Enterococcus gallinarum

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Streptococcus gallinarum
Scientific classification
E. gallinarum

Enterococcus gallinarum is a species of Enterococcus.[1] E. gallinarum demonstrates an inherent, low-level resistance to vancomycin. Resistance is due to a chromosomal gene, vanC, which encodes for a terminal D-alanine-D-serine instead of the usual D-alanine-D-alanine in cell wall peptidoglycan precursor proteins.[2] That is a separate mechanism than the vancomycin resistance seen in VRE isolates of E. faecium and E. faecalis which is mediated by vanA or vanB.[3] This species is known to cause clusters of infection, although it considered very rare.[4] It is the only other known enterococcal species besides E. faecium and E. faecalis known to cause outbreaks and spread in hospitals.[5]

A study published in 2018 found that this infectious gut bacterium can translocate (spread) to other organs such as the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen, triggering an autoimmune reaction in humans and mice. E. gallinarum was found during three liver biopsies of individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune liver disease. The autoimmune reaction was found to be suppressed when an intramuscular vaccine or antibiotic was administered.[6][7]

The bacterium can also cause meningitis, although rare[8] and sepsis.[9]

The antibiotics linezolid,[8] daptomycin and gentamicin,[9] levofloxacin, and penicillin G are effective against the bacteria, depending on the specific isolate.[9]


  1. ^ Dargere S, Vergnaud M, Verdon R, Saloux E, Le Page O, Leclercq R, Bazin C (June 2002). "Enterococcus gallinarum endocarditis occurring on native heart valves". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 40 (6): 2308–10. doi:10.1128/JCM.40.6.2308-2310.2002. PMC 130811. PMID 12037119.
  2. ^ Cohen J, Opal SM, Powderly WG (2010). "Molecular Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria". Infectious Diseases. ISBN 978-0-323-04579-7.
  3. ^ Fluit AC, Visser MR, Schmitz FJ (October 2001). "Molecular detection of antimicrobial resistance". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 14 (4): 836–71, table of contents. doi:10.1128/CMR.14.4.836-871.2001. PMC 89006. PMID 11585788.
  4. ^ Gilmore MS, Clewell DB (2002). The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN 978-1-55581-234-8.
  5. ^ Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ (2014-08-28). "Enterococcus Species, Streptococcus gallolyticus Group, and Leuconostoc Species". Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases (8th ed.). ISBN 978-1-4557-4801-3.
  6. ^ Wein H (2018-03-26). "Gut microbe drives autoimmunity". National Institutes of Health (NIH). Retrieved 2019-04-19.
  7. ^ Kashef Z (2018-03-08). "The enemy within: Gut bacteria drive autoimmune disease". YaleNews. Retrieved 2019-04-19.
  8. ^ a b Li X, Fan S, Lin X, Liu L, Zheng J, Zhou X, Heep A (February 2018). "The first case report of Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis in neonate: A literature review". Medicine. 97 (7): e9875. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000009875. PMC 5839847. PMID 29443752.
  9. ^ a b c Barber GR, Lauretta J, Saez R (June 2007). "A febrile neutropenic patient with Enterococcus gallinarum sepsis treated with daptomycin and gentamicin". Pharmacotherapy. 27 (6): 927–32. doi:10.1592/phco.27.6.927. PMID 17542774.

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