Enterococcus gallinarum

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Streptococcus gallinarum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Streptococcaceae
Genus: Enterococcus
Species: E. gallinarum

Enterococcus gallinarum is a species of Enterococcus.[1] E. gallinarum demonstrates an inherent, low-level resistance to vancomycin. Resistance is due to a chromosomal gene, vanC, which encodes for a terminal D-alanine-D-serine instead of the usual D-alanine-D-alanine in cell wall peptidoglycan precursor proteins.[2] That is a separate mechanism than the vancomycin resistance seen in VRE isolates of e. faecium and e. faecalis which is mediated by vanA or vanB.[3] This species is known to cause clusters of infection, although it considered very rare.[4] It is the only other known enterococcal species besides e. faecium and e. faecalis known to cause outbreaks and spread in hospitals.[5]


  1. ^ Dargere S, Vergnaud M, Verdon R, et al. (June 2002). "Enterococcus gallinarum endocarditis occurring on native heart valves". J. Clin. Microbiol. 40 (6): 2308–10. doi:10.1128/JCM.40.6.2308-2310.2002. PMC 130811Freely accessible. PMID 12037119. 
  2. ^ "Molecular Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria". Infectious Diseases. ISBN 978-0-323-04579-7. 
  3. ^ Fluit, Ad C.; Visser, Maarten R.; Schmitz, Franz-Josef (2001-10-01). "Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 14 (4): 836–871. doi:10.1128/CMR.14.4.836-871.2001. ISSN 0893-8512. PMC 89006Freely accessible. PMID 11585788. 
  4. ^ Gilmore MS; et al., eds. (2002). The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN 978-1-55581-234-8. 
  5. ^ "Enterococcus Species, Streptococcus gallolyticus Group, and Leuconostoc Species". Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. ISBN 978-1-4557-4801-3. 

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