Gemella morbillorum

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Gemella morbillorum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Bacillales
Genus: Gemella
Species: G. morbillorum
Binomial name
Gemella morbillorum

Gemella morbillorum is a species of bacteria within the genus Gemella. It is a facultative anaerobic[1] Gram positive coccus usually preferring capnophilic or microaerophilic environments.[2] From its discovery in 1917 (by R. Tunnicliff) until 1988, it was known as Streptococcus morbillorum (and briefly as Peptostreptococcus morbillorum [3]). The name change followed closer examination with DNA filter hybridization (by Kilpper-Balz and Schleifer) which found it was very close to the species Gemella haemolysans.[4]

Pathogenicity[edit]

G. morbillorum is rarely a cause of disease in humans, though it may be found benignly in the oropharyngeal area. Infections, when found, are similar to viridans Streptococci in range. Cases have been reported of endovascular infections (predominantly endocarditis[5][6]) and also acute invasive infections. It has also been reported as among the most common bacteria present in teeth with cysts that do not resolve after repeated root canal treatments.[7]

A report of a human infection involving G. morbillorum in an Indian child was reported in 1999.[8]

Strains of this species are commonly resistant to penicillin.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Journal of Medical Microbiology (2009), 58, 1652–1656
  2. ^ Ruoff, Katheryn L. (2011). Aerococcus, Abiotrophia, and other Aerobic Catalase-Negative, Gram Positive Cocci in Manual of Clinical Microbiology 10th Ed. Washington DC: ASM Press. pp. 365–376. 
  3. ^ Romond, Ch. (March 1980). "The taxonomy of the peptococcaceae". Infection. 8 (S2): S153–S154. doi:10.1007/BF01639880. 
  4. ^ KILPPER-BaLZ, R.; SCHLEIFER, K. H. (1 October 1988). "Transfer of Streptococcus morbillorum to the Genus Gemella as Gemella morbillorum comb. nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 38 (4): 442–443. doi:10.1099/00207713-38-4-442. 
  5. ^ Zakir, R. M.; Al-Dehneh, A.; Dabu, L.; Kapila, R.; Saric, M. (7 October 2004). "Mitral Bioprosthetic Valve Endocarditis Caused by an Unusual Microorganism, Gemella morbillorum, in an Intravenous Drug User". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 42 (10): 4893–4896. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.10.4893-4896.2004. PMC 522326Freely accessible. PMID 15472375. 
  6. ^ Akiyama, Kazuya; Taniyasu, Naohito; Hirota, Jun; Iba, Yutaka; Maisawa, Kazuma (2001). "Recurrent Aortic Valve Endocarditis Caused by Gemella Morbillorum". Japanese Circulation Journal. 65 (11): 997–1000. doi:10.1253/jcj.65.997. 
  7. ^ Signoretti, FGC; Gomes, BPFA; Montagner, F; Jacinto, RC (2013). "Investigation of Cultivable Bacteria Isolated from Longstanding Retreatment-resistant Lesions of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis". Journal of Endodontics. 39: 1240–1244. doi:10.1016/j.joen.2013.06.018. 
  8. ^ http://indianpediatrics.net/dec-99/99-dec-12.htm
  9. ^ Vasishtha, S.; Isenberg, H. D.; Sood, S. K. (1 June 1996). "Gemella morbillorum asa Cause of Septic Shock". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 22 (6): 1084–1086. doi:10.1093/clinids/22.6.1084. 

External links[edit]