Frequency-hopping spread spectrum
Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) is a method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly changing the carrier frequency among many distinct frequencies occupying a large spectral band. The changes are controlled by a code known to both transmitter and receiver. FHSS is used to avoid interference, to prevent eavesdropping, and to enable code-division multiple access (CDMA) communications.
The available frequency band is divided into smaller sub-bands. Signals rapidly change ("hop") their carrier frequencies among the center frequencies of these sub-bands in a predetermined order. Interference at a specific frequency will only affect the signal during a short interval.
FHSS offers three main advantages over a fixed-frequency transmission:
- FHSS signals are highly resistant to narrowband interference because the signal hops to a different frequency band.
- Signals are difficult to intercept if the frequency-hopping pattern is not known.
- Jamming is also difficult if the pattern is unknown; a malicious individual may only jam the signal for a single hopping period if the spreading sequence is unknown.
- FHSS transmissions can share a frequency band with many types of conventional transmissions with minimal mutual interference. FHSS signals add minimal interference to narrowband communications, and vice versa.
Spread-spectrum signals are highly resistant to deliberate jamming, unless the adversary has knowledge of the frequency-hopping pattern. Military radios generate the frequency-hopping pattern under the control of a secret Transmission Security Key (TRANSEC) that the sender and receiver share in advance. This key is generated by devices such as the KY-57 Speech Security Equipment. United States military radios that use frequency hopping include the JTIDS/MIDS family, the HAVE QUICK Aeronautical Mobile communications system, and the SINCGARS Combat Net Radio, Link-16.
In the US, since the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) amended rules to allow FHSS systems in the unregulated 2.4 GHz band, many consumer devices in that band have employed various FHSS modes. eFCC CFR 47 part 15.247 covers the regulations in the US for 902–928 MHz, 2400–2483.5 MHz, and 5725–5850 MHz bands, and the requirements for frequency hopping 
Some walkie-talkies that employ FHSS technology have been developed for unlicensed use on the 900 MHz band. FHSS technology is also used in many hobby radio-controlled transmitters and receivers used for model cars, airplanes, and drones. A type of multiple access is achieved allowing hundreds of transmitter/receiver pairs to be operated simultaneously on the same band in contrast to previous FM or AM radio-controlled systems that had limited simultaneous channels.
The overall bandwidth required for frequency hopping is much wider than that required to transmit the same information using only one carrier frequency. However, because transmission occurs only on a small portion of this bandwidth at any given time, the instantaneous interference bandwidth is really the same. While providing no extra protection against wideband thermal noise, the frequency-hopping approach reduces the degradation caused by narrowband interference sources.
One of the challenges of frequency-hopping systems is to synchronize the transmitter and receiver. One approach is to have a guarantee that the transmitter will use all the channels in a fixed period of time. The receiver can then find the transmitter by picking a random channel and listening for valid data on that channel. The transmitter's data is identified by a special sequence of data that is unlikely to occur over the segment of data for this channel, and the segment can also have a checksum for integrity checking and further identification. The transmitter and receiver can use fixed tables of frequency-hopping patterns, so that once synchronized they can maintain communication by following the table.
In the US, FCC part 15 on unlicensed spread spectrum systems in the 902–928 MHz and 2.4 GHz bands permits more power than is allowed for non-spread-spectrum systems. Both FHSS and direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) systems can transmit at 1 watt, a thousand-fold increase from the 1 milliwatt limit on non-spread-spectrum systems. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) also prescribes a minimum number of frequency channels and a maximum dwell time for each channel.
The earliest mentions of frequency hopping in open literature are in US patent 725,605 awarded to Nikola Tesla on March 17, 1903 and in radio pioneer Jonathan Zenneck's book Wireless Telegraphy (German, 1908, English translation McGraw Hill, 1915), although Zenneck himself states that Telefunken had already tried it. Nikola Tesla doesn't mention the phrase “frequency hopping” directly, but certainly alludes to it. Entitled Method of Signaling, the patent describes a system that would enable radio communication without any danger of the signals or messages being disturbed, intercepted, interfered with in any way.
The German military made limited use of frequency hopping for communication between fixed command points in World War I to prevent eavesdropping by British forces, who did not have the technology to follow the sequence. Jonathan Zenneck's book Wireless Telegraphy was originally published in German in 1908, but was also translated into English in 1915 as the enemy started using frequency hopping on the front line. Zenneck was a German physicist and electrical engineer who had become interested in radio by attending Tesla lectures on “wireless sciences”. Wireless Telegraphy includes a section on frequency hopping, and, as it became a standard text for many years, it probably introduced the technology to a generation of engineers.
A Polish engineer and inventor, Leonard Danilewicz, came up with the idea in 1929. Several other patents were taken out in the 1930s, including one by Willem Broertjes (U.S. Patent 1,869,659, issued Aug. 2, 1932).
During World War II, the US Army Signal Corps was inventing a communication system called SIGSALY, which incorporated spread spectrum in a single frequency context. However, SIGSALY was a top-secret communications system, so its existence did not become known until the 1980s.
In 1942 actress Hedy Lamarr and composer George Antheil received U.S. Patent 2,292,387 for their "Secret Communications System" an early version of frequency hopping using a piano-roll to change among 88 frequencies to make radio-guided torpedoes harder for enemies to detect or to jam, it was rejected by the US Navy then seized as 'alien property' in 1942 (Hedy was Austrian) but filed away with no record of a working device being produced. Lamarr and Antheil's idea was rediscovered in the 1950s during patent searches when private companies were independently developing direct-sequence Code Division Multiple Access, a non-frequency-hopping form of spread-spectrum, and has been cited numerous times since. In 1957 engineers at Sylvania Electronic Systems Division adopted the patented concept, combined with the recently invented transistor. and in 1962 the US Navy finally utilised the technology during the Cuban Missile Crisis, Lamarr and Antheil's patent had since expired. 
A practical application of frequency hopping was developed by Ray Zinn, co-founder of Micrel Corporation. Zinn developed a method allowing radio devices to operate without the need to synchronize a receiver with a transmitter. Using frequency hopping and sweep modes, Zinn's method is primarily applied in low data rate wireless applications such as utility metering, machine and equipment monitoring and metering, and remote control. In 2006 Zinn received U.S. Patent 6,996,399 for his "Wireless device and method using frequency hopping and sweep modes."
Adaptive frequency-hopping spread spectrum (AFH) as used in Bluetooth improves resistance to radio frequency interference by avoiding crowded frequencies in the hopping sequence. This sort of adaptive transmission is easier to implement with FHSS than with DSSS.
The key idea behind AFH is to use only the “good” frequencies, by avoiding the "bad" frequency channels—perhaps those "bad" frequency channels are experiencing frequency selective fading, or perhaps some third party is trying to communicate on those bands, or perhaps those bands are being actively jammed. Therefore, AFH should be complemented by a mechanism for detecting good/bad channels.
However, if the radio frequency interference is itself dynamic, then the strategy of “bad channel removal”, applied in AFH might not work well. For example, if there are several colocated frequency-hopping networks (as Bluetooth Piconet), then they are mutually interfering and the strategy of AFH fails to avoid this interference.
The problem of dynamic interference, gradual reduction of available hopping channels and backward compatibility with legacy bluetooth devices was resolved in version 1.2 of the Bluetooth Standard (2003). Such a situation can often happen in the scenarios that use unlicensed spectrum.
Chirp modulation can be seen as a form of frequency-hopping that simply scans through the available frequencies in consecutive order to communicate.
Frequency hopping can be superimposed on other modulations or waveforms to enhance the system performance.
- Dynamic frequency hopping
- List of multiple discoveries
- Maximum length sequence
- Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing
- Radio frequency sweep
- Torrieri, Don (2018). Principles of Spread-Spectrum Communication Systems, 4th ed.
- "47 CFR § 15.247 - Operation within the bands 902–928 MHz, 2400–2483.5 MHz, and 5725–5850 MHz". LII / Legal Information Institute. law.cornell.edu. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
- Kahn, David (2014). How I Discovered World War II's Greatest Spy and Other Stories of Intelligence and Code. Auerbach Publications. p. 158. ISBN 9781466561991.
- eetimes.com: A short history of spread spectrum
- Denis Winter, Haig's Command - A Reassessment
- Danilewicz later recalled: "In 1929 we proposed to the General Staff a device of my design for secret radio telegraphy which fortunately did not win acceptance, as it was a truly barbaric idea consisting in constant changes of transmitter frequency. The commission did, however, see fit to grant me 5,000 złotych for executing a model and as encouragement to further work." Cited in Władysław Kozaczuk, Enigma: How the German Machine Cipher Was Broken, and How It Was Read by the Allies in World War II, 1984, p. 27.
- "June 1941: Hedy Lamarr and George Antheil submit patent for radio frequency hopping". APS News. Vol. 20 no. 6. June 2011.
- Wenner, Melinda (June 3, 2008). "Hedy Lamarr: Not just a pretty face". Scientific American.
- Commissariat, Tushna (August 1, 2018). "A tale of two lives". Physics World.