%)||4,763,903 (69.5%)|
|Panama||3,764,166||3,263,123 (501,043 with other mother tongue)||3,504,439 (93.1%)|
|Uruguay||3,480,222||3,330,022 (150,200 with other mother tongue)||3,441,940 (98.9%)|
|Puerto Rico||3,474,182||3,303,947 (95.1%)||3,432,492 (98.8%)|
|United Kingdom||64 105 700 ||120,000 ||518,480 (1% of 51,848,010)||3,110,880 (6% of 51,848,010)|
|Germany||81,292,400||644,091 (1% of 64,409,146)||2,576,366 (4% of 64,409,146)|
|Equatorial Guinea||1,622,000||1,683||918,000 (90.5%)|
|Romania||21,355,849||182,467 (1% of 18,246,731)||912,337 (5% of 18,246,731)|
|Portugal||10,636,888||323,237 (4% of 8,080,915)||808,091 (10% of 8,080,915)|
|Canada||34,605,346||439,000||643,800 (87% of 740,000)||736,653 |
|Netherlands||16,665,900||133,719 (1% of 13,371,980)||668,599 (5% of 13,371,980 )|
|Sweden||9,555,893||77,912 (1% of 7,791,240)||77,912 (1% of 7,791,240)||467,474 (6% of 7,791,240)|
|Belgium||10,918,405||89,395 (1% of 8,939,546)||446,977 (5% of 8,939,546)|
|Benin||10,008,749 ||412,515 (students)|
|Ivory Coast||21,359,000||341,073 (students)|
|Poland||38,092,000||324,137 (1% of 32,413,735)||324,137 (1% of 32,413,735)|
|Austria||8,205,533||70,098 (1% of 7,009,827)||280,393 (4% of 7,009,827)|
|Denmark||5,484,723||45,613 (1% of 4,561,264)||182,450 (4% of 4,561,264)|
|Japan||127,288,419||100,229 ||100,229||167,514 (60,000 students)|
|Switzerland||7,581,520||150,782 (2,24%)||150,782||165,202 (14,420 students)|
|Ireland||4,581,269||35,220 (1% of 3,522,000)||140,880 (4% of 3,522,000)|
|Finland||5,244,749||133,200 (3% of 4,440,004)|
|Bulgaria||7,262,675||130,750 (2% of 6,537,510)||130,750 (2% of 6,537,510)|
|Bonaire and Curaçao||223,652||10,699||10,699||125,534|
|Czech Republic||10,513,209||90,124 (1% of 9,012,443)|
|Hungary||9,957,731||83,206 (1% of 8,320,614)|
|Trinidad and Tobago||1,317,714||4,100||4,100||65,886 (5%)|
|Slovenia||35,194 (2% of 1,759,701)||52,791 (3% of 1,759,701)|
|New Zealand||21,645||21,645||47,322 (25,677 students)|
|Slovakia||5,455,407||45,500 (1% of 4,549,955)|
|Lithuania||2,972,949||28,297 (1% of 2,829,740)|
|Luxembourg||524,853||4,049 (1% of 404,907)||8,098 (2% of 404,907)||24,294 (6% of 404,907)|
|US Virgin Islands||16,788||16,788||16,788|
|Latvia||2,209,000||13,943 (1% of 1,447,866)|
|Cyprus||2% of 660,400|
|Estonia||9,457 (1% of 945,733)|
|Malta||3,354 (1% of 335,476)|
|European Union (excluding Spain)||460,624,488||2,397,000 (559,525 already counted)|
|Total||7,300,000,000 (Total World Population)||445,530,710  (6.1 %)||486,224,694  (6.7 % )||530,045,118  (7.3 %)|
The variety with the most speakers is Mexican Spanish. It is spoken by more than twenty percent of the world's Spanish speakers (more than 112 million of the total of more than 500 million, according to the table above). One of its main features is the reduction or loss of unstressed vowels, mainly when they are in contact with the sound /s/.
In Spain, northern dialects are popularly thought of as closer to the standard, although positive attitudes toward southern dialects have increased significantly in the last 50 years. Even so, the speech of Madrid, which has typically southern features such as yeísmo and s-aspiration, is the standard variety for use on radio and television. The educated Madrid variety has most influenced the written standard for Spanish.
The four main phonological divisions are based respectively on (1) the sound of the spelled 〈s〉, (2) the debuccalization of syllable-final /s/, (3) the phoneme /θ/ ("theta"), (4) and the phoneme /ʎ/ ("turned y"),
- The sound of the spelled 〈s〉 is pronounced in most of Spain as a voiceless "apico-alveolar" "grave" sibilant [s̺], with a weak "hushing" sound reminiscent of retroflex fricatives. In most of Hispanic America (except in Paisa Region, Colombia) it is pronounced, as in English, a voiceless alveolar hissing sibilant [s]. The difference, because the sounds of the spelled 〈s〉 is one of the most common in Spanish, is usually the first to be noted by a Spanish-speaking person to differentiate Spaniards and Hispanic Americans.
- The debuccalization (pronunciation as [h], or loss) of syllable-final /s/ is associated with southern Spain and lowland Americas: Central America (except central Costa Rica and Guatemala), the Caribbean, coastal areas of southern Mexico, and South America except Andean highlands. Debuccalization is frequently called "aspiration" in English, and aspiración in Spanish. When there is no debuccalization, the syllable-final /s/ is pronounced as voiceless "apico-alveolar" "grave" sibilant or as a voiceless alveolar "hissing" sibilant in the same fashion as in the last paragraph.
- The phoneme /θ/ (spelled c before e or i and spelled 〈z〉 elsewhere), a voiceless dental fricative as in English thing, is maintained by a majority of Spain's population, especially in the northern and central parts of the country. In other areas (some parts of southern Spain, the Canary Islands, and the Americas), /θ/ is merged with /s/. The maintenance of phonemic contrast is called distinción in Spanish, while the merger is generally called seseo (in reference to the usual realization of the merged phoneme as [s]) or, occasionally, ceceo (referring to its interdental realization, [θ], in some parts of southern Spain). In most of Hispanic America, the spelled 〈c〉 before 〈e〉 or 〈i〉, and spelled 〈z〉 is always pronounced as a voiceless alveolar "hissing" sibilant.
- The phoneme /ʎ/ spelled 〈ll〉, palatal lateral consonant sometimes compared in sound to the sound of the 〈lli〉 of English million, tends to be maintained in less-urbanized areas of northern Spain and in highland areas of South America. Meanwhile, in the speech of most other Spanish-speakers, it is merged with /ʝ/ ("curly-tail j"), a non-lateral, usually voiced, usually fricative, palatal consonant, sometimes compared to English /j/ (yod) as in yacht and spelled 〈y〉 in Spanish. As with other forms of allophony across world languages, the small difference of the spelled 〈ll〉 and the spelled 〈y〉 is usually not perceived (the difference is not heard) by people who do not produce them as different phonemes. Such a phonemic merger is called yeísmo in Spanish. In Rioplatense Spanish, the merged phoneme is generally pronounced as a postalveolar fricative, either voiced [ʒ] (as in English measure or the French 〈j〉) in the central and western parts of the dialectal region (zheísmo), or voiceless [ʃ] (as in the French 〈ch〉 or Portuguese 〈x〉) in and around Buenos Aires (sheísmo).
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Virtually all dialects of Spanish make the distinction between a formal and a familiar register in the second-person singular and thus have two different pronouns meaning "you": usted in the formal and either tú or vos in the familiar (and each of these three pronouns has its associated verb forms), with the choice of tú or vos varying from one dialect to another. The use of vos (and/or its verb forms) is called voseo. In a few dialects, all three pronouns are used, with usted, tú, and vos denote respectively formality, familiarity, and intimacy.
In voseo, vos is the subject form (vos decís, "you say") and the form for the object of a preposition (voy con vos, "I am going with you"), while the direct and indirect object forms, and the possessives, are the same as those associated with tú: Vos sabés que tus amigos te respetan ("You know your friends respect you").
The verb forms of general voseo are the same as those used with tú except in the present tense (indicative and imperative) verbs. The forms for vos generally can be derived from those of vosotros (the traditional second-person familiar plural) by deleting the glide [i̯], or /d/, where it appears in the ending: vosotros pensáis > vos pensás; vosotros volvéis > vos volvés, pensad! (vosotros) > pensá! (vos), volved! (vosotros) > volvé! (vos) .
|Present||Simple past||Imperfect past||Future||Conditional||Present||Past|
|The forms in bold coincide with standard tú-conjugation.|
In Chilean voseo on the other hand, almost all verb forms are distinct from their standard tú-forms.
|Present||Simple past||Imperfect past||Future||Conditional||Present||Past|
|The forms in bold coincide with standard tú-conjugation.|
The use of the pronoun vos with the verb forms of tú (vos piensas) is called "pronominal voseo". Conversely, the use of the verb forms of vos with the pronoun tú (tú pensás or tú pensái) is called "verbal voseo".
In Chile, for example, verbal voseo is much more common than the actual use of the pronoun vos, which is often reserved for deeply informal situations.
And in Central american voseo, one can see even further distinction.
|Present||Simple past||Imperfect past||Future||Conditional||Present||Past|
|The forms in bold coincide with standard tú-conjugation.|
Distribution in Spanish-speaking regions of the Americas
Although vos is not used in Spain, it occurs in many Spanish-speaking regions of the Americas as the primary spoken form of the second-person singular familiar pronoun, with wide differences in social consideration. Generally, it can be said that there are zones of exclusive use of tuteo in the following areas: almost all of Mexico, the West Indies, Panama, most of Colombia, Peru, Venezuela and coastal Ecuador.
Tuteo (the use of tú) as a cultured form alternates with voseo as a popular or rural form in Bolivia, in the north and south of Peru, in Andean Ecuador, in small zones of the Venezuelan Andes (and most notably in the Venezuelan state of Zulia), and in a large part of Colombia. Some researchers maintain that voseo can be heard in some parts of eastern Cuba, and others assert that it is absent from the island.
Tuteo exists as the second-person usage with an intermediate degree of formality alongside the more familiar voseo in Chile, in the Venezuelan state of Zulia, on the Caribbean coast of Colombia, in the Azuero Peninsula in Panama, in the Mexican state of Chiapas, and in parts of Guatemala.
Areas of generalized voseo include Argentina, Nicaragua, eastern Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Uruguay and the Colombian departments of Antioquia, Caldas, Risaralda, Quindio and Valle del Cauca.
Ustedes functions as formal and informal second person plural in over 90% of the Spanish-speaking world, including all of Hispanic America, the Canary Islands, and some regions of Andalusia. In Seville, Huelva, Cadiz, and other parts of western Andalusia, the familiar form is constructed as ustedes vais, using the traditional second-person plural form of the verb. Most of Spain maintains the formal/familiar distinction with ustedes and vosotros respectively.
Usted is the usual second-person singular pronoun in a formal context, but it is used joint with the third-person singular voice of the verb. It is used to convey respect toward someone who is a generation older or is of higher authority ("you, sir"/"you, ma'am"). It is also used in a familiar context by many speakers in Colombia and Costa Rica and in parts of Ecuador and Panama, to the exclusion of tú or vos. This usage is sometimes called ustedeo in Spanish.
In Central America, especially in Honduras, usted is often used as a formal pronoun to convey respect between the members of a romantic couple. Usted is also used that way as well as between parents and children in the Andean regions of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela.
Third-person object pronouns
Most speakers use (and the Real Academia Española prefers) the pronouns lo and la for direct objects (masculine and feminine respectively, regardless of animacy, meaning "him", "her", or "it"), and le for indirect objects (regardless of gender or animacy, meaning "to him", "to her", or "to it"). The usage is sometimes called "etymological", as these direct and indirect object pronouns are a continuation, respectively, of the accusative and dative pronouns of Latin, the ancestor language of Spanish.
Deviations from this norm (more common in Spain than in the Americas) are called "leísmo", "loísmo", or "laísmo", according to which respective pronoun, le, lo, or la, has expanded beyond the etymological usage (le as a direct object, or lo or la as an indirect object).
Some words can be significantly different in different Hispanophone countries. Most Spanish speakers can recognize other Spanish forms even in places where they are not commonly used, but Spaniards generally do not recognize specifically American usages. For example, Spanish mantequilla, aguacate and albaricoque (respectively, 'butter', 'avocado', 'apricot') correspond to manteca, palta, and damasco, respectively, in Argentina, Chile (except manteca), Paraguay, Peru (except manteca and damasco), and Uruguay.
The everyday Spanish words coger ('to take'), pisar ('to step on') and concha ('seashell') are considered extremely rude in parts of Hispanic America, where the meaning of coger and pisar is also "to have sex" and concha means "vagina". The Puerto Rican word for "bobby pin" (pinche) is an obscenity in Mexico, but in Nicaragua, it simply means "stingy", and in Spain, it refers to a chef's helper. Other examples include taco, which means "swearword" (among other meanings) in Spain, "traffic jam" in Chile and "heels" (shoe) in Argentina, Peru, and Colombia, but it is known to the rest of the world as a Mexican dish.
Pija in many countries of Hispanic America and Spain itself is an obscene slang word for "penis" while in Spain the word also signifies "posh girl" or "snobby". Coche, which means "car" in Spain, central Mexico and Argentina, for the vast majority of Spanish-speakers actually means "baby-stroller" or "pushchair", while carro means "car" in some Hispanic American countries and "cart" in others, as well as in Spain. Papaya is the slang term for "vagina" in parts of Cuba and Venezuela, where the fruit is instead called fruta bomba and lechosa, respectively. Also, in Argentina and Spain, one would say piña when talking about punching someone else (as an alternate, slang usage) whereas in other countries, piña refers only to a pineapple.
Relation to other languages
It is generally acknowledged that Portuguese- and Spanish-speakers can communicate, although with varying degrees of difficulty. Meanwhile, mutual intelligibility of the written Spanish and Portuguese languages is very high, given that the difficulties of the spoken forms are based more on phonology than on grammatical and lexical dissimilarities. Ethnologue gives estimates of the lexical similarity between related languages in terms of precise percentages. For Spanish and Portuguese, that figure is 89%. Italian, on the other hand—although its phonology is more similar to that of Spanish—is said to have a lexical similarity of 82%. Mutual intelligibility between Spanish and French or between Spanish and Romanian is lower still, given lexical similarity ratings of 75% and 71% respectively. And comprehension of Spanish by French speakers who have not studied the language is much lower, at an estimated 45%. In general, thanks to the common features of the writing systems of the Romance languages, interlingual comprehension of the written word is greater than that of oral communication.
The following table compares the forms of some common words in several Romance languages:
(lit. "true brother")
|dies martis (Classical)
feria tertia (Ecclesiastical)
(arch. chus or plus)
(arch. pus or plus)
|manus sinistra||mano izquierda6
(arch. mano siniestra)
|man esquerda6||mão esquerda6
(arch. mão sẽestra)
|man cucha||mà esquerra6
(arch. mà sinistra)
|main gauche||mano sinistra||mâna stângă||'left hand'|
nullam rem natam
(lit. "no thing born")
(also ren and res)
(neca and nula rés
in some expressions; arch. rem)
(also un res)
1. Also nós outros in early modern Portuguese (e.g. The Lusiads), and nosoutros in Galician.
2. Alternatively nous autres in French.
3. Also noialtri in Southern Italian dialects and languages.
4. Medieval Catalan (e.g. Llibre dels fets).
5. Depending on the written norm used (see Reintegrationism).
6. From Basque esku, "hand" + erdi, "half, incomplete". Notice that this negative meaning also applies for Latin sinistra(m) ("dark, unfortunate").
7. Romanian caș (from Latin cāsevs) means a type of cheese. The universal term for cheese in Romanian is brânză (from unknown etymology).
Judaeo-Spanish, also known as Ladino, is a variety of Spanish which preserves many features of medieval Spanish and Portuguese and is spoken by descendants of the Sephardi Jews who were expelled from Spain in the fifteenth century. Conversely, in Portugal the vast majority of the Portuguese Jews converted and became 'New Christians'. Therefore, its relationship to Spanish is comparable with that of the Yiddish language to German. Ladino speakers today are almost exclusively Sephardi Jews, with family roots in Turkey, Greece, or the Balkans, and living mostly in Israel, Turkey, and the United States, with a few communities in Hispanic America. Judaeo-Spanish lacks the Native American vocabulary which was acquired by standard Spanish during the Spanish colonial period, and it retains many archaic features which have since been lost in standard Spanish. It contains, however, other vocabulary which is not found in standard Spanish, including vocabulary from Hebrew, French, Greek and Turkish, and other languages spoken where the Sephardim settled.
Judaeo-Spanish is in serious danger of extinction because many native speakers today are elderly as well as elderly olim (immigrants to Israel) who have not transmitted the language to their children or grandchildren. However, it is experiencing a minor revival among Sephardi communities, especially in music. In the case of the Latin American communities, the danger of extinction is also due to the risk of assimilation by modern Castilian.
A related dialect is Haketia, the Judaeo-Spanish of northern Morocco. This too tended to assimilate with modern Spanish, during the Spanish occupation of the region.
Spanish is written in the Latin script, with the addition of the character 〈ñ〉 (eñe, representing the phoneme /ɲ/, a letter distinct from 〈n〉, although typographically composed of an 〈n〉 with a tilde) and the digraphs 〈ch〉 (che, representing the phoneme /t͡ʃ/) and 〈ll〉 (elle, representing the phoneme /ʎ/). However, the digraph 〈rr〉 (erre fuerte, 'strong r', erre doble, 'double r', or simply erre), which also represents a distinct phoneme /r/, is not similarly regarded as a single letter. Since 1994 〈ch〉 and 〈ll〉 have been treated as letter pairs for collation purposes, though they remain a part of the alphabet. Words with 〈ch〉 are now alphabetically sorted between those with 〈cg〉 and 〈ci〉, instead of following 〈cz〉 as they used to. The situation is similar for 〈ll〉.
Thus, the Spanish alphabet has the following 27 letters and 2 digraphs:
- A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, Ñ, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z.
- Ch, Ll.
The letters k and w are used only in words and names coming from foreign languages (kilo, folklore, whisky, kiwi, etc.).
With the exclusion of a very small number of regional terms such as México (see Toponymy of Mexico), pronunciation can be entirely determined from spelling. Under the orthographic conventions, a typical Spanish word is stressed on the syllable before the last if it ends with a vowel (not including 〈y〉) or with a vowel followed by 〈n〉 or an 〈s〉; it is stressed on the last syllable otherwise. Exceptions to this rule are indicated by placing an acute accent on the stressed vowel.
The acute accent is used, in addition, to distinguish between certain homophones, especially when one of them is a stressed word and the other one is a clitic: compare el ('the', masculine singular definite article) with él ('he' or 'it'), or te ('you', object pronoun) with té ('tea'), de (preposition 'of') versus dé ('give' [formal imperative/third-person present subjunctive]), and se (reflexive pronoun) versus sé ('I know' or imperative 'be').
The interrogative pronouns (qué, cuál, dónde, quién, etc.) also receive accents in direct or indirect questions, and some demonstratives (ése, éste, aquél, etc.) can be accented when used as pronouns. Accent marks used to be omitted on capital letters (a widespread practice in the days of typewriters and the early days of computers when only lowercase vowels were available with accents), although the Real Academia Española advises against this and the orthographic conventions taught at schools enforce the use of the accent.
When u is written between g and a front vowel e or i, it indicates a "hard g" pronunciation. A diaeresis ü indicates that it is not silent as it normally would be (e.g., cigüeña, 'stork', is pronounced [θiˈɣweɲa]; if it were written *cigueña, it would be pronounced *[θiˈɣeɲa]).
Interrogative and exclamatory clauses are introduced with inverted question and exclamation marks (¿ and ¡, respectively).
Royal Spanish Academy
The Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy), founded in 1713, together with the 21 other national ones (see Association of Spanish Language Academies), exercises a standardizing influence through its publication of dictionaries and widely respected grammar and style guides. Because of influence and for other sociohistorical reasons, a standardized form of the language (Standard Spanish) is widely acknowledged for use in literature, academic contexts and the media.
Association of Spanish Language Academies
The Association of Spanish Language Academies (Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, or ASALE) is the entity which regulates the Spanish language. It was created in Mexico in 1951 and represents the union of all the separate academies in the Spanish-speaking world. It comprises the academies of 22 countries, ordered by date of Academy foundation: Spain (1713), Colombia (1871), Ecuador (1874), Mexico (1875), El Salvador (1876), Venezuela (1883), Chile (1885), Peru (1887), Guatemala (1887), Costa Rica (1923), Philippines (1924), Panama (1926), Cuba (1926), Paraguay (1927), Dominican Republic (1927), Bolivia (1927), Nicaragua (1928), Argentina (1931), Uruguay (1943), Honduras (1949), Puerto Rico (1955), and United States (1973).
The Instituto Cervantes (Cervantes Institute) is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991. This organization has branched out in over 20 different countries with 54 centers devoted to the Spanish and Hispanic American culture and Spanish Language. The ultimate goals of the Institute are to promote the education, the study and the use of Spanish universally as a second language, to support the methods and activities that would help the process of Spanish language education, and to contribute to the advancement of the Spanish and Hispanic American cultures throughout non-Spanish-speaking countries.
Official use by international organizations
Spanish is recognised as one of the official languages of the United Nations, the European Union, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of American States, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the African Union, the Union of South American Nations, the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat, the Latin Union, the Caricom and the North American Free Trade Agreement.
- El español: una lengua viva - Informe 2015 (PDF) (Report). Instituto Cervantes. 2015.
- Spanish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Standard Spanish". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Note that in English, "Castilian" or "Castilian Spanish" may be understood as referring to European Spanish ("Spanish Spanish") to the exclusion of dialects in the New World or to Castilian Spanish to the exclusion of any other dialect, rather than as a synonym for the entire language.
- La RAE avala que Burgos acoge las primeras palabras escritas en castellano (in Spanish), ES: El mundo, 2010-11-07
- "Spanish languages "Becoming the language for trade" in Spain and". sejours-linguistiques-en-espagne.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-18. Retrieved 2010-05-11.
- Dworkin, Steven N. (2012). A History of the Spanish Lexicon: A Linguistic Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 83. ISBN 0199541140.
- "Official Languages | United Nations". www.un.org. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Summary by language size". Ethnologue.
- Cervantes.es - Instituto Cervantes (2015)
- "Most Studied Foreign Languages in the U.S". Infoplease.com. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- US Census Bureau. "American Community Survey (ACS)".
- Diccionario panhispánico de dudas, 2005, pg. 271-272.
- "Diccionario de la lengua española" (in Spanish). Buscon.rae.es. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Manual de gramática histórica española (Espasa-Calpe, 1968), §66.2
- Lloyd A. Kasten and Florian J. Cody, Tentative Dictionary of Medieval Spanish (2nd ed., Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 2001)
- Penny, Ralph (2002). A History Of The Spanish Language (2 ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 20–21.
- "Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
- "Harold Bloom on Don Quixote, the first modern novel | Books | The Guardian". London: Books.guardian.co.uk. December 12, 2003. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- "Spanish Language Facts". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- Crow, John A. (2005). Spain: the root and the flower. University of California Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-520-24496-2.
- Thomas, Hugh (2005). Rivers of Gold: the rise of the Spanish empire, from Columbus to Magellan. Random House Inc. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-8129-7055-5.
- "La lengua de Cervantes" (PDF) (in Spanish). Ministerio de la Presidencia de España. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-24.
- Zamora Vicente (1967:117 and 222)
- Hualde (2014:39)
- Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
- Cressey (1978:152)
- Abercrombie (1967:98)
- John B. Dabor, Spanish Pronunciation: Theory and Practice (3rd ed.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1997), Ch. 7
- "John B. Dalbor's Voice Files to Accompany Spanish Pronunciation". Auburn.edu. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- Eddington (2000:96)
- "Instituto Cervantes 06-07" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- "Most widely spoken Languages in the World". Nations Online. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- "CIA The World Factbook United States". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Internet World Users by Language". Miniwatts Marketing Group. 2008.
- "CIA World Factbook — Gibraltar". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Background Note: Andorra". U.S. Department of State: Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. January 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-20.
- "BBC Education — Languages Across Europe — Spanish". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- "Swiss Federal Statistical Office > Languages". Retrieved 2014-03-10.
- Constitución de la República del Paraguay, Article 140
- Constitución Política del Perú, Article 48
- "Puerto Rico Elevates English". the New York Times. 29 January 1993. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
- "Population Census, Major Findings" (PDF). Belize: Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Budget Management. 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-21. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- "Belize Population and Housing Census 2000". CR: UCR. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- "Belize". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "FAQ". The Secretariat for The Implementation of Spanish. Trinidad and Tobago: Government of the Republic. Archived from the original on 2010-11-03. Retrieved 2012-01-10.[dead link]
- "Brazilian Law 11.161". Presidência da República. 2005-08-05. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
- Lipski, John M (2006). Face, Timothy L; Klee, Carol A, eds. "Too close for comfort? the genesis of "portuñol/portunhol"" (PDF). Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project): 1–22. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
- U.S. Census Bureau Hispanic or Latino by specific origin.
- U.S. Census Bureau (2007). "United States. S1601. Language Spoken at Home". 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved September 3, 2009.
- "Más 'speak spanish' que en España". Retrieved October 6, 2007. (in Spanish)
- Crawford, John (1992). Language loyalties: a source book on the official English controversy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 62.
- "Equatorial Guinea (2000)". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on December 25, 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- "CIA World Factbook - Equatorial Guinea". CIA. 20 September 2007. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- Los cubanos, la élite de Sudán del Sur (in Spanish), FR: Radio France International, 2011-07-06, retrieved 20 December 2011
- "Como saharauis queremos conservar el español" (in Spanish). 2008-03-03. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
- "Historia de un país" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-03-15.
- "Estadisticas: El idioma español en Filipinas" (in Spanish). ES: Busco enlaces. 2000-11-15. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- Ocampo, Ambeth (December 4, 2007). "The loss of Spanish". Makati City, Philippines: Philippine Daily Inquirer (INQUIRER.net). Opinion. Archived from the original on July 26, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
- "Presidential Decree No. 155 : PHILIPPINE LAWS, STATUTES and CODES : CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY". Chanrobles.com. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- Article XIV, Sec 7: "For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and, until otherwise provided by law, English. The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis."
- Rodríguez-Ponga, Rafael. "New Prospects for the Spanish Language in the Philippines". Retrieved 1 March 2015.
- Legaspi, Amita O. (July 3, 2012). "PNoy (President Benigno Aquino III) and Spain’s Queen Sofia welcome return of Spanish language in Philippine schools". GMA News.
- Medium projection, PH: National Statistics Office, 2010, archived from the original on August 11, 2011
- Spanish creole: Quilis, Antonio (1996), La lengua española en Filipinas (PDF), Cervantes virtual, p. 54 and 55
- Rubino (2008:279)
- 1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, The corpus juris, Article XV, Section 3(3), retrieved 2008-04-06
- "Spanish Influence on Language, Culture, and Philippine History". Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Engelberg, Stefan. "The Influence of German on the Lexicon of Palauan and Kosraean (Dissertation)" (PDF). Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "Spanish language in Philippines". Retrieved 1 March 2015.
- "UN 2015 estimate" (MS Excel PDF). UN Population data. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
- Ethnologue, 18th Ed.: es:Anexo:Hablantes de español según Ethnologue (edición 18).
- Eurobarometer (PDF), EU: Page TS2: Population older than 15 years old of each country. page T74: Speakers who speak Spanish very well. Page T46: Speakers who speak well enough in order to be able to have a conversation. es:Anexo:Hablantes de español en la U.E. según el Eurobarómetro (2012), 2012
- "Cifras", Spanish students (p. 10) (PDF) (in Spanish) (2015), ES: Instituto Cervantes Students across the World.
- Demografía de la lengua española (PDF) (in Spanish), ES, p. 10, to countries with official Spanish status.
- 2016 population estimate (in Spanish), MX: CONAPO estimate
- "MX", The World Factbook, USA: CIA: Spanish only 92.7%
- (4 ,July ,2015) Population clock, US: Census Bureau
- Spanish speakers older than 5 years old (Table, US: Census Bureau, 2014)
- Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Results". census.gov.
- Taylor, Paul. "(2011)". pewhispanic.org. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "Census Bureau (2014)". Census.gov. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- Gonzalez, Ana (2013-08-13). "(2011)". pewresearch.org. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- There are 9 million illegal Hispanics in USA, some of them aren't in the census (Pálidos de hambre (editorial) (in Spanish), Impre, 2009-04-19)
- Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española, El castellano
- Ansón, José Ma, José Ma. Ansón: "Casi cincuenta millones" hablan español en EE. UU., El Castellano
- "La amenaza al idioma español - Voces de Univision". Univision.com. Archived from the original on October 11, 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- Rodríguez Barilari, Elbio, Congresos de la lengua (in Spanish), ES
- Más de 70 expertos participaran en la III Acta Internacional de la Lengua Española (in Spanish), ES: ABC de Sevilla, 2008-03-29
- CNN en español restructures its programming, The New York Times, 2011-03-13 (The United States is now the second-largest Spanish-speaking country in the world, with more Spanish speakers than Spain, and exceeded only by Mexico).
- "Reloj animado" (in Spanish). CO: DANE. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- There are 850,000 speakers of American Indian languages ("CO", Ethnologue)
- "Datos básicos" (in Spanish). ES: INE. 2015-01-01. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
- 82.0% speak Spanish as a first language (Eurobarometer (PDF), Europa, 2012)
- "Argentinian census INDEC estimate for 2016". Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- 40,872,286 people is the census population result for 2010 Censo, AR: INDEC, 2010
- "According to Ethnologue, there are 3,646,270 speakers with non Spanish mother tongue. 3,400,000 immigrant languages, as Italian (1,500,000), Arabic (1,000,000), German (400,000), or Guarani (200,000). There are also 246,270 native speakers. The most important are Quichua (60,000) and Toba (40,000)". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
- "Proyecciones de Población". ine.gov.ve. (2016)
- "Languages", VE, Ethnologue,
There are 1,098,244 people who speak other language as their mother tongue (main languages: Chinese 400,000, Portuguese 254,000, Wayuu 199,000, Arabic 110,000)
- Quispe Fernández, Ezio (2016). "Cifras" [Numbers] (PDF) (in Spanish). PE: INEI.
- "Census", The World factbook, US: CIA, 2007,
Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other 0.2%
- "PE", Country, Ethnologue,
There are 5,782,260 people who speak other language as mother tongue (main languages: Quechua (among 32 Quechua's varieties) 4,773,900, Aymara (2 varieties) 661 000, Chinese 100,000).
- "Informes" [Reports]. Proyecciones (in Spanish). CL: INE. 2016. p. 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-02-14. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- "CL", Country, Ethnologue,
There are 281,600 people who speak another language, mainly Mapudungun (250.000)
- "Estimate", Pop. clock (SWF), EC: INEC
- Ethnologue (1999-02-19). "(2011)". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "Tema / Indicadores".
- "GT", The World factbook, CIA,
Spanish (official) 60%, Amerindian languages 40%
- "Cuba". Country (report). Ethnologue. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- Ethnologue (1999-02-19). "(2011)". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "(2016)". INE. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- According to the 1992 Census, 58 per cent of the population speaks Spanish as its mother tongue. unicef.org
- "INE (2011)". Archived from the original on May 19, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- There are 207,750 people who speak another language, mainly Garifuna (98,000).: Ethnologue
- "INSEE estimate to 1/11/2012". Insee.fr. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- Eurobarometr 2012 (page T40): Native speakers.
- Eurobarometr 2012 (page TS2): Population older than 15. (age scale used for the Eurobarometer survey)
- Eurobarometr 2012 (page T74): Non native people who speak Spanish very well.
- Eurobarometr 2012 (page T64): Non native people who speak Spanish well enough in order to be able to have a conversation.
- Census 2010 estimation (page 32) Archived October 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- There are 14,100 people who speak other language as their mother tongue (main language, Kekchí with 12,300 speakers): Ethnologue.
- IBGE population estimation [IBGE publishes the populational estimates for municipalities in 2 011] (in Portuguese), BR, 2016
- Informe 2016 (PDF), ES: Instituto Cervantes, 2016, pp. 6, 16
- There are 490,124 people who speak another language, mainly Mískito (154,000).: Ethnologue
- "Eurostat 2015 estimation". Istat.it. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "ENEC estimation to 2016". INEC. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Costa Rica". Ethnologue.
- DGEEC 2016 estimation
- According to the 1992 census, 50% use both Spanish and the indigenous language Guarani at home, 37% speak Guarani only, 7% speak Spanish only.findarticles.com[dead link]. About 75 percent can speak Spanish.pressreference.com
- Census INE estimate for 2013 (véase "Proyección de Población por municipio 2008-2020")
- There are 501,043 people who speak another language as mother tongue: PA, Ethnologue
- "2016 INE estimation". 2016.
- There are 150,200 people who speak another language as mother tongue, UY, Ethnologue
- "2015 US. census Bureau" (PDF).
- 95.10% of the population speaks Spanish (US. Census Bureau)
- "World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revi sion, Key Findings and Advance Tables" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division. p. 15. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- El español en el mundo [Spanish in the world] (PDF), ES: Instituto Cervantes, 2012, p. 6
- El español en el contexto Sociolingüístico marroquí: Evolución y perspectivas (page 39): Between 4 and 7 million people have Spanish knowledge (M. Ammadi, 2002) Archived November 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Euromonitor, 2012" (PDF). exteriores.gob.es. p. 32.
- Census estimate "Census 2011" Check
|url=value (help). U.K. Gov. Census. 2014. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
- Languages of the United Kingdom
- Medium projection, PH: National Statistics Office, 2015
- "native knowledge speakers" (in Spanish). Realinstitutoelcano.org. 2009-02-18. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- 1,816,773 Spanish + 1,200,000 Spanish creole: Quilis, Antonio (1996), La lengua española en Filipinas (PDF), Cervantes virtual, p. 54 and 55
- Ten Reasons (PDF), ES: Mepsyd, p. 23
- Philippines, Spanish differences, archived from the original on December 21, 2012
- Spanish in the world 2012 (Instituto Cervantes): 3,017,265 Spanish speakers. 439,000 with native knowledge, 2,557,773 with limited knowledge (page 6), and 20,492 Spanish students (page 10).
- Nestor Diaz: More than 2 million Spanish speakers and around 3 million with Chavacano speakers (2010-04-24). "FILIPINAS / Vigoroso regreso del español". Aresprensa.com. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- The figure of 2 900 000 Spanish speakers is in Thompson, RW, Pluricentric languages: differing norms in different nations, p. 45
- World wide Spanish language, Sispain
- German census, DE: Destatis, 2015-03-31
- "Equatorial Guinea census". Population statistics. 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- Spanish according to INE 2011
- 14% of the population speaks Spanish natively and other 74% as a second language: "Anuario", CVC (PDF) (in Spanish), ES: Cervantes, 2007
- "Eurostat (1/1/2012 estimate)". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 2013-10-17. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- Eurostat 1/1/2010
- Statcan, CA: GC
- "www12.statcan.gc.ca/census". 2.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- 87% of the Hispanics, speak Spanish. mequieroir.com
- There are 740,000 Hispanics in Canada in 2015, according to "Hispanovation: La creciente influencia hispánica en Canadá" (Social Media Week in Toronto): www.univision.com, www.abc.es.
- "Netherland Census ClockPop". Cbs.nl. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- 2012 censusArchived November 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "2011 Census". Censusdata.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "2071.0 - Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
- Page 32 of the "Demografía de la lengua española"
- "Eurostat estimate to 1/1/2011". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- 2013 census estimate
- ins.ci Census, 2009
- statisticsbelize.org.bz (2009 mid-year) Archived December 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- Page 32 of Demografía de la lengua española (52,1% native speakers + 11,7% with some Spanish knowladge))
- Pages 34, 35 of the "Demografía de la lengua española", page 35.
- Peruvian immigrants in 2012
- www.state.gov. 2015 estimate
- 111,942 Spaniards in 2016 (INE) + 17,113 Peruvians in 2012 () + 5706 Argentines in 2012 () + 2864 Chileans in 2012
- cvc.cervantes.es (annuary 2006-07)
-  Archived November 30, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "czso.cz" (in Czech). czso.cz. 2013-12-31. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "(2012)". ksh.hu. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "Resultado 2010 - Persona". Censo2010.aw. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
-  Archived January 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Evolution de la population par sexe de 1976 à 2012 en: Annuaire Statistique du Cameroun 2010. Consultado el 23-08-2012.
- "New Zealand census (2006)". Stats.govt.nz. 2009-02-13. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "cvc.cervantes.es". cvc.cervantes.es. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "Press Release on Major Figures of the 2010 National Population Census". Stats.gov.cn. Archived from the original on April 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- 25,000 Spanish students in the university + 5,000 in the "Instituto Cervantes"cervantes.es (page 4)
- "Statistics - FAQ's". Gibraltar.gov.gi. 2012-11-12. Archived from the original on January 5, 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- www.um.es (5.2. Datos descriptivos de los usos de español e inglés, Gráfico 2). 77.3% of the Gibraltar population speak Spanish with their mother more, or equal than English.
- "(2013)". db1.stat.gov.lt. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "Демография". Gks.ru. 2011-12-27. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "2009 estimate" (PDF). UN. 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- The Spanish 1970 census claims 16.648 Spanish speakers in Western Sahara () but probably most of them were people born in Spain who left after the Moroccan annexation
- Page 34 of the Demografía de la Lengua Española
- "2010 Census". Census.gov. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
- "Population - Key Indicators | Latvijas statistika". Csb.gov.lv. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
- "::Welcome to Turkish Statistical Institute(TurkStat)'s Web Pages::". TurkStat. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- 8,000 (Page 37 of the Demografía de la lengua española) + 4,346 Spanish Students (according to the Instituto Cervantes)
- "Census of India : Provisional Population Totals : India :Census 2011". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "cervantes.es (page 6)" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "Jamaican Population". Statinja.gov.jm. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- Languages of Jamaica,
- El español en Namibia, 2005. Instituto Cervantes.
- "cvc.cervantes.es" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 2013-10-17. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- Demografía de la lengua española, page 37 (2,397,000 people speak Spanish as a native language in the E.U. excluded Spain, but It is already counted population who speak Spanish as a native language in France (477,564), Sweden (77,912) and Luxemburg (4,049)).
- "International Programs - People and Households - U.S. Census Bureau". Census.gov. 2016-01-05. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- 426,515,910 speakers L1 in 2012 (ethnologue) of 7,097,500,000 people in the World in 2012 (UN): 6%.
- "The 30 Most Spoken Languages in the World". KryssTal. Retrieved 2013-01-16.
- 517,824,310 speakers L1 and L2 in 2012 (ethnologue) of 7,097,500,000 people in the World in 2012 (UN): 7.3%.
- Eleanor Greet Cotton, John M. Sharp (1988) Spanish in the Americas, Volume 2, pp.154-155, URL
- Lope Blanch, Juan M. (1972) En torno a las vocales caedizas del español mexicano, pp.53 a 73, Estudios sobre el español de México, editorial Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México URL.
- Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Random House Inc. 2006.
- The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. 2006.
- Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 1998.
- Encarta World English Dictionary. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- Penny, Ralph (2000). Variation and Change in Spanish. Cambridge University Press. p. 199. ISBN 0-521-78045-4.
whatever might be claimed by other centres, such as Valladolid, it was educated varieties of Madrid Spanish that were mostly regularly reflected in the written standard.
- The IPA symbol "turned y" (ʎ), with its "tail" leaning to the right, resembles, but is technically different from, the Greek letter lambda (λ), whose tail leans to the left.
- Charles B. Chang, "Variation in palatal production in Buenos Aires Spanish". Selected Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics, ed. Maurice Westmoreland and Juan Antonio Thomas, 54-63. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project, 2008.
- "Real Academia Española" (in Spanish). Buscon.rae.es. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- Katia Salamanca de Abreu, review of Humberto López Morales, Estudios sobre el español de Cuba (New York: Editorial Las Américas, 1970), in Thesaurus, 28 (1973), 138-146.
- "3 Guys From Miami: Fruta Bomba". Cuban-food-usa.com. Archived from the original on August 30, 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- Jensen 1989
- Penny 2000: 14
- Dalby 1998: 501
- Ginsburgh and Weber 2011: 90
- "- Ethnologue". Ethnologue.
- Often considered to be a substratum word. Other theories suggest, on the basis of what is used to make cheese, a derivation from Latin brandeum (originally meaning a linen covering, later a thin cloth for relic storage) through an intermediate root *brandea. For the development of the meaning, cf. Spanish manteca, Portuguese manteiga, probably from Latin mantica ('sack'), Italian formaggio and French fromage from formaticus. Romanian Explanatory Dictionary
- Alfassa, Shelomo (December 1999). "Ladinokomunita". Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture. Retrieved 4 February 2010.
- Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas, 1st ed.
- Real Academia Española, Explanation at Spanish Pronto (Spanish), (English)
- "Abecedario". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (in Spanish). Real Academia Española. 2005. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- "Ch". Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española.
- "Ll". Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española.
- "Scholarly Societies Project". Lib.uwaterloo.ca. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- Batchelor, Ronald Ernest (1992). Using Spanish: a guide to contemporary usage. Cambridge University Press. p. 318. ISBN 0-521-26987-3.
- "Association of Spanish Language Academies" (in Spanish). Asale. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Real Academia Española". Spain: RAE. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- "Academia Colombiana de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Colombia. Archived from the original on February 19, 2008. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Ecuador. Archived from the original on May 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Mexicana de la Lengua". Mexico. 2010-09-22. Archived from the original on September 15, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- "Academia Salvadoreña de la Lengua". El Salvador. Archived from the original on September 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Venezolana de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Venezuela. Archived from the original on May 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Chilena de la Lengua". Chile. Archived from the original on September 5, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- "Academia Peruana de la Lengua". Peru. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- "Academia Guatemalteca de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Guatemala. Archived from the original on August 4, 2008. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Costarricense de la Lengua". Costa Rica. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- "Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española" (in Spanish). Philippines. Archived from the original on May 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Panameña de la Lengua". Panama. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- "Academia Cubana de la Lengua". Cuba. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- "Academia Paraguaya de la Lengua Española". Paraguay. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Dominicana de la Lengua". República Dominicana. Archived from the original on December 22, 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Boliviana de la Lengua". Bolivia. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Nicaragüense de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Nicaragua. Archived from the original on May 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Argentina de Letras". Argentina. 2010-03-25. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Nacional de Letras del Uruguay". Uruguay. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Hondureña de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Honduras. Archived from the original on May 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española". Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española". United States. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- A First Spanish Reader, by Erwin W. Roessler and Alfred Remy
- Abercrombie, David (1967). "Elements of General Phonetics". Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
- Cressey, William Whitney (1978). Spanish Phonology and Morphology: A Generative View. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0878400451.
- Dalby, Andrew (1998). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11568-7.
- Eddington, David (2000). "Spanish Stress Assignment within the Analogical Modeling of Language" (PDF). Language (Language) 76 (1): 92–109. doi:10.2307/417394. JSTOR 417394.
- Ginsburgh, Victor; Weber, Shlomo (2011). How Many Languages Do We Need?: The Economics of Linguistic Diversity. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13689-9.
- Harris, James (1967). "Sound Change in Spanish and the Theory of Markedness". Language (Language) 45 (3): 538–52. doi:10.2307/411438. JSTOR 411438.
- Hualde, José Ignacio (2014). Los sonidos del español. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-16823-6.
- Jensen, John B. (1989). "On the Mutual Intelligibility of Spanish and Portuguese". Hispania 72 (4): 848–852. doi:10.2307/343562. JSTOR 343562.
- Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003). "Castilian Spanish". Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–59. doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373.
- Ladefoged, Peter; Johnson, Keith (2010), A Course in Phonetics (6th ed.), Boston, Massachusetts: Wadsworth Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4282-3126-9
- Moreno Fernández, Francisco; Otero, Jaime (2008), Atlas de la lengua española en el mundo, Barcelona: Ariel
- Penny, Ralph (2000). Variation and Change in Spanish. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78045-4.
- Population by age, both sexes, annual; estimate for 2012 (XLS), UN
- Rubino, Carl (2008), "Zamboangueño Chavacano and the Potentive Mode.", in Michaelis, Susanne, Roots of Creole Structures: Weighing the Contribution of Substrates and Superstrates, Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 279–299, ISBN 9027252556
- Zamora Vicente, Alonso (1967), Dialectología española, Madrid: Gredos
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|Data from Wikidata|
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Spanish|
|Spanish edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Spanish edition of Wikisource, the free library|