Frost damage (construction)

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Frost damage is caused by moisture freezing in the construction. Frost damage can occur as cracks, stone splinters and swelling of the material.

When water freezes, the volume of water increases by 9%. When the volumetric moisture content exceeds 91%, than the volume increase of water in the pores of the material caused by freezing cannot be absorbed by sufficient empty pores. This causes an increase in the internal pressure. If this pressure exceeds the tensile strength of the material, than micro cracks occur. Visible frost damage occurs after an accumulation of micro cracks as a result of several freeze-thaw-cycles.[1][2]

Frost damage can be prevented by the use of frost proof materials, i.e. a material which has sufficient closed pores, by which the volume increase caused by the freezing of water in capillary pores can be absorbed by the ice-free closed pores.[3]

Sources[edit]

Sources

  • G.W. Scherer: Internal stress and cracking in stone and masonry; M.S. Konsta-Gdoutos, (ed.), Measuring, Monitoring and Modeling Concrete Properties, 633-641; 2006.
  • T.A. Pakkala, A. Köliö, J. Lahdensivu en M. Kiviste: Durability demands related to frost attack for Finnish concrete buildings; Building and Environment 82; 2014.
  • M.A.P van Aarle: Hygrothermische simulatie van vorstschade in metselwerk: Effecten van klimaatverandering; Eindhoven University of Technology; 2013.
  • A.J.P.M. Goesten: Hygrothermal simulation model: Damage as a result of insulating historical buildings; Eindhoven University of Technology; 2016.
  • T. ter Bekke: Vochttransport in monumentaal metselwerk; Eindhoven University of Technology; 2001.

References

  1. ^ G.W. Scherer: Internal stress and cracking in stone and masonry; M.S. Konsta-Gdoutos, (ed.), Measuring, Monitoring and Modeling Concrete Properties, 633-641; 2006.
  2. ^ M.A.P van Aarle: Hygrothermische simulatie van vorstschade in metselwerk: Effecten van klimaatverandering; Eindhoven University of Technology; 2013.
  3. ^ T.A. Pakkala, A. Köliö, J. Lahdensivu en M. Kiviste: Durability demands related to frost attack for Finnish concrete buildings; Building and Environment 82; 2014.