Forging temperature

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Forging temperature is the temperature at which a metal becomes substantially more soft, but is lower than the melting temperature.[1] Bringing a metal to its forging temperature allows the metal's shape to be changed by applying a relatively small force, without creating cracks. The forging temperature of an alloy will lie between the temperatures of its component metals. For most metals, forging temperature will be approximately 70% of the melting temperature in kelvins.

Selecting the maximum forging temperature allows metals to be forged more easily, lowering the forging pressure and thus the wear on metal-forming dies.[2] The temperature at which a metal is forged can affect the homogeneity in microstructure and mechanical properties of forged products, which can highly affect the performance of products used in manufacturing.[3]

Material Forging Temperature
Celsius Fahrenheit
Carbon steel - 0.50% carbon content 1230[2] 2246
Stainless steel (Nonmagnetic) 1150 2102
Stainless steel (Magnetic) 1095 2003
Nickel 1095 2003
Titanium 955 1751
Copper 900 1652
Brass (25 Alloy Types Utilising Different Ratios: Copper & Zinc) 815 1499
Commercial bronze (90% copper and 10% tin) 900 to 419.53 1652 to 787.154
Aluminium 300 - 480[4] 600 - 900
Zinc 419.53 787.154
Lead 327.46 621.428
Tin 231.93 449.474

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Metals - Melting Temperatures". The Engineering ToolBox.
  2. ^ a b "Forging of Carbon Steels". Metal Pass.
  3. ^ Irani, M.; Karimi Taheri, A. (2008). "Effect of forging temperature on homogeneity of microstructure and hardness of precision forged steel spur gear" (PDF). Materials Chemistry and Physics. 112: 1099–1105.
  4. ^ 'Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys" edited by Joseph R. Davis, p248