Enterococcus gallinarum

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Streptococcus gallinarum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Streptococcaceae
Genus: Enterococcus
Species: E. gallinarum

Enterococcus gallinarum is a species of Enterococcus.[1] E. gallinarum demonstrates an inherent, low-level resistance to vancomycin. Resistance is due to a chromosomal gene, vanC, which encodes for a terminal D-alanine-D-serine instead of the usual D-alanine-D-alanine in cell wall peptidoglycan precursor proteins.[2] That is a separate mechanism than the vancomycin resistance seen in VRE isolates of E. faecium and E. faecalis which is mediated by vanA or vanB.[3] This species is known to cause clusters of infection, although it considered very rare.[4] It is the only other known enterococcal species besides E. faecium and E. faecalis known to cause outbreaks and spread in hospitals.[5]

A 2018 study has shown the human gut bacterium can translocate outside of the gut to lymph nodes, the liver, and spleen, initiating systemic lupus and autoimmune liver disease in mice, and reversed with a vaccine against it.


  1. ^ Dargere S, Vergnaud M, Verdon R, et al. (June 2002). "Enterococcus gallinarum endocarditis occurring on native heart valves". J. Clin. Microbiol. 40 (6): 2308–10. doi:10.1128/JCM.40.6.2308-2310.2002. PMC 130811Freely accessible. PMID 12037119. 
  2. ^ "Molecular Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria". Infectious Diseases. ISBN 978-0-323-04579-7. 
  3. ^ Fluit, Ad C.; Visser, Maarten R.; Schmitz, Franz-Josef (2001-10-01). "Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 14 (4): 836–871. doi:10.1128/CMR.14.4.836-871.2001. ISSN 0893-8512. PMC 89006Freely accessible. PMID 11585788. 
  4. ^ Gilmore MS; et al., eds. (2002). The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN 978-1-55581-234-8. 
  5. ^ "Enterococcus Species, Streptococcus gallolyticus Group, and Leuconostoc Species". Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. ISBN 978-1-4557-4801-3. 

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