Enrique Creel

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Enrique Creel
Enrique C Creel.jpg
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
April 1910 – March 1911[1]
President Porfirio Díaz
Preceded by Ignacio Mariscal[2]
Succeeded by Francisco León de la Barra[2]
Governor of Chihuahua
In office
4 October 1907 – April 1910[1]
Preceded by José María Sánchez
Succeeded by José María Sánchez
In office
18 August 1904 – December 1906[1]
Preceded by Luis Terrazas
Succeeded by José María Sánchez
Personal details
Born (1854-08-30)30 August 1854[3]
Chihuahua, Chihuahua[3]
Died 18 August 1931(1931-08-18) (aged 76)[3]
Mexico City[3]
Nationality Mexican
Relations Luis Terrazas (father-in-law)
Alma mater University of Pennsylvania[4]

Enrique Clay Creel Cuilty, sometimes known as Henry Clay Creel (30 August 1854 – 18 August 1931) was a Mexican businessman and politician member of the powerful Creel-Terrazas family of Chihuahua. He is considered the foremost banker during the Porfirato (1876-1910) and was a wielded considerable political power, becoming "one of the most hated symbols of the Porfirian regime."[5] He served as governor of Chihuahua on two occasions, ambassador of Mexico to the United States, and served in the cabinet of President Porfirio Díaz as his Minister of Foreign Affairs in the last years of his regime.[4][6][7]

Biography[edit]

Creel was the son of Reuben Creel, a veteran of the Mexican American War from Greensburg, Kentucky, and Abraham Lincoln's US Consul in Chihuahua. He was born in Chihuahua, Chihuahua and became son-in-law of don Luis Terrazas by virtue of marriage to his daughter Angela (Reuben Creel and Luis Terrazas were married to sisters of the wealthy Cuilty family, whose ancestry was English and was related to Sir Thomas More).[citation needed]

After Porfirio Díaz became president of Mexico in 1876, he appointed Creel as a director of the National Board of Dynamite and Explosives. Mexico’s demand for explosives was high because of its mining and railroad industries and the army’s need for munitions. The board imposed an 80% import duty on dynamite, allowing its members to manufacture explosives without competition and reportedly enabling Creel to amass an even larger fortune in kickbacks.[citation needed]

Enrique Creel served as Mexico's Minister of Foreign Relations and as its Ambassador to the United States. The bilingual Creel served as interpreter when Presidents Porfirio Díaz and William Howard Taft met in 1909 on the international bridge between Ciudad Juárez and El Paso. He became vice-president of the Kansas City, Mexico and Orient Railway, where he was responsible for the construction of part of the railroad west of Chihuahua, now the Chihuahua Pacific Railroad (Ferrocarril Chihuahua al Pacífico) and runs through the town of Creel, Chihuahua. He was a key intermediary between the Mexican government and foreign companies, serving on their boards, as well as helping arrange "government subsidies and tax abatements and financial support for foreign firms."[8] His haciendas once totaled more than 1.7 million acres (6,900 km²).[citation needed] Creel was one of Díaz's advisers who had urged the president to be interviewed by James Creelman of Pearson's Magazine, in which Díaz declared he would not be a candidate for president in 1910.[9]

The Mexican Revolution forced him to abandon Mexico for the United States and he had major financial losses due to the Revolution, with revolutionaries expropriating his landed estates.[10] He returned after the end of the revolution, and served for a period in the administration of northern revolutionary general Alvaro Obregón (1920–24).[9] He died in Mexico City on August 18, 1931 .[3]

Publications[edit]

  • Los bancos de México (English: The Banks of Mexico)[4]
  • Importación y exportación (Imports and Exports)[4]
  • Agricultura y agrarismo (Agriculture and Agrarianism)[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c El comercio en la historia de Chihuahua: reseña histórica, biografías. informes de ejercicios 1989-1990 (in Spanish). Chihuahua, Mexico: Camara Nacional de Comercio, Servicios y Turismo de Chihuahua. 1991. Retrieved 2009-12-08. 
  2. ^ a b "Enrique C. Creel Cuilty" (in Spanish). Mexico: Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores. Retrieved 8 December 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Romero Sotelo, María Eugenia (2006). "Bimetalismo vs. Patrón oro, una larga controversia en México: la Comisión de Cambios Internacional y la Comisión Monetaria de 1903". In Romero Sotelo; María Eugenia; Ludlow, Leonor. Temas a debate: moneda y banca en México 1884-1954. Serie Historia moderna y contemporánea (in Spanish). 45. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. p. 64. ISBN 9789703235728. OCLC 76858975. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Tablada, José Juan (2006). Obras: en el país del sol. Nueva biblioteca mexicana (in Spanish). 25. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. p. 28. ISBN 9789703225842. OCLC 166280723. Retrieved 2009-12-08. 
  5. ^ Mark Wasserman, "Enrique Clay Creel" in Encyclopedia of Mexico vol. 1, p. 370. Chicago: Fitzroy and Dearborn 1997.
  6. ^ Mark Wasserman, Capitalists, Caciques, and Revolution: the Native Elite and Foreign Enterprise in Chihuahua, Mexico. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press 1984.
  7. ^ Mark Wasserman, "Enrique C. Creel: Business and Politics in Mexico, 1880-1930." Business History Review 59 (Winter 1985).
  8. ^ Wasserman, "Enrique Clay Creel" p. 369.
  9. ^ a b Wasserman, "Enrique Clay Creel", p. 370.
  10. ^ Wasserman, "Enrique Clay Creel", p. 370