French Cathedral, Berlin
|French (Reformed) Church of Friedrichstadt
Temple de la Friedrichstadt (fr)
Französische or Französisch-reformierte Friedrichstadtkirche (de)
colloquially: Französischer Dom
View from west onto the church proper, surmounted by the adjacent domed tower
|Location||Friedrichstadt, a locality of Berlin|
|Affiliation||United Protestant since its reconstruction in 1981;
originally Reformed (i.e. Calvinist)
|District||Calvinist congregation: Reformed deanery of Berlin-Brandenburg
united congregation: Sprengel Berlin (region), Kirchenkreis Stadtmitte (deanery)
|Province||Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia|
|Architect(s)||Louis Cayart and Abraham Quesnay (1701–5), Carl von Gontard (design), Georg Christian Unger (tower construction in 1780–5), Otto March (interior reshape 1905), Manfred Prasser, Roland Steiger and Uwe Karl (reconstruction 1977–81)|
|Completed||1 March 1705, reconstruction 1981|
Französischer Dom (the term is German for "French Cathedral", but in the case of Gendarmenmarkt Dom refers to the French word for English "dome" and not to a cathedral. Neither church on Gendarmenmarkt was ever the church of a bishop. The terminology is a relic of francophone Frederick the Great, who was instrumental in enhancing Gendarmenmarkt) is the colloquial designation for the "French Church of Friedrichstadt" (French: Temple de la Friedrichstadt, German: Französische Friedrichstadtkirche) located in Berlin on the Gendarmenmarkt across from the Deutscher Dom (German Church), formerly a church of German-speaking congregants.
Louis Cayart and Abraham Quesnay built the first parts of the French Church from 1701 to 1705 for the Huguenot (Calvinist) community. At that time, Huguenots made up about 25% of Berlin's population. The French Church was modelled after the destroyed Huguenot temple in Charenton-Saint-Maurice, France.
In 1785 Carl von Gontard modified the church and built—wall to wall next to it—the domed tower, which, together with the French-speaking congregants, gave the church its name. The domed tower is technically not part of the church, there is no access between church and tower, and both buildings have different proprietors. It was built to embellish the Gendarmenmarkt ensemble at the instigation of Frederick the Great. The Deutscher Dom, however, on the other side of Gendarmenmarkt, consists of church building and tower as an entity.
In 1817 the French Church community, like most Prussian Calvinist, Reformed and Lutheran congregations joined the common umbrella organisation named the Evangelical Church in Prussia (under this name since 1821), with each congregation maintaining its former denomination or adopting the new united denomination. The community of the "French Church of Friedrichstadt" maintained its Calvinist denomination.
Nevertheless, already before the union of the Prussian Protestants the congregation underwent a certain acculturation with Lutheran traditions: An organ was installed in 1753, competing with the Calvinist traditional of only singing without instrumental accompaniment. The singing of psalms was extended by hymns in 1791. The sober interior was refurbished in a more decorative but still Calvinist aniconistic style by Otto March in 1905. The organ has been played by Thomas Hawkes[who?], among others. Today's community is part of the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia.
The Französischer Dom was heavily damaged in World War II, then re-built from 1977 to 1981. Today it is not only used by its congregations, but also for conventions by the Evangelical Church in Germany.
The domed tower, which is a viewing platform open to visitors, provides a panoramic view of Berlin. A restaurant is located in the basement underneath the prayer hall. The tower also contains the Huguenot museum of Berlin.
War-destroyed Französischer Dom tower and damaged actual prayer hall with the destroyed Schauspielhaus (left), photo of 4 October 1951.
Cathedral during Festival of Lights
- Sibylle Badstübner-Gröger, "Der hugenottische Kirchenbau in Berlin und Potsdam", in: Hugenotten in Berlin, Gottfried Bregulla (ed.), Berlin: Union Verlag, 1988, pp. 133-176, here p. 150. ISBN 3-372-00077-3
- Margarete Welge, "Die Französische Kirche zu Berlin", in: Hugenotten in Berlin, Gottfried Bregulla (ed.), Berlin: Union Verlag, 1988, pp. 88-132, here p. 115. ISBN 3-372-00077-3
- Werner Gahrig, Unterwegs zu den Hugenotten in Berlin. Historische Spaziergänge, Institut für vergleichende Staat-Kirche-Forschung (ed.), 2nd, ext., and corr. ed., Berlin: Das Neue Berlin (edition ost), 2000, p. 163. ISBN 3-360-01013-2
- Ingrid Bartmann-Kompa, Horst Büttner, Horst Drescher, Joachim Fait, Marina Flügge, Gerda Herrmann, Ilse Schröder, Helmut Spielmann, Christa Stepansky, and Heinrich Trost, Die Bau- und Kunstdenkmale in der DDR: Hauptstadt Berlin: 2 parts, Institut für Denkmalpflege (ed.) (11983), Berlin: Henschelverlag Kunst und Gesellschaft, 21984, part I, p. 218.
- Französische Dom - official site (German)
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