Gastrotheca guentheri

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Gastrotheca guentheri
Gastrotheca guentheri (2).jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Hemiphractidae
Genus: Gastrotheca
Species: G. guentheri
Binomial name
Gastrotheca guentheri
(Boulenger, 1882)

Amphignathodon guentheri Boulenger, 1882[2]

Gastrotheca guentheri (common name: Guenther's marsupial frog, dentate marsupial frog) is a species of frog in the family Hemiphractidae. It is found in the Andes of Colombia (Cordillera Occidental and Colombian Massif) and Ecuador (Cordillera Occidental).[3][4][5] Gastrotheca guentheri is the only known frog with true teeth in both of its jaws,[2][6] as indicated by the name of the genus it originally typified, Amphignathodon, described by George Albert Boulenger in 1882.[2]


Gastrotheca guentheri is the only known frog with true teeth in its lower jaw.[2][6] Its teeth have re-evolved after being absent for over 200 million years, challenging Dollo's law.[6] Re-evolution of teeth in the lower jaw may have been made easier because the frogs have teeth in their upper jaw so there was already a biochemical pathway for developing teeth after 200 million years, unlike, say, birds.[7]

Males measure 68–78 mm (2.7–3.1 in) and females 70–82 mm (2.8–3.2 in) in snout–vent length.[4]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

Natural habitats of Gastrotheca guentheri are tropical moist forests. These frogs are nocturnal and live on vegetation, including arboreal bromeliads.[1]

This species is declining in abundance. One cause of the declines is habitat loss, but the species has also declined within suitable habitat in Ecuador, possibly because of climate change or chytridiomycosis.[1]


  1. ^ a b c Bolívar, W., Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Juan Manuel Renjifo (2004). "Gastrotheca guentheri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T55338A11295352. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d Boulenger, George Albert (1882). Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia s. Ecaudata in the collection of the British Museum (2 ed.). London: British Museum (Natural History). p. 450. 
  3. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Gastrotheca guentheri (Boulenger, 1882)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 
  4. ^ a b Coloma, L. A., Duellman, W. E. (2015). "Gastrotheca guentheri". Anfibios de Ecuador. Centro Jambatu, Fundación Otonga. Quito, Ecuador. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 
  5. ^ Acosta Galvis, A. R. & D. Cuentas (2016). "Gastrotheca guentheri (Boulenger, 1882)". Lista de los Anfibios de Colombia V.05.2015. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c Wiens, J. J. (2011). "Re-evolution of lost mandibular teeth in frogs after more than 200 million years, and re-evaluating Dollo's law". Evolution. 65 (5): 1283–1296. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01221.x. PMID 21521189. 
  7. ^ Sindya N. Bhanoo (8 February 2011). "A Frog Evolved to Regain the Teeth Its Ancestors Jettisoned". Retrieved 13 February 2011. 

External links[edit]