Yevgeniya Andreyevna Polyakova (Russian: Евгения Андреевна Полякова) (born 29 May 1983 in Moscow) is a Russian sprinter who specializes in the 100 metres.
Polyakova represented Russia at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing competing at the 100 metres sprint. In her first round heat she placed first in front of Jade Bailey and Sherone Simpson in a time of 11.24 to advance to the second round. There she improved her time to 11.13 seconds, finishing second behind Shelly-Ann Fraser to qualify for the semi finals. With a time of 11.38 she was unable to qualify for the final as her time was only the seventh time of her heat, causing elimination. Together with Aleksandra Fedoriva, Yulia Gushchina and Yuliya Chermoshanskaya she also took part in the 4x100 metres relay. In their first round heat they placed second behind Jamaica, but in front of Germany and China. Their time of 42.87 seconds was also the second time overall out of sixteen participating nations. With this result they qualified for the final in which they sprinted to 42.31 seconds, the first place and the gold medal. The Jamaican team did not finish due to a mistake in the baton exchange.