Bray holds a B.A. McGill University and a MLitt and DLitt University of Paris-Sorbonne. He was librarian of Tyndale House, Cambridge from 1975 to 1978, when he was ordained in the Church of England and served in the parish of St Cedd, Canning Town (Diocese of Chelmsford) until 1980. From 1980 to 1992 he taught church history and doctrine at Oak Hill Theological College in London. From 1993 to 2006 he taught at Beeson Divinity School, where he is now a research professor. He is now also Distinguished Professor of Historical Theology at Knox Theological Seminary. He is the director of research at the Latimer Trust at Oak Hill Theological College in London.
He has written extensively on the history of the canon law of the Church of England, publishing two major works on the subject, The Anglican Canons 1529-1947 and Tudor Church Reform, both of which were sponsored by the Church of England Record Society. He also edited the Convocation records of the Churches of England and Ireland from the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century. Bray is also the editor of the Churchman academic journal.
His most important recent books are God is Love, a Biblical and Systematic Theology, published by Crossway (2012) and "God has spoken. A history of Christian theology", also published by Crossway in 2014.
Since then he has published "Augustine and the Christian Life" (Crossway, 2015), "The Church. A theological and historical account" (Baker, 2016) and an edition of the Books of Homilies of the Church of England (James Clarke, 2016). In 2017 he published a critical edition of the Procès-Verbal de l'Assemblée Générale du Clergé de France (1788),an important witness to the French pre-revolution that had lain half-forgotten in the Archives Nationales in Paris.
- Holiness and the Will of God: Perspectives on the Theology of Tertullian (1979)
- The Doctrine of God (Contours of Christian Theology) (1993)
- Biblical Interpretation: Past and Present (2000)
- God Under Fire (with Douglas S. Huffman, Eric L. Johnson, R. Douglas Geivett, Bruce A. Ware, Charles Gutenson, James S. Spiegel, Mark R. Talbot, William Lane Craig, Paul Helm, D. A. Carson, 2002)
- Always Reforming: Explorations in Systematic Theology (with Stephen Williams, Kevin J. Vanhoozer, Richard C. Gamble, Henri Blocher, Jr Richard B. Gaffin, Cornelis P. Venema, Derek W. H. Thomas, Andrew T. B. McGowan, John Frame, 2007)
- Creeds, Councils and Christ: Did the early Christians misrepresent Jesus? (2009)
- We Believe in One God (Ancient Christian Doctrine) (2009)
- The Faith We Confess: An Exposition of the Thirty-Nine Articles (2009)
- Translating the Bible: from William Tyndale to King James (2010)
- Galatians, Ephesians (Reformation Commentary on Scripture: New Testament) (2011)
- The Deity of Christ (Theology in Community) (Christopher W. Morgan (ed.), Robert A. Peterson (ed.), Alan W. Gomes, J. Nelson Jennings, Andreas J. Kostenberger, Stephen J. Nichols, Raymond C. Ortlund Jr., Stephen J. Wellum, 2011)
- God Is Love: A Biblical and Systematic Theology (2012) ISBN 978-1433522697
- The Very Pure Word of God: The Book of Common Prayer as a Model of Biblical Liturgy (2012) Peter Adam (Author), Mark Burkill (Editor), Gerald L Bray (Editor) ISBN 978-1906327095
- The Kingdom of God (Theology in Community) (2012) Robert A. Peterson, Bruce K Christopher, W. Morgan ISBN 978-1433509186
- Why We Belong: Evangelical Unity and Denominational Diversity (2013) Anthony L. Chute (Author, Editor), Christopher W. Morgan (Author, Editor), Robert A. Peterson (Author, Editor), Gerald Bray (Contributor), Bryan Chapell (Contributor), David S. Dockery (Contributor), Timothy George (Contributor), Bryan D. Klaus (Contributor), Douglas A. Sweeney (Contributor), Timothy C. Tennent (Contributor) ISBN 978-1433514838
- Fallen (Theology in Community) (2013) Christopher W. Morgan (Author), Robert A. Peterson (Author), Gerald Bray (Author), David B. Calhoun (Author), D. A. Carson (Author), Bryan Chapell (Author), Paul R. House (Author), John W. Mahony (Author), Douglas J. Moo (Author), Sydney H. Page (Author) ISBN 978-1433522123
- Library of Congress Name Authority File retrieved 2013-07-03
- "Gerald L. Bray". Beeson Divinity School. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- Knox Theological Seminary instructors
- Latimer Trust official website, About
- "1997 Book Awards". Christianity Today. 28 April 1997. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- Churchman official website