Geographic information retrieval

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Geographic information retrieval (GIR) or geographical information retrieval is the augmentation of information retrieval with geographic information. GIR aims at solving textual queries that include a geographic dimension, such as "What wars were fought in Greece?" or "restaurants in Beirut".[1] It is common in GIR to separate the text indexing and analysis from the geographic indexing. Semantic similarity and word-sense disambiguation are important components of GIR.[2] To identify place names, GIR often relies on gazetteers.

GIR architecture[edit]

GIR involves extracting and resolving the meaning of locations in unstructured text. This is known as Geoparsing. After identifying location references in text, a GIR system must index this information for search and retrieval. GIR systems can commonly be broken down into the following stages: GeoTagging, text and geographic indexing, data storage, geographic relevance ranking (with respect to a geographic query) and browsing results (commonly with a map interface).

GIR systems[edit]


In 2005 the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum added a geographic track, GeoCLEF. GeoCLEF was the first TREC style evaluation forum for GIR systems and provided participants a chance to compare systems.[4]


  1. ^ Purves, Ross; Jones, Christopher (2011-07-01). "Geographic Information Retrieval". SIGSPATIAL Special 3 (2): 2–4. doi:10.1145/2047296.2047297. ISSN 1946-7729. 
  2. ^ "The semantics of similarity in geographic information retrieval | Janowicz | Journal of Spatial Information Science". Retrieved 2015-09-12. 
  3. ^ Adams, Benjamin; McKenzie, Grant; Gahegan, Mark (2015-01-01). "Frankenplace: Interactive Thematic Mapping for Ad Hoc Exploratory Search". Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on World Wide Web. WWW '15 (Republic and Canton of Geneva, Switzerland: International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee): 12–22. ISBN 978-1-4503-3469-3. 
  4. ^ Gey, Fredric; Larson, Ray; Sanderson, Mark; Joho, Hideo; Clough, Paul; Petras, Vivien (2005-09-21). Peters, Carol; Gey, Fredric C.; Gonzalo, Julio; Müller, Henning; Jones, Gareth J. F.; Kluck, Michael; Magnini, Bernardo; Rijke, Maarten de, eds. GeoCLEF: The CLEF 2005 Cross-Language Geographic Information Retrieval Track Overview. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 908–919. doi:10.1007/11878773_101#page-1. ISBN 978-3-540-45697-1. 

See also[edit]