Garfield Thomas Haywood

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Garfield Thomas Haywood
Born(1880-07-15)July 15, 1880
Greencastle, Indiana, USA
Died(1931-04-12)April 12, 1931
ChurchChrist Temple
Offices held
1917 Field Superintendent, PAW 1925 Presiding Bishop of the PAW

Garfield Thomas Haywood (July 15, 1880 – April 12, 1931) was an African-American pastor and songwriter who served as Presiding Bishop of the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World from 1925 to 1931.[1]

Early life[edit]

Haywood was born to Bennett and Pennyann Haywood in Greencastle, Indiana, in 1880 and moved to Haughville, a neighborhood in Indianapolis, at the age of three. As a child, he attended School 52 and then Shortridge High School. Haywood was employed by the Indianapolis Freeman and Indianapolis Recorder news papers as a cartoonist.[1]


In 1909, Haywood founded Christ Temple church.[1] Haywood's influence crossed ethnic boundaries,[2] and by 1913, Christ Temple had a bi-racial congregation of 400 to 500 which later grew to 1500.[3]

Around 1915, Haywood received a copy of Frank Ewart's paper Meat in Due Season which argued for Jesus' Name doctrine.[2] In response, Haywood invited the evangelist Glenn A. Cook to preach at Christ Temple, resulting in Haywood being re-baptized "In the Name of Jesus" and he in turn re-baptized 465 members of his congregation[4]. Thus facilitating the spread of Oneness Pentecostalism throughout Indiana.[2]

The third general council of the Assemblies of God convened in October 1915 and primary on the agenda was a debate on the merits of the new Jesus'-name doctrine vs the traditional trinitarian doctrine. Haywood and E. N. Bell spoke on behalf of the Jesus' Name doctrine and Collins and Jacob Miller spoke against. The result was a draw and it was agreed to readdress the topic at the fourth general council in October 1916. At the fourth general council a statement of faith was enacted which soundly rejected Jesus'-name doctrine causing just over one fourth of the ministers to leave the Assembles of God. In 1911 Haywood had become affiliated with the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World (PAW) and after his conversion helped convert the organization to Oneness Pentecostalism. Many of the former Assemblies of God ministers that left in 1916 formed the General Assembly of the Apostolic Assemblies which at the start of World War I merged with the PAW in order for its ministers to obtain noncombatant statues. The new and interracial organization appointed Haywood as its general chairman. By 1924 the PAW split on racial lines due to logistical and social problems created by Jim Crow laws and Haywood was appointed Bishop of the newly reorganized PAW.[5]

Haywood composed many gospel songs including "Jesus, the Son of God", "I See a Crimson Stream of Blood", and "Do All in Jesus’ Name". Many of his songs were published in The Bridegroom Songs, which was published by Christ Temple. His songs are known for Oneness Pentecostal themes.[6] Haywood was also an author and Oneness apologist. He wrote tracts, such as "The Victim of the Flaming Sword" and "The Finest of Wheat" as well as published The Voice in the Wilderness, a publication that became the official organ of the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World in 1925.[7]

Upon his death in 1931, Haywood was laid to rest in Crown Hill Cemetery[8]. In 1980, the city of Indianapolis designated the segment of Fall Creek Drive where Christ Temple is located as "Bishop Garfield T. Haywood Memorial Way" in his honor.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d Ray Boomhower "Haywood, Garfield Thomas" The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis 1994
  2. ^ a b c Ewart, Frank (1947). The Phenomenon of Pentecost. Hazelwood, MO: Word Aflame Press. ISBN 978-0-932581-91-4.
  3. ^ Being Bishop Garfield Thomas Haywood Retrieved 2010-1-1
  4. ^ "Church History Page". Christ Temple Apostolic Church. CS Kern. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  5. ^ Bernard, David (1999). A History of Christian Doctrine. Hazelwood, MO: Word Aflame Press. pp. 70–91. ISBN 1-56722-221-8.
  6. ^ Psalms and Hymns and Spiritual Songs: the Music of Early Oneness Believers Retrieved 2010-1-1
  7. ^ Pentecost in Print: Papers and Tracts from Pentecostal Pioneers Retrieved 2010-1-2
  8. ^ Garfield Thomas Haywood Retrieved 2010-1-2

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