Elk River (British Columbia)
Elk River near Fernie, British Columbia
|Source||Upper Elk Lake|
|- location||Rocky Mountains|
|- location||Lake Koocanusa|
|- coordinates||Coordinates: |
|Length||220 km (137 mi) |
|Basin||4,450 km2 (1,718 sq mi) |
|Discharge||for At Phillips Bridge|
|- average||75.6 m3/s (2,670 cu ft/s) |
|- max||1,020 m3/s (36,021 cu ft/s)|
|- min||5.66 m3/s (200 cu ft/s)|
The Elk River is a 220-kilometre (140 mi) long river, in the southeastern Kootenay district of the Canadian province of British Columbia. Its drainage basin is 4,450 square kilometres (1,720 sq mi) in area. Its mean discharge is approximately 60 cubic metres per second (2,100 cu ft/s), with a maximum recorded discharge of 818 cubic metres per second (28,900 cu ft/s).
The Elk River originates from the Elk Lakes near the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mountains. It flows through the Elk Valley in a southwesterly direction, joining the Kootenay River in Lake Koocanusa, just north of the British Columbia-Montana border.
David Thompson traveled along the Elk River in 1811, and called it the Stag River. James Sinclair's second settlement expedition to Oregon Country from the Red River Colony made a difficult crossing from the Kananaskis River valley into the Columbia–Kootenays via the Elk in 1854. The river was labeled Elk River on John Palliser's 1857–58 map and "Stag or Elk River" on Arrowsmith's 1862 map.
Elko Dam was built by East Kootenay Power Company on the Elk River in 1924. It is a run-of-the-river dam 16 metres (52 ft) tall and 66 metres (217 ft) long. The powerhouse has two Francis turbines producing 12MW of electricity. It is about 16 kilometres (10 mi) upriver from the Elk's confluence with Lake Koocanusa. It is operated by BC Hydro.
The fishing in the Elk River is known to be some of the best fly-fishing in North America, with large, wild cutthroat and bull trout aplenty.
Coal mining impacts
The Elk River Valley is home to five large open-pit coal mines, supplying a third of the world's steel-making coal. For many years increased selenium, phosphate and nitrate levels have been linked to the continued expansion of the mining. Selenium levels continue to exceed the guidelines for human health.
Teck Mining is working to implement selenium management strategies.
- "Upper Elk Lake". BC Geographical Names.
- "Elk River". BC Geographical Names.
- "The Rivers - Stories". Balance of Power. 2007. Retrieved September 3, 2008.
- "Archived Hydrometric Data Search". Water Survey of Canada. Retrieved October 19, 2008. Search for Station 08NK005 Elk River at Phillips Bridge
- "Elko Project Water Use Plan" (PDF). BC Hydro. 2005. Retrieved September 3, 2008. Archived March 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- C. Lussier, V. Veiga and S. Baldwin, "The geochemistry of selenium associated with coal waste in the Elk River Valley, Canada", Environmental Geology 44.8, October 2007, pp. 905-13, abstract.
- Your Concerns, Our Response: Selenium Management, Teck 2009 Sustainability Report, retrieved 16 February 2011.