Gang of Barbarians

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The Gang of Barbarians (French: Gang des barbares) was a French criminal gang whose members were responsible for the kidnapping, torture and killing of Ilan Halimi.

Kidnappers and associates[edit]

The crime was committed by a group of persons belonging to a gang calling themselves les barbares (The Barbarians). Many of them have criminal records and have been imprisoned.

During the investigation it appeared that key members of the group were probably implicated in at least 15 other cases of kidnapping or racketeering.[1] Posing as members of the National Front for the Liberation of Corsica or members of the French division of the PFLP, they threatened several high-ranking CEOs including Jérôme Clément, president of the European TV operator Arte, Rony Brauman, former president and co-founder of Médecins Sans Frontières, and the CEO as well as another high-ranking member of a large company selling home appliances. They sent threatening pictures of an unknown man dressed as a middle-eastern Arab in front of a picture of Osama Bin Laden. In another case, the owner of a large grocery store was directed to pay 100,000 euros.

In total, 27 individuals were under investigation and were subsequently put on trial. Among these:

  • Youssouf Fofana (August 2, 1980), the self-proclaimed Brain of the Barbarians. He was born in Paris to immigrants from Côte d'Ivoire and served time in prison for various crimes including armed robbery, car theft and resisting arrest.[2] In an interview he denied killing Halimi, but showed no remorse for his actions.[3]
  • Christophe Martin-Vallet, nicknamed Moko, a French man originally from Martinique, specializing in computers. He appears to have masterminded the kidnapping and to have been the lieutenant of Fofana.[4]
He is suspected of other kidnappings and was responsible for the honeypot activities of the girls.[5]
  • Jean-Christophe Soumbou, also known as Craps, Crim or Marc. Fellow inmate of Fofana. Imprisoned for car theft with violence. Supplied the car with which Halimi was transported. He is also suspected of other kidnappings.
  • Jean-Christophe Gavarin, usually known as JC or by his nickname Zigo, one of the individuals who tortured Halimi.[4] He was a minor at the time of the crime. He had been expelled from school and had been involved with the law because of a theft and possession of cannabis. He has admitted to pushing a burning joint in the face of Halimi.
  • Samir Aït Abdelmalek, nicknamed Smiler, who was the owner of the apartment and is considered the right-hand man of Fofana (he had known Fofana for more than ten years). Had been convicted for possession of drugs and car theft. He also furnished the acid used to burn Halimi.
  • Jérémy Pastisson involved in a number of kidnapping cases, his car was used to transport Halimi.
  • Tiffenn Gouret, former girlfriend of Jean-Christophe Gavarin and friend of Arbabzadeh, supplied Fonfana with "bait". She is also suspected in other kidnappings.
  • Sorour Arbabzadeh nicknamed Yalda (also known as "Emma"), a seventeen-year-old French-Iranian girl who acted as appât (bait, honeypot) to entrap Halimi.[6]
  • Sabrina Fontaine, was used as bait in other kidnapping cases.
  • Audrey Lorleach, nicknamed Léa or Natacha, young student who was used as bait. She turned herself in and served 9 months in prison.

Others who were implicated:

  • Gilles Serrurier (1967), nicknamed the concierge,[7][8] was the caretaker of the apartment building to which Halimi was taken and who lent the gang the apartment and cellar in which they held and tortured Halimi.[4]
  • Yahia Touré Kaba, nicknamed Yaks, one of the jailers (gaolers).
  • Fabrice Polygone, one of the jailers (gaolers).
  • Jérôme Ribeiro, known as Coup de Tête (headbutt). Although he had left the group, he was promised a lot of money. One of the jailers (gaolers).
  • Guiri Oussivo N'Gazi and Francis Oussivo N'Gazi, friends of Ribeiro who acted as one of the jailers (gaolers).
  • Nabil Moustafa, known as Bilna, pizza delivery man, one of the jailers (gaolers).
  • Cédric Birot Saint-Yves, known as Babas, friend of Nabil Moustafa, one of the jailers (gaolers).

Many others were implicated but their direct connection to the crime could not be proven.

Similar assault[edit]

On February 22, 2008, six members of a group calling themselves Barbarians assaulted 19-year-old Mathieu Roumi in the same Paris suburb of Bagneux where Halimi was kidnapped. For two hours the attackers tortured the young man. One shoved cigarette butts into his mouth, another took issue with Roumi's Jewish origin (paternal), grabbed correction fluid and scrawled sale juif ("dirty Jew") and sale PD ("dirty faggot") on his forehead.[9] When the issue of his sexual orientation arose, one of them placed a condom on the tip of a stick and shoved it in Roumi's mouth. The six men proceeded to scream at him and threaten that he would die the way Halimi did.[10] The men were all arrested.

Kidnapping and investigation[edit]

The kidnapping seems to be motivated by a combination of antisemitism and a desire for money. Although the torture was largely directed at his genitals, there was no evidence of sexual assault or a sexual motive.


The kidnappers originally thought Halimi was wealthy because he came from a Moroccan Jewish family, though he came from the same poor and working-class neighborhood on the outskirts of Paris as the kidnappers did.[11][12][13] According to then Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy, members of the gang confessed that they believed all Jews to be rich and it motivated them to target several Jews.[14]

The kidnappers demanded ransom, initially EUR 450,000, eventually decreasing to EUR 5,000. It has been claimed that the family of Halimi was told that if they could not raise the money, they should get it from the Jewish community.

In order to convince Halimi's parents their son had been kidnapped, the abductors sent a picture of the young man being threatened by a gun and holding a newspaper to prove the date and time.[15]

Police investigation[edit]

The French police were heavily criticized because they initially believed that antisemitism was not a factor in the crime.[11] Police have attributed to the banlieues' gang subculture a "poisonous mentality that designates Jews as enemies along with other 'outsiders,'" such as Americans, mainstream French, and Europeans in general. "If they could have gotten their hands on a (non-Jewish) French cop in the same way, they probably would have done the same thing," a retired police chief opined.[16] This may have hampered the original investigation. Antisemitism is an aggravating circumstance (circonstance aggravante) in a murder case in France.

Ruth Halimi, Ilan's mother, subsequently co-authored a book with Émilie Frèche titled 24 jours: la vérité sur la mort d'Ilan Halimi, released April 2009. In the book, Ruth claimed that French police never suspected her son's kidnappers would kill the 23-year-old after three weeks in captivity in 2006, partly because they would not face the antisemitic character of the crime (as reported in the French daily Le Figaro). Émilie Frèche stated that "by denying the anti-semitic character, ... [the police] did not figure out the profile of the gang." The book details how Ilan's parents were told to stay silent during the ordeal and were ordered not to seek aid in order to pay the ransom, nor show their son's photo to people who might have come forward with information about his whereabouts.[17]

In an interview with Elle Magazine on March 27, 2009, Ruth Halimi stated that "The police were completely off the mark. They thought they were dealing with classic bandits, but these people were beyond the norm." Halimi stated that she wrote the book to "alert public opinion to the danger of anti-semitism which has returned in other forms, so that a story like this can never happen again".[17]

Public interest and reaction[edit]

The case was widely reported on both in and outside France.


Then French prime minister, Dominique de Villepin declared that the "odious crime"[18] was antisemitic, and that antisemitism is not acceptable in France.[19]

Six French associations called for a mass demonstration against racism and antisemitism in Paris on Sunday, February 26. Between 33,000 (as estimated by police) and 80,000 to 200,000 (as estimated by the organizers) people participated in Paris, as well as thousands around the country. Present were public figures such as Philippe Douste-Blazy, François Hollande, Lionel Jospin and Nicolas Sarkozy. Also among the participants were Dalil Boubakeur, head of the Paris Mosque and Chairman of the Council of Muslims in France, and Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger.[20] Right-wing politician Philippe de Villiers was booed by far-left militants and had to leave under police guard.[21]

Outside France[edit]

On May 9, the United States Helsinki Commission held a briefing titled "Tools for Combatting Anti-Semitism: Police Training and Holocaust Education" chaired by Commission Co-Chairman Chris Smith (a Republican representative) who said: "[Halimi's] tragedy made brutally clear that Jews are still attacked because they are Jews, and that our work to eradicate all forms of anti-Semitism in all its ugly forms and manifestations is far from done."[22]


A number of books have been written about the case. Among them:

  • 24 jours: la vérité sur la mort d'Ilan Halimi; Ruth Halimi and Émily Frèche; Éditions du Seuil; April 2009; ISBN 978-2-02-091028-6
  • Si c'est un Juif : Réflexions sur la mort d'Ilan Halimi ; Adrien Barrot; Editions Michalon; January 2007; ISBN 978-2-84186-364-8
  • Ilan Halimi, le canari dans la mine : Comment en est-on arrivé là ?; Yaël König et al; Editions Yago; June 2009; ISBN 978-2-916209-70-8
  • Des Barbares Dans la Cité. Reflexions Autour du Meurtre d'Ilan Halimi; David Mascré; Éditions de l'Infini; April 2009; ISBN 978-2-918011-05-7

2009 trial[edit]

The trial, which started on April 29, 2009, was conducted behind closed doors because two of the suspects were minors.[23]

The Halimi family wanted the trial to be conducted openly.[24] Francis Szpiner spoke for Ruth Halimi, saying, A public trial would have helped [people] better understand the criminal machine, to make parents and teenagers reflect. It's the law of silence that killed her son, it would be unbearable for the trial to remain silent.

The trial took 10 weeks.

Incidents during and around the trial[edit]

  • A number of videos with Fonfana appeared on YouTube.
  • Fofana appeared in court wearing a white T-shirt, smiling, pointing to heaven and saying Allāhu Akbar. He claimed he had nothing to say and would be silent to the grave. When asked his name and date of birth he answered: Je m'appelle arabe, africaine révolte armée barbare salafiste. Je suis né le 13 février 2006 à Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois. (My name is arab, armed african rebellion salafist barbarian army and I was born on February 13, 2006 in Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois: the date and place Ilan Halimi was found).
  • Fofana threw a shoe at the empty benches and again when he was taken down, shouting All the Jews in the world are there [in the empty box], they are my enemies. This is an Arab attack with a booby-trapped shoe![25]
  • Fofana claimed in court that he had friends who would "take pictures to identify people." Francis Szpiner, lawyer for the Halimi family, believed that Fofana was alluding to the jurors, and was implying that he was going to put a price on their heads.[26]

Verdict and sentencing[edit]

On the evening of Friday, July 10, 2009, the verdict was handed down.[27] Ilan Halimi's mother and others were absent from the court, as the Sabbath had already started.

Of the 27 people on trial, 3 were acquitted.

Name Request Sentence Parole Appeal
Fofana, Youssouf
22 years
Soumbou, Jean-Christophe
20 years
18 years
Aït-Abdelmalek, Samir
20 years
15 years
Gavarin, Jean-Christophe
15 years
15 years
Moustafa, Nabil
13 years
13 years
Birot Saint-Yves, Cédric
12 years
11 years
Polygone, Fabrice
12 years
11 years
Touré Kaba, Yayia
12 years
11 years
Ribeiro, Jérôme
12 years
10 years
Arbabzadeh, Sorour
10–12 years
9 years
Gouret, Tiffenn
10 years
9 years
Serrurier, Gilles
10 years
9 years
Martin-Vallet, Christophe
8–10 years
10 years
Louise, Franco
8–10 years
5 years
Oussivo N'Gazi, Francis
6–8 years
7 years
Oussivo N'Gazi, Guiri
5–7 years
6 years
Pastisson, Jérémy
5–7 years
3 years
Fontaine, Sabrina
5 years
3 years
Lorleach, Audrey
3 years, 20 months suspended
2 years, 16 months suspended

A number of others, whose implication was not direct, or related to other activities of the gang, received smaller sentences. Three persons were acquitted. Notable is that one person, for whom originally no sentence was asked, received a suspended sentence.

After the trial[edit]

Sorour Arbabzadeh, the then-17-year-old French-Iranian girl who acted as bait to trap Halimi, was sentenced to 9 years imprisonment.[28] While serving her sentence in the Versailles women's prison, she seduced a guard and the director of the prison, Florent Gonçalves, who is now imprisoned himself.[29] For this she was sentenced to four months imprisonment.

2010 retrial[edit]

The sentences issued after the first trial were criticized as too lenient by some parties, while others such as the attorney general Philippe Bilger found the sentences "exemplary".[30] Minister of Justice Michèle Alliot-Marie, demanded an appeal of 8 of the 17 heaviest verdicts.[31]

Richard Prasquier, president of CRIF, France's main Jewish organization, said that a law may soon be available that would preclude closed-door trials in this type of case.[32] "Perhaps in a year's time there will be a new trial, and perhaps it will be public."

A Halimi relative said: "The important thing for me is not handing out heavier jail terms, honestly. The important thing is to open this to the press and public and make it a learning experience."

The retrial was officially announced Monday July 10, 2009. It started on October 25, 2010, and ended on December 17, 2010, with all convictions upheld and time added to some sentences.[33]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "La police cherche encore des membres du gang". Le Figaro (in French). February 27, 2006. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
  2. ^ Steven Erlanger (July 11, 2009). "Man Sentenced to Life in Killing of Jew in France". The New York Times. p. A8. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  3. ^ "Fofana, la confession scandale". Le Figaro (in French). February 28, 2006. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
  4. ^ a b c Lévy, Alexandre (February 27, 2006). "La composition de la bande se précise, poursuite des interrogatoires de Fofana" [The composition of the band is clarified, pursuant to questioning Fofana]. Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 2008-12-30.
  5. ^ (in French) Article in Liberation, March 1, 2006
  6. ^ Campbell, Matthew (April 2, 2006). "Barbarians of suburbs target French Jews". World News. London: Times Online. Retrieved May 12, 2009.(subscription required)
  7. ^ His name was not published in the initial accounts
  8. ^ (in French) AFP, June 30, 2009
  9. ^ "La victime, ange ou démon?" [The victim, angel or demon?] (in French). BMFTV. March 6, 2008. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  10. ^ Daniel Ben Simon (March 5, 2008). "Jewish teen tortured in French town where Ilan Halimi was killed". Haaretz.
  11. ^ a b Bernard, Ariane; Craig S. Smith (February 23, 2006). "French Officials Now Say Killing of Jew Was in Part a Hate Crime". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
  12. ^
  13. ^,7340,L-3515340,00.html Philippe Ovadia, the head of the Jewish community living in the very same lower-class area as the place where Halimi was held captive.
  14. ^ Naughton, Philippe (February 23, 2006). "Paris kidnap gang suspect arrested in Ivory Coast". The Times. London. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
  15. ^ Michel Gurfinkiel (February 22, 2006). "Tale of Torture and Murder Horrifies the Whole of France". The New York Sun. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  16. ^ Rotella, Sebastian; Achrene Sicakyuz (February 26, 2006). "Parisians Stare at the Evil Within". Los Angeles Times. pp. A–1. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
  17. ^ a b Devorah Lauter (April 2, 2009). "Murdered man's mother blames police". Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA). Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  18. ^ Rotella, Sebastian (February 21, 2006). "Anti-Semitism Is Alleged in French Torture-Killing". Los Angeles Times. pp. A.3. Retrieved 2007-03-23.
  19. ^ Poller, Nidra (February 26, 2006). "The Murder of Ilan Halimi". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2006-02-26. Retrieved 2007-03-23.;
  20. ^ "March in Paris in Memory of Slain Jewish Youth on the EJC website". Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  21. ^ L'Express Archived October 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ "OSCE at 'Critical Point' in Fight Against Anti-Semitism; Helsinki Commission Briefing Details Initiatives to Combat Intolerance". SIP Trunking Report. Comtex Global News. May 12, 2006. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  23. ^ Articles 14 and 20 "Ordonnance n° 45-174 du 2 février 1945 relative à l'enfance délinquante" [Ordinance No. 45-174 of 2 February 1945 on juvenile delinquency] (in French). July 12, 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  24. ^ Julien Konczaty,; Gonzalo Fuentes (October 22, 2010). "Affaire Halimi: "Il n'y a aucune justification au huis-clos"" [Halimi case: "There is no justification for closed session"]. l'Express (in French). Reuters.
  25. ^ Flore Galaud (June 11, 2009). "Fofana expulsé de son procès après un lancer de chaussures" [Fofana expelled from his trial after a shoe throwing]. Le Figaro (in French). AFP. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  26. ^ "Family of Slain French Jew Walks Out of Murder Trial". Fox News. Associated Press. April 30, 2009. Retrieved May 12, 2009.
  27. ^ . European Jewish Press Archived from the original on February 20, 2012. The verdict was handed down late on Friday as Shabbat already started — by nine judges and a nine-member jury Missing or empty |title= (help)
  28. ^ Patricia Tourancheau (July 11, 2009). "Peine maximale pour le cerveau du "gang des barbares"" [Maximum penalty for the brains of "gang of barbarians"]. Libération (in French). Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  29. ^ "In France, Ex-Warden Jailed For Affair With Infamous "Femme Fatale" Inmate". World Crunch. February 16, 2012.
  30. ^ Jérôme Bouin (July 12, 2009). "Affaire Halimi: un verdict qui ne passe pas" [Halimi Case: A verdict that does not pass [i.e. fails]]. Le Figaro (in French). Associated Press and AFP. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  31. ^ ""Gang des barbares": peines alourdies requises en appel" ["Gang of Barbarians" burdened penalties required appeal]. Le Parisien (in French). December 9, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  32. ^ Brett Kline (July 16, 2009). "Trials and Tribulations". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  33. ^ "France: Convictions Upheld in Killing of French Jew". The New York Times. Associated Press. December 17, 2010. p. A9. Retrieved 2010-12-17.

External links[edit]

Media reports[edit]

In English[edit]

In French[edit]