Bacilli

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Bacilli
Bacillus subtilis Gram.jpg
Bacillus subtilis, Gram stain
Scientific classification e
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Ludwig et al. 2010
Orders

Bacilli is a taxonomic class of bacteria that includes two orders, Bacillales and Lactobacillales, which contain several well-known pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis (the cause of anthrax). Bacilli are almost exclusively gram-positive bacteria.[1]

Ambiguity[edit]

Several related concepts make use of similar words, and the ambiguity can create considerable confusion. The term "Bacillus" (capitalized and italicized) is also the name of a genus (Bacillus anthracis) that, among many other genera, falls within the class Bacilli.

The word "bacillus" (or its plural "bacilli", with a small b) is also a generic term to describe the morphology of any rod-shaped bacterium. This general term does not mean that the subject is a member of class Bacilli or genus Bacillus. Thus, it does not necessarily imply a similar group of characteristics. Not all members of class Bacilli are rod-shaped (Staphylococcus is spherical), and many other rod-shaped bacteria that do not fall within that class exist (e.g., Clostridium kamina dalla kotta is rod-shaped but very different taxonomically). Moreover, the general term "bacillus" does not necessarily indicate the Gram-positive staining common to class Bacilli. For example, E. coli is a rod-shaped bacterium that can be described as "a bacillus", but it stains Gram-negative and does not belong to the genus Bacillus or the class Bacilli. Some microbiologists have forsaken the general "bacillus" term because of the confusion it can create.

Phylogeny[edit]

The phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 132 by The All-Species Living Tree Project[2], with the currently accepted taxonomy based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [3], National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[4] and some non validated clade names from Genome Taxonomic Database.[5]

Bacilli

Calditerricola {"Calditerricolales" ♥: "Calditerricolaceae" ♥}

Kyrpidia {"Kyrpidiales" ♥: "Kyrpidiaceae" ♥}

Thermoactinomycetaceae {"Thermoactinomycetales" ♥}

Caldalkalibacillus {"Caldalkalibacillales" ♥: "Caldalkalibacillaceae" ♥}

Thermicanales ♥

"Thermicanaceae" ♥

"Novibacillaceae" ♥

"Tumebacillales" ♥

"Effusibacillaceae" ♥

"Tumebacillaceae" ♥

"Alicyclobacillales" ♥

"Acidibacillaceae" ♥

Alicyclobacillaceae

"Paenibacillales" ♥

Ammoniibacillus

Paenibacillaceae

Microaerobacter

"Tepidibacillaceae" ♥ {"Tepidibacillales" ♥}

Melghiribacillus

Bacillus species group 2

"Salisediminibacteriaceae" ♥

"Marinococcaceae" ♥

Bacillaceae 2

"Amphibacillaceae" ♥

Aureibacillus

"Fictibacillaceae" ♥

Sporolactobacillaceae

"Anaerobacillaceae" ♥

(continued)

Bacilli part 2 (continued)[edit]

Bacilli part 2

Bacillaceae (incl. Planococcaceae) {Bacillales}

"Domibacillaceae" ♥

"Anoxybacillaceae" ♥

Bacillus koreensis

Listeriaceae

Desulfuribacillus

Exiguobacterium {"Exiguobacterales" ♥: "Exiguobacteraceae" ♥}

Paenibacillaceae 2

Aneurinibacillus {"Aneurinibacillales" ♥: "Aneurinibacillaceae" ♥}

Brevibacillus {"Brevibacillales" ♥: "Brevibacillaceae" ♥}

Staphylococcaceae

Gemella

Aphragmobacteria

Haloplasma contractile

Turicibacter sanguinis

Asteroleplasma

Eggerthiaceae {Eggerthiales}

Erysipelotrichaceae {Erysipelotrichales}

Mollicutes

Anaeroplasma {Anaeroplasmataceae}

Acholeplasma {Acholeplasmatales: Acholeplasmataceae}

Mycoplasmatales

Mycoplasmataceae (incl. Entomoplasmataceae; Spiroplasmataceae)

Ureaplasmataceae

Lactobacillales

Aerococcaceae

Granulicatella

Atopobacter

Carnobacteriaceae 2

Carnobacteriaceae+Enterococcaceae+Streptococcaceae

Lactobacillus species-group 2

Lactobacillus floricola

Leuconostocaceae

Lactobacillaceae

Unclassified Bacilli

  • "Candidatus Izimaplasma" ♠ {"Izimaplasmatales" ♥: "Izimaplasmataceae" ♥}
  • "Candidatus Lumbricoplasma" ♠ {Lumbricoplasmataceae ♠}
  • "Rubeoparvulaceae" ♥ {"Rubeoparvulales" ♥}

Notes:
♥ Clade names not lodged at National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) or listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ludwig, Wolfgang; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Whitman, William B. (2015). "Bacilli class. Nov". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. p. 1. doi:10.1002/9781118960608.cbm00033. ISBN 9781118960608. 
  2. ^ "16S rRNA-based LTP release 132 (full tree)". All-Species Living Tree Project. Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2018-07-20. 
  3. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Bacilli". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2018-07-20. 
  4. ^ Sayers; et al. "Bacilli". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2018-07-20. 
  5. ^ "GTDB taxonomy". Genome Taxonomic Database. Retrieved 2018-07-20.