Exon skipping

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In molecular biology, exon skipping is a form of RNA splicing used to cause cells to “skip” over faulty or misaligned sections of genetic code, leading to a truncated but still functional protein despite the genetic mutation.

Exon-skipping mechanism[edit]

See also: RNA splicing

Exon skipping is used to restore the reading frame within a gene. Genes are the genetic instructions for creating a protein, and are composed of introns and exons. Exons are the sections of DNA that contain the instruction set for generating a protein; they are interspersed with non-coding regions called introns. The introns are later removed before the protein is made, leaving only the coding exon regions.

Splicing naturally occurs in pre-mRNA when introns are being removed to form mature-mRNA that consists solely of exons. Starting in the late 1990s, scientists realized they could take advantage of this naturally occurring cellular splicing to downplay genetic mutations into less harmful ones.[1][2]

The mechanism behind exon skipping is a mutation specific antisense oligonucleotide (AON). An antisense oligonucleotide is a synthesized short nucleic acid polymer, typically fifty or fewer base pairs in length that will bind to the mutation site in the pre-messenger RNA, to induce exon skipping.[3] The AON binds to the mutated exon, so that when the gene is then translated from the mature mRNA, it is “skipped” over, thus restoring the disrupted reading frame.[3] This allows for the generation of an internally deleted, but largely functional protein.

Some mutations require exon skipping at multiple sites, sometimes adjacent to one another, in order to restore the reading frame. Multiple exon skipping has successfully been carried out using a combination of AONs that target multiple exons.[4]

Main uses of exon skipping[edit]

Exon skipping is being heavily researched for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), where the muscular protein dystrophin is prematurely truncated, which leads to a non-functioning protein. Successful treatment by way of exon skipping could lead to a mostly functional dystrophin protein, and create a phenotype similar to the less severe Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD).[1][5]

In the case of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the protein that becomes compromised is dystrophin.[5] The dystrophin protein has two essential functional domains that flank a central rod domain consisting of repetitive and partially dispensable segments.[6] Dystrophin’s function is to maintain muscle fiber stability during contraction by linking the extra cellular matrix to the cytoskeleton. Mutations that disrupt the open reading frame within dystrophin create prematurely truncated proteins that are unable to perform their job. Such mutations lead to muscle fiber damage, replacement of muscle tissue by fat and fibrotic tissue, and premature death typically occurring in the early twenties of DMD patients.[6] Comparatively, mutations that do not upset the open reading frame, lead to a dystrophin protein that is internally deleted and shorter than normal, but still partially functional. Such mutations are associated with the much milder Becker muscular dystrophy. Mildly affected BMD patients carrying deletions that involve over two thirds of the central rod domain have been described, suggesting that this domain is largely dispensable.

Dystrophin can maintain a large degree of functionality so long as the essential terminal domains are unaffected, and exon skipping only occurs within the central rod domain. Given these parameters, exon skipping can be used to restore an open reading frame by inducing a deletion of one or several exons within the central rod domain, and thus converting a DMD phenotype into a BMD phenotype.

The genetic mutation that leads to Becker muscular dystrophy is an in-frame deletion. This means the out of the 79 exons that code for dystrophin, one or several in the middle may be removed, without affecting the exons that follow the deletion. This allows for a shorter-than-normal dystrophin protein that maintains a degree of functionality. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the genetic mutation is out-of-frame. Out-of-frame mutations cause a premature stop in protein generation- the ribosome is unable to “read” the RNA past the point of initial error- leading to a severely shortened and completely non-functional dystrophin protein.[6]

The goal of exon skipping is to manipulate the splicing pattern so that an out-of-frame mutation becomes an in-frame mutation, thus changing a severe DMD mutation into a less harmful in-frame BMD mutation.

Specific applications of exon skipping to Duchenne muscular dystrophy[edit]

Genetic testing can be done, usually by a blood sample, to determine the precise nature and location of mutation to the dystrophin gene. Mutations within the dystrophin gene are known to cluster in certain areas, known as hot spot regions, primarily on exons 45-53 and to a lesser extent on exons 2-20.[4] Antisense-mediated exon skipping to restore reading frames within dystrophin is currently being researched as a treatment for DMD, however; the anti-sense oligonucleotides (AONs) need to induce exon skipping are mutation specific.[4] Fortunately, the majority of dystrophin mutations occur in the major hotspot region between exons 45-53, and the minor hot spot region ranging from exon 2-20. This allows for the creation of commonly needed AONs that would help a large number of DMD patients. By designing AON “cocktails” to induce the skipping of the eight exons in a hotspot region, up to 50% of DMD patients would be helped.[4][5][7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wahl, Margaret. Exon Skipping in DMD: What Is It and Whom Can It Help? Quest Magazine Online. N.p., 01 Oct. 2011. Web. 05 Nov. 2012.
  2. ^ Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Vulin, Adeline; Fougerousse, Françoise; Leturcq, France; Kaplan, Jean-Claude; Garcia, Luis; Danos, Olivier (3 December 2004). "Rescue of Dystrophic Muscle Through U7 snRNA-Mediated Exon Skipping". Science 306 (5702): 1796–1799. doi:10.1126/science.1104297. PMID 15528407. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Harding, P. L.; Fall, A. M.; Honeyman, K; Fletcher, S; Wilton, S. D. (2007). "The influence of antisense oligonucleotide length on dystrophin exon skipping". Molecular Therapy 15 (1): 157–66. doi:10.1038/sj.mt.6300006. PMID 17164787.  edit
  4. ^ a b c d Aartsma-Rus, A; Fokkema, I; Verschuuren, J; Ginjaar, I; Van Deutekom, J; Van Ommen, G. J.; Den Dunnen, J. T. (2009). "Theoretic applicability of antisense-mediated exon skipping for Duchenne muscular dystrophy mutations". Human Mutation 30 (3): 293–9. doi:10.1002/humu.20918. PMID 19156838.  edit
  5. ^ a b c What Is Exon Skipping and How Does It Work? Muscular Dystrophy Campaign. N.p., 11 July 2009. Web. 05 Nov. 2012.
  6. ^ a b c Aartsma-Rus, A; Van Ommen, G. J. (2007). "Antisense-mediated exon skipping: A versatile tool with therapeutic and research applications". RNA 13 (10): 1609–1624. doi:10.1261/rna.653607. PMC 1986821. PMID 17684229. 
  7. ^ Van Deutekom, J. C.; Van Ommen, G. J. (2003). "Advances in Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy". Nature Reviews Genetics 4 (10): 774–83. doi:10.1038/nrg1180. PMID 14526374.