Georgios Papanikolaou

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Georgios Papanikolaou
Gnpapanikolaou.jpg
Born13 May 1883
Died19 February 1962(1962-02-19) (aged 78)
NationalityGreek
Alma materUniversity of Athens
University of Munich
Known forCytopathology
Pap smear
Spouse(s)
(m. 1910)
AwardsLasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award (1950)
Scientific career
FieldsPathologist
InstitutionsCornell University
New York Hospital

Georgios Nikolaou Papanikolaou (or George Papanicolaou /ˌpæpəˈnɪkəl/; Greek: Γεώργιος Ν. Παπανικολάου [papanikoˈlau]; 13 May 1883 – 19 February 1962) was a Greek physician who was a pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection, and inventor of the "Pap smear".

After studying medicine in Greece and Germany, he emigrated in 1913 to the United States. He first reported that uterine cancer cells could be detected in vaginal smears in 1928, but his work was not widely recognized until the 1940s. An extensive trial of his techniques was carried out in the early 1950s. In 1961, he was invited to the University of Miami to lead and develop the Papanicolaou Cancer Research Institute there.

Life[edit]

Papanikolaou's house in Kymi

Born in Kymi, Greece, Papanikolaou attended the University of Athens, where he studied literature, philosophy, languages and music. Urged by his father, he pursued a medical degree, which he received in 1904. Afterwards, he was conscripted into military service. When his obligation ended in 1906, he returned to Kymi to practice medicine with his father. In 1907, he began studying under Ernst Haeckel at the University of Jena for one semester before moving to University of Freiburg, where he was supervised by August Weismann. Again he left after one semester, this time to join University of Munich, from which he graduated with a doctoral degree in zoology in 1910.[1][2] Afterwards, Papanikolaou returned to Athens and married Andromachi Mavrogeni, who later became his laboratory assistant and research subject.[3][4][5] He then departed for Monaco, where he worked for the Oceanographic Institute of Monaco, participating in the Oceanographic Exploration Team of Prince Albert I of Monaco (1911).[6]

In 1913, he emigrated to the United States in order to work in the department of Pathology of New York Hospital and the Department of Anatomy at the Cornell Medical College of Cornell University.

He first reported that uterine cancer could be diagnosed by means of a vaginal smear in 1928, but the importance of his work was not recognized until the publication, together with Herbert Frederick Traut [de] (1894–1963), of Diagnosis of Uterine Cancer by the Vaginal Smear in 1943. The book discusses the preparation of vaginal and cervical smears, physiologic cytologic changes during the menstrual cycle, the effects of various pathological conditions, and the changes seen in the presence of cancer of the cervix and of the endometrium of the uterus. He thus became known for his invention of the Papanicolaou test, commonly known as the Pap smear or Pap test, which is used worldwide for the detection and prevention of cervical cancer and other cytologic diseases of the female reproductive system.

Papanicolaou was the recipient of the Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research in 1950.[7]

In 1961, he moved to Miami, Florida, to develop the Papanicolaou Cancer Research Institute[8][9][10] at the University of Miami, but died there on 19 February 1962[11][12] prior to its opening. His wife Andromachi "Mary" Papanikolaou continued his work at the Papanicolaou Cancer Research Institute after his death, and died in Miami in October 1982.

Discoveries[edit]

Pap test abnormal.

The fact that malignant cells could be seen under the microscope was first pointed out in a book on diseases of the lung, by Walter Hayle Walshe (1812–92), professor and physician to University College Hospital, London, in 1843. This fact was recounted by Papanikolaou.

In 1928, Papanikolaou told an incredulous audience of physicians about the noninvasive technique of gathering cellular debris from the lining of the vaginal tract and smearing it on a glass slide for microscopic examination as a way to identify cervical cancer. That year, he had undertaken a study of vaginal fluid in women, in hopes of observing cellular changes over the course of a menstrual cycle. In female guinea pigs, Papanicolaou had already noticed cell transformation and wanted to corroborate the phenomenon in human females. It happened that one of Papanicolaou's human subjects was suffering from uterine cancer.

Upon examination of a slide made from a smear of the patient's vaginal fluid, Papanicolaou discovered that abnormal cancer cells could be plainly observed under a microscope. "The first observation of cancer cells in the smear of the uterine cervix," he later wrote, "gave me one of the greatest thrills I ever experienced during my scientific career."

The Romanian physician Aurel Babeș made similar discoveries in the cytologic diagnosis of cervical cancer.[13] He discovered that if a platinum loop was used to collect cells from a woman's cervix, and the cells were then dried on a slide and stained, it could be determined if cancer cells were present. This was the first screening test to diagnose cervical and uterine cancer. Babeș presented his findings to the Romanian Society of Gynaecology in Bucharest on 23 January 1927. His method of cancer diagnosis was published in a French medical journal, La Presse Médicale, on 11 April 1928,[14] but it is unlikely that Papanicolaou was aware of it. Moreover, the two techniques are different in their design. Therefore, although Babeș's publication preceded Papanicolaou's, the design of the Pap test belongs to Papanicolaou since he had already tried it in 1925 in "Women's Hospital". Recent papers have proven that Babeș's method was different from Papanicolaou's and that the paternity of the Pap test belongs solely to Papanicolaou.[15] Despite this, it must be said that O'Dowd and Philipp[13] believe that Babeș was the true pioneer in the cytologic diagnosis of cervical cancer,[13] and in a spirit of recognition and fairness, in Romania, cervical testing is referred to as the Méthode Babeș-Papanicolaou in honor of Babeș.[16]

At a 1928 medical conference in Battle Creek, Michigan, Papanicolaou introduced his low-cost, easily performed screening test for early detection of cancerous and precancerous cells. However, this potential medical breakthrough was initially met with skepticism and resistance from the medical community. Papanicolaou's next communication on the subject did not appear until 1941 when, with gynecologist Herbert Traut, he published a paper on the diagnostic value of vaginal smears in carcinoma of the uterus.[17] This was followed two years later by an illustrated monograph based on a study of over 3,000 cases. In 1954, he published another memorable work, the Atlas of Exfoliative Cytology, thus creating the foundation of the modern medical specialty of cytopathology.

Commemorations[edit]

In 1978, Papanikolaou's work was honored by the U.S. Postal Service with a 13-cent stamp for early cancer detection.

Between 1995 and 2001, his portrait appeared on the obverse of the Greek 10,000-drachma banknote, until its replacement by the euro.[18]

On 13 May 2019, the 136th anniversary of his birth, a Google Doodle featuring Papanikolaou was shown in North America, parts of South America, and parts of Europe and Israel.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "George Nicholas Papanicolaou 1883-1962". www.healio.com. 25 February 2008. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  2. ^ Elgert, Paul A.; Gill, Gary W. (1 April 2009). "George N. Papanicolaou, MD, PhD: Cytopathology". Laboratory Medicine. 40 (4): 245–246. doi:10.1309/LMRRG5P22JMRRLCT. ISSN 0007-5027.
  3. ^ Vilos, George A. (March 1998). "The history of the Papanicolaou smear and the odyssey of George and Andromache Papanicolaou". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 91 (3): 479–483. doi:10.1016/s0029-7844(97)00695-9. ISSN 0029-7844. PMID 9491881.
  4. ^ Nikolaos Chatziantoniou (November–December 2014). "Lady Andromache (Mary) Papanicolaou: The Soul of Gynecological Cytopathology". Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology. 3 (6): 319–326. doi:10.1016/j.jasc.2014.08.004. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  5. ^ Crazedturkey (8 August 2012). "Medical History: Mrs. Papanicolaou". Medical History. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  6. ^ Marketos Spyros "Georgios Papanikolaou, History of Medicine of the 20th Century, Greek Pioneers". Zeta Publishers, Athens 2000
  7. ^ "Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award – 1950 Winners". Lasker Foundation. laskerfoundation.org. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2009.
  8. ^ "The Pap Corps' History".
  9. ^ "Director's report". Worldcat.org. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  10. ^ "Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center". umiamihealth.org.
  11. ^ "Famed Cancer Researcher Dies". The Times Record. 20 February 1962. p. 9. Retrieved 22 January 2015 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  12. ^ "Famed 'Dr. Pap' Taken by Death". Traverse City Record-Eagle. 20 February 1962. p. 6. Retrieved 22 January 2015 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  13. ^ a b c O'Dowd Michael J., Philipp Elliot E.. The History of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. London: Parthenon Publishing Group; 1994: 547
  14. ^ Babeș, Aurel (1928). "Diagnostic du cancer du col utérin par les frottis". La Presse Médicale. 29: 451–454.
  15. ^ Diamantis A, Magiorkinis E, Androutsos G. Different strokes: Pap-test and Babes method are not one and the same. Diagn Cytopathol. 2010 Nov; 38(11):857–59
  16. ^ Naylor, Bernard; Tasca, Luminița; Bartziota, Evangelina; Schneider, Volker (2001). "Cytopathology History: In Romania it's the Méthode Babeș-Papanicolaou". Acta Cytologica. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  17. ^ Papanicolaou GN, Traut HF. "The diagnostic value of vaginal smears in carcinoma of the uterus". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1941; 42:193.
  18. ^ Bank of Greece Archived 28 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Drachma Banknotes & Coins: 10,000 drachmas Archived 5 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Retrieved on 27 March 2009.
  19. ^ "Georgios Papanikolaou's 136th Birthday". Google. Retrieved 13 May 2019.

External links[edit]