Germanic personal names in Galicia

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Germanic names, inherited from the Suevi (who settled in Galicia and northern Portugal in 409 AD), Visigoths, Vandals, Franks and other Germanic peoples, were the most common Galician names during the early and high Middle Ages. This article deals with Germanic personal names recorded and used in Galicia, northern Portugal and its adjoining regions: territories of the kingdom of the Suebi during the early Middle Ages from its 409 settlement to the 12th century.

"(...) Igitur dum inter nos intemptio uertitur ad diuidendum mancipia de parentorum nostrorum Guntine et Rosule de neptos senatoris Siserici et Esmorice et de suos iermanos. Ideo que euenit in portione de filios Gunterodis, id est: Argiuitus, Gentibus, Tratiuigia, Recedrudi, Gaudiosus, Tequelo, Iulia, filios Stanildi, Sitiuidis, Gluscudilum, Framildi, Ruderigus, Sonobrida, Sabarigis, Argeleuba, Ostosia, Guntedrudia, Uitiza et Leuba, Guntildi, Iulia, Ragesindus, Sanildi cum sua filia Ermegundia, Seniorina, Uisteuerga, Sisulfus, Branderigus, Astruildi (...)"

Germanic and Latin names in a 10th-century Galician document.[1]

Germanic names[edit]

Old manuscript
Germanic personal names in a 961 Galician document: Mirellus, Viliefredus, Sedeges, Evenandus, Adolinus, Sedoni, Victimirus, Ermoygus and others, with some Latin and Christian names

Germanic names were the most common personal names in Galicia during the early and high Middle Ages, surpassing Christian and Roman names in number and popularity.[2] The names, primarily of East Germanic origin, were used by the Suebi, Goths, Vandals and Burgundians. With the names, the Galicians inherited the Germanic onomastic system; a person used one name (sometimes a nickname or alias), with no surname, occasionally adding a patronymic. More than 1,000 such names have been preserved in local records.[3] and in local toponyms.[4]

Many of the Germanic names were composite, with the second element usually a noun with the same gender of the bearer. Others were hypocorisms formed from a composite name or deriving from it.[5] Less frequently, a name was a noun or an adjective.

These names were transmitted to the Suevi with the usual Germanic rules of inheritance,[6] which were variations (passing one element of the name; Rechiar was the son of Rechila, who was the son of Hermeric) and alliteration (names beginning with the same sound; Maldras was the son of the nobleman Masila). Full names were later transmitted from grandfather to grandson (commemoration), following a trend common until the present in most of western Europe.

Adaptations[edit]

In addition to the conversion of many Germanic endings into Romance or Latin endings, the names had phonetic adaptations[7] such as the change of word stress from the first to the penultimate syllable, the conversion of most [þ] into [t] or [d] and the conversion of [h] into [k] before a consonant. [W] was initially preserved, although noted as [u] or [oy] before becoming [gw] (or, less commonly, [b]). These early inherited names underwent Western Romance and Galician changes from Latin, such as consonant lenition and palatalization. This contributed to a large number of variants in recorded names; Ostrofredus was recorded in Galicia as Ortofredus, Ostofredo, Ostouredus, Ostrofedone, Stobredo and Strofredo.[8]

Names used by the Suevi[edit]

The following names, used by the Suevi of Gallaecia during the fifth and sixth centuries, were recorded in chronicles, inscriptions and acts of local ecclesiastical councils: Hermericus, Heremigarius, Rechila, Rechiarius, Agriulfum, Maldras, Massila, Framta, Frumarius, Rechimundus, Remismundus, Veremundus, Chararici, Ariamirus, Ildericus, Theudomirus, Miro, Nitigisius, Uittimer, Anila, Remisol, Adoric, Eboricus, Siseguntia f, Audeca, Malaricus, Pantardus, Neufila, Hildemirus, Commundus, Ermaricus, Sunila, Becilla, Gardingus, Argiovitus, Gomedei, Rodomiro, Ermengontia f, Remisiwera f, Thuresmuda f, Suinthiliuba f.

Many of the names, used by kings such as Miro, Reckila and Theudemirus, were used for local toponyms: Mirón,[9] Requián, Requiás, Requiás and Receá,[10] Tuimil and Toimil.[11]

Roots[edit]

The following is a list of the roots used to form Germanic personal names in Galicia and northwestern Iberia. Many are related to war, victory, fame, boldness, strength and warlike qualities (bald-, funs-, hild-, gund-, nand-, rod-, seg-, send-), totemic animals (ar-, wulf-, ber-, ebur-) and weapons (brand-, bruni-, rand-, saru-); many others refer to knowledge, love and other peaceful qualities (fred-, leob-, mun-, ragi-, rad-, uin-). Some refer to the condition of ruler or master (fro-, ric-, vald-, Froya, Theodinus, Tructinus, Hendinus). Another group refers to the tribe, nation or country (conia-, fulc-, teod-, leod-, man-, truct-, gavi-, gogi-, kend-), and another appears to refer to Huns (Hun-), Suevi (Sav-), Goths (Gut-), Vandals (Vandal-), Celts (Vala-), Vendians/Slavs (Venet-), Galindians/Balths (Galind-), Franks (Frank-), Saxons (Sax-), Angles (Engl-), Danes (Dan-) and other peoples. Although some elements are identical to others found in Celtic anthroponymy (And-, Dag-, -mar, -riks), others appear to be adaptations of Latin words and names incorporated in the Danube region: Florens, Fortis, Crescens.

Forms marked with an asterisk are unrecorded and hypothetical. PGmc is an abbreviation for Proto-Germanic.

  • ab-, to PGmc *abōn[12] "man": Abbelinus
  • abr-, to PGmc *abraz "huge, strong": Abragasia, Abrecan, Abronilli
  • ad- (later a-, with no clear etymology): Adefonsus, Adegundia, Adeqisio, Aderedus, Aderico, Adesindus, Adica, Adiero, Adarius, Adila, Adileobo, Adileova, Adimirus, Adolinus, Adosinda
  • adal-, to PGmc *aþalaz "noble": Adala, Addalinus, Adegaster, Adelasindo, Atalamondo
  • agi-, egi- (later ei-), to PGmc *agez "fear" or *agjō "edge": Agimadus, Agio, Agiulfus, Aidio, Egeredus, Egica, Egila, Agila, Egildus, Agildus, Egilo, Ailo, Eigonza, Eileuva, Eilleus, Eimirus, Eindu, Eirigu, Eisindus, Haginus
  • agr- (no evident etymology): Agrivulfum, Agromirus
  • aist-, to PGmc *aistēn "to give reverence": Aistando
  • ala-, to PGmc *ala "all, wholly": Alaguntia, Alamiro, Alaricus, Alarius, Alatrudia, Alobrida, Aloindo, Aloitus, Alvarus
  • alb-, to PGmc *albaz "elf": Albiaster, Alvaricus, Alvatus
  • ald-, to PGmc *aldaz "old": Aldemirus, Aldereto, Aldericus, Aldia, Aldinus
  • aldr-, to Proto-Germani *aldran "age, life": Aldras, Aldroitus
  • ali-, to PGmc *aljaz "other": Alia, Alio, Aliaricus, Alifreda, Aliulfus, Aliverga, Alivergo, Aliverko, Aliverta, Alivertus, Alliefredus
  • am-, eim-, em-, en-, to PGmc *haimaz "dear": Amingus, Eimoricus, Emila, Emilo, Emiso, Enaredus, Engildus, Entrudi
  • amal-, to PGmc *amal- "valiant, brave": Amalilli
  • amed-, to PGmc *amitaz "continuous": Amedon, Amedeiro
  • an-, to PGmc *an- "forefather": Anagildus, Analsus, Anila, Anilo, Anualdus, Anulfo
  • and-, ant-, to PGmc *anda "throughout": Andeatus, Andericus, Andiarius, Andifonso, Andila, Andilevo, Andilo, Anditio, Ando, Andosindus, Andulfus, Antemirus
  • ans-, to PGmc *ansuz "god": Ansedeus, Ansemarus, Ansemirus, Ansemondus, Anseredo, Ansericus, Ansetrudia, Ansila, Ansileova, Ansilo, Ansiulphus, Ansiunda, Ansobrida, Ansoi, Anson, Ansuallo, Ansuario, Ansueto, Ansuildi, Ansvertus
  • aquis-, to PGmc *akwesiz "axe": Aquisilde
  • ar-, to PGmc *arnōn "eagle" or *arwaz "swift, ready": Aragunti, Arosinda, Arosindus, Arualdus, Aruildi, Arumundo
  • ard-, to PGmc *harduz "hard" or *arduz "land": Ardabastus, Ardericus, Ardaldus, Ardesendus, Ardilo, Ardulfus, Artemiro, Erdebredo
  • ari-, argi-, to PGmc *harjaz "army": Arebuldo, Argeberto, Argefonsus, Argemirus, Argemondo, Argenilli, Argeredus, Argericus, Argesindus, Argeva, Argevadus, Argevitus, Argifonsa, Argifredus, Argileuva, Argilo, Argioi, Argiuolus, Argivastro, Ariulfus
  • aria-, to PGmc arjaz "noble": Arias, Ariastre
  • arn-, to PGmc *arnuz "eagle": Arnadius, Arnaldus, Arnulfo
  • asc-, to PGmc *askaz "ash-tree": Ascarigus, Ascarius, Asculfo
  • ase-, to PGmc *haswaz "grey": Asemondus, Asileva, Asinoy, Asiulfus, Asofuda, Asoi, Asoredus
  • asp-, to PGmc *aspōn "aspen": Asparigus
  • ast-, to PGmc *astaz "branch" or *austaz "east": Astaguerra, Asterigo, Astileuva, Astredo, Astualdu, Astulfus
  • astr-, ostr-, obstr-, stor-, to PGmc *austraz "east": Astragis, Astragundia, Astramondus, Astratus, Astremarus, Astriverga, Astrogoto, Astruara, Astruario, Astruedu, Astruildi, Astrulfus, Obstrisinda, Ostamalus, Ostosia, Ostrofreda, Ostrofredo, Ostromirus, Astromirus, Estromirus, Storesindo
  • at- (later ad-) to PGmc *haþuz "war": Ataulfus, Atarius, Atericus, Aton
  • atan-, tan-, to PGmc *aþnaz "year": Atanagildus, Atanaricus, Atanus, Tanina, Tanino, Atanitus, Tano, Tanoi, Tenildi
  • att-, to PGmc *attōn "father": Atauldus, Attan, Attila, Attina
  • aud-, od-, to PGmc *audaz "wealth": Audeca, Audesinda, Audila, Audinus, Audibertus, Audofredo, Audugus, Ausendus, Oda, Odemundus, Odamirus, Odericus, Odisclus, Odorica, Odoynus, Oduarius, Otualdo
  • aur-, or-, to PGmc *auraz "sand, sea": Auresindus, Aurilli, Orosinda
  • aus-, os-, to PGmc *aus- "shining": Osoarius, Osobredus, Osmundo, Osoredo, Osorico, Ausarigus, Osoy, Ossila, Ozandus
  • bad- (later ba-), to PGmc *badwō "battle": Badamundus, Bademirus, Badila, Badosindus
  • bait-, to PGmc *baitaz "ship, boat": Baitus
  • bald-, balt-, to PGmc *balþaz "bold": Baldemarius, Baldemirus, Balderedo, Balderico, Baldesindo, Baldila, Baldoi, Baldoigius, Baltarius, Baltino, Balto
  • bar-, to PGmc *baraz "man": Barilli, Barsilli, Baron, Baroncellus, Baronza, Barvaldus
  • bat-, to PGmc *bataz "good": Bati, Batinus, Baton
  • baud-, to PGmc *baudiz "ruler": Baudemirus, Baudesindus
  • baz-, to PGmc *bazaz "naked": Bazarius
  • beg-, bag-, bec-, bac-, to PGmc *bēgaz "contest, quarrel": Baga, Bega, Becilla, Bagesindus, Becosindo, Bagina, Bagino, Baquina, Baquino, Begica, Pegito
  • ber-, to PGmc *berōn "bear": Bera, Bergundi, Berila, Berildi, Berosildi, Berilo, Berina, Berinus, Beroi, Berosindus, Berulfus
  • berg-, verg-, to PGmc *bergaz "shelter": Bergas, Bergila, Vergilli, Vergina, Virgia
  • bern-, to PGmc *bernuz "bear": Bernaldus
  • bert-, vert-, to PGmc *berhtaz "bright": Berta, Bertamirus, Bertarius, Bertinus, Berto, Bertosinda, Bertuara, Betrulfus, Bretenandus, Vertila
  • bett-, bitt- (no clear etymology): Betellus, Betericus, Bitilo, Bitto
  • bid-, to PGmc *bidō "request, prayer": Biddi, Bidualdus
  • bil-, bel-, to PGmc *bilaz "good" or *bīþlan "axe": Bela, Belavrida, Belesarius, Belestrio, Belfonsus, Bellengo, Bellerto, Bello, Belloy, Belmirus, Billa
  • bland- (no clear etymology): Blandila
  • bliv-, to PGmc *blēwaz "blue": Bliviaricus
  • bon-, to PGmc *bōniz "prayer, petition": Bonesindus, Bonilde, Bonimiro, Boninus, Boniza, Bonoi
  • bot-, but-, to PGmc *bōtō "good, profit": Botan, Butila
  • brand-, to PGmc *brandaz "fire, sword": Brandericus, Brandila, Brandinus, Brandiulfus, Brandon
  • brun-, to PGmc *brunjōn "breastplate": Brunildi
  • burgal-, to *Bulgar- "? Bulgarian": Burgala
  • ca-, to PGmc *ga- "with": Camundus
  • canut-, to PGmc *knūtaz "bold": Canuto
  • car-, kar-, to PGmc *karō "care": Karmirus
  • carl-, to PGmc *karlaz "man": Carlo
  • cart-, kart-, to PGmc *krattaz "cart, wagon": Cartinus, Cartemirus
  • cen-, to PGmc *kwenōn "woman": Cenabrida, Cenusenda
  • cend-, kend-, zend-, quint-, to PGmc *kenþan "child": Cendamiro, Cendas, Cendon, Kenderedus, Kendulfus, Kindiverga, Quintila, Quintilo, Zendasindo
  • cens-, zens-, possibly to PGmc *zinz "tribute" or *kwēniz "woman": Censerigus, Censoi, Zenzitus
  • conia-, to PGmc *kunjan "tribe, nation": Coniaricus
  • cresc-, possibly to Latin crescens "thrive": Crescemirus
  • criz-, to PGmc *krēsō "dainty, food": Crizila
  • dad-, ded-, to PGmc *dēdiz "deed": Dada, Dadila, Dadilo, Dadinus, Dado, Dede
  • dag-, dac-, to PGmc *dagaz "day": Dacamiro, Dacoi, Dagadrudia, Dacaredus, Dago, Daildus
  • dan-, da-, to PGmc *daniz "Dane": Damiro, Damondus, Danila
  • dest-, test-, possibly to Latin dexter "right, skilful": Destoy, Destericus, Desteilli
  • doc-, duc-, to PGmc *dōgiz "day": Docemiro, Ducila
  • dod- (no clear etymology): Dodo, Doda
  • dom-, to PGmc *dōmaz "judgement, ruling": Domerigo
  • dulc-, dolc-, to PGmc *dulgan "enmity", *dulgaz 'law, debt': Dulcemirus, Dolcemondus
  • ebr-, ebur-, evor-, to *eburaz "boar": Ebragundia, Ebreguldus, Ebregulfus, Ebrildi, Eburicus, Evorinus
  • elp-, to PGmc *helpō "help": Elperico
  • elpand-, to Germanic *elpandus "elephant": Elpandus
  • engl-, to PGmc *angilaz "Angles": Engladius
  • engo-, to PGmc *Ingwaz "a god": Engomirus, Engoredus, Engorigus
  • ens-, possibly to Latin ensis "sword": Ensalde, Iensericus
  • er-, her-, to PGmc *heruz "sword": Erifonsus, Eroigius, Eruulfus, Herus
  • erm-, herm-, to PGmc *ermenaz "great": Ermaldus, Ermedrudia, Ermefara, Ermefreda, Ermefredo, Ermegildus, Ermegis, Ermego, Ermegoto, Ermegotus, Ermegundia, Ermelindus, Ermemirus, Ermericus, Ermerote, Ermesinda, Ermiarius, Ermila, Ermildi, Ermileuva, Ermitus, Ermoleo, Ermosindus, Ermoygius, Ermulfo, Heremigarium, Hermecisclus, Hermellus
  • evo-, to PGmc *ehwaz "horse": Euvenandus, Eva, Evorido, Evosindo, Ivolicus, Ibilli
  • faf-, to PGmc *faff-, possibly related to Indo-European *papp- "dad": Faffila, Faffia
  • fag-, to PGmc *fagenaz "glad, joyful": Fagila, Fagildus, Fagilo, Faginus
  • fald-, to PGmc *faldiz "fold, cloak": Falderedo, Falgildus, Fardulfus
  • fand-, to PGmc *fanþjōn "infantryman": Fandila, Fandina, Fandinus, Fannus
  • faq-, fak-, to PGmc *fah- "glad, joyful": Facalo, Facco, Fakino, Faquilo
  • far-, to PGmc *faran "journey, ship": Faregia, Farella, Farino, Farita, Farnus, Framiro, Fraredus, Frarigo, Fregulfus, Ferildi
  • fat-, to PGmc *fatan "cloth; vessel": Fatu, Fateredus
  • fel-, fil-, to PGmc *felu "much, very": Felellus, Felgirus, Felmiro, Filisteus, Filivertus, Filon
  • flor-, to PGmc *flōraz "floor" or Latin florens "blooming, prosperous": Floresindus
  • fof- (no clear etymology): Fofo, Fofinus, Fofellus
  • fons-, funs-, to PGmc *funsaz "eager, ready": Fonso, Fonsa, Fonsinus, Fonsellus
  • fradi-, to PGmc *fraþīn "efficacy": Fradegundia, Fradila, Fradiulfus
  • fram-, to PGmc *framaz "forward; valiant": Framila, Framilli, Framtan, Framuldo
  • frank-, franc-, to PGmc *frankōn "javelin; Frank": Francellus, Francemirus, Franco, Francoi, Francolino, Frankila, Frankilo
  • fred-, frid-, to PGmc *friþuz "peace" or *frīdaz "fair, beautiful": Freda, Fredamundus, Fredario, Fredegundia, Fredemiro, Fredenanda, Fredenandus, Fredericus, Fredesinda, Fredilli, Fredisclus, Fredoaldus, Fredoindus, Fredosindus, Freduarius, Fredulfus, Fredus, Fridiverto
  • froa-, frau-, frog-, froy-, fron-, to PGmc *frawjōn "lord, master": Froarengus, Fralenko, Frogeva, Frogildi, Frogina, Frogiulfo, Froiellus, Froila, Froilo, Froiloba, Froisenda, Froisendus, Fronildi, Fronosili, Fronuldo, Froya, Froyo, Froyslo, Fruaricus, Frugildus, Fruginus, Frauino, Frumirus, Frunilo
  • frum-, from-, to PGmc *frumōn "foremost, first" and *frumistaz "first": Fromista, Fremosilli, Fromaldus, Fromaricus, Fromildus, Fromosinda, Fromosindus, Fruma, Frumarius, Frumellus, Frumildi
  • fulc-, to PGmc *fulkan "crow, army": Fulcaredus
  • gad-, gat-, to PGmc *gadōn "comrade": Gademiro, Gadenanda, Gaton
  • gael-, gel-, to PGmc *gailaz "merry": Gaella, Gelmiro, Geloira
  • gaf-, gef-, geb-, to PGmc *gebō "gift": Gaffo, Gebuldus, Gefera
  • gaid-, to PGmc *gaidō "spearhead, arrowhead": Gaidus
  • gaif-, to PGmc *waibjanan "to surround": Gaifar
  • galind-, kalend-, to PGmc *galind- "Galindian" (a Baltic people): Galindus, Kalendus
  • gan-, possibly to Germanic gan "enchantment":[13] Ganati, Ganilli, Ganiti, Ganoi
  • gand-, to PGmc *gandaz "wand, staff": Gandila, Gandinus, Gandulfo, Gandus
  • gard-, to PGmc *gardaz "house, enclosure": Gardingus, Gardulfus
  • gas-, ges-, gis-, ger-, gir-, to PGmc *gaizaz "spear": Gasuildi, Gera, Gesa, Gero, Geserigus, Gesmira, Germira, Gesmiro, Gesulfus, Ierulfus, Giraldus, Gismundus, Germundus, Gisovredus, Gisvado
  • gast-, to PGmc *gastiz "guest": Gastre
  • gaud-, caud-, no clear etymology; possibly to *gaut- "Goth" or Latin gaudeo "rejoice": Caudemirus, Gauderigus, Gaudesindo, Gaudilani, Gaudilli, Gaudinas
  • gav-, gau-, gogi-, cogi-, gagi-, cagi-, kegi-, to PGmc *gaujan "district": Cagildo, Cagita, Cagitus, Gagica, Gaufredus, Gaulfus, Gavila, Gavina, Gavinus, Gega, Gegitus, Gigelus, Gogia, Gogilli, Gogina, Gogitus, Gogius, Goymundus, Guimundus, Guginus, Gugivertus, Guimirus, Guiricus, Guisenda, Goysenda, Guisindus, Kagilda, Keila
  • geld-, gild-, kelt-, to PGmc *geldan "tribute, recompense": Geldemirus, Gildaricus, Gildo, Keltoi
  • gen-, ian-, ion-, to PGmc *gennan "beginning": Genildi, Ionilde, Genlo, Genobreda, Gemundus, Ianardo, Ionarico
  • gend- (unclear meaning): Gendo, Gendina
  • get-, git-, "glory": Geda, Getericus, Getilli, Getina, Getoy, Gidiberto, Gitarius, Gitesindus, Gitio
  • gisl-, viscl-, cisl-, to PGmc *gīslaz "hostage": Cisla, Viclavara, Viscaverga, Visclafredo, Visclamirus, Visclamundus, Visclario
  • givel-, to PGmc *geb(e)lōn "skull, gable": Givellan
  • glad-, to PGmc *gladaz "bright, glad": Gladila
  • god-, gud- (later go-, gu-), to PGmc *gōdaz "good": Godefredus, Godegildus, Godella, Godellus, Godemiro, Godenanda, Godesinda, Godoigia, Godomundus, Gudenandus, Guderedus, Guderigo, Gudesindus, Gudesteus, Gudigeba, Gudila, Gudileuva, Gudilo, Gudilulfo,Gudiverga
  • gol-, to PGmc *gōljanan "to greet", gōlaz "pride": Golinus, Gollo
  • gom-, gum-, to PGmc *gumōn "man": Gomadus, Gomaldo, Gomaredus, Gomarigus, Gomesindo, Gomita, Gomulfus, Gomundus, Guma, Gumarius, Gumellus, Gumila, Gumito
  • gram-, to PGmc *gramaz "furious": Gramila
  • gran-, to PGmc *grannaz "slim, slender" or *granō "moustache": Granilo
  • grim-, to PGmc *grīmōn "mask, helmet": Grima, Grimaldus
  • gris-, to PGmc *grīsanan "to dread" or *grīsaz "grey": Grisulfus, Gresomarus
  • guald-, to PGmc *waldaz "powerful, mighty": Gualdarius, Gualdeo
  • guandal-, to PGmc *wandilaz "Vandal": Guandalisco, Guandalar
  • guld-, to PGmc *wulþuz "splendour": Goldegildo, Goldredo, Guldarius, Gulderigus
  • guldr-, goltr-, to PGmc *wulþraz "wonderful, precious": Goldregodo, Gulderes, Gualdramirus
  • gulf-, golf-, to PGmc *wulfaz "wolf": Golfarico, Gulfarius, Gulfemirus
  • gund-, gunt-, gunz-, cunt-, gond-, to PGmc *gunthz "fight": Gonceria, Gondella, Gondenanda, Gonso, Gonta, Gontemondus, Gontere, Gonderes, Gontoi, Gontualdo, Gonza, Guncitus, Gundarius, Gundebredo, Gundebrida, Gundelinus, Gundemarus, Gunderamnus, Gunderedo, Gunderigus, Gunderona, Gundertia, Gundesindus, Gundifortis, Gundigeva, Gundila, Gundilo, Gundisalva, Gundisalvus, Gundiscalcus, Gundivadus, Gundivaldo, Gundivera, Gundiverga, Gundon, Gundulfo, Guntato, Guntedrudia, Guntellus, Guntemirus, Gunterotis, Gunti, Guntiesclo, Guntigio, Guntilli, Gundesilli, Guntina, Guntinus, Guntuigia
  • gut- (later god-), to PGmc *gutōn "Goth": Gotesendus, Goto, Gota, Goton, Gudegisus, Gutellus, Gutemirus, Gutemondo, Gutilli, Gutilo, Gutina, Gutinus, Guto, Guta, Gutumarus
  • hend-, ind-, hand-, probably related to Burgundian hendinus "king": Endulfus, Hamdino, Indisclus
  • hild-, ild-, eld-, ald-, to PGmc *heldjō "battle": Alderedus, Alduarius, Eldan, Eldebona, Eldegeses, Eldegotus, Eldegundia, Eldemirus, Eldemundus, Eldesinda, Eldesindus, Eldigia, Eldinus, Eldivercus, Eldivertus, Eldo, Eldoigius, Elleca, Ildebredus, Ildefonsus, Ilderigus, Ildiverga, Ildoi, Ildoncia, Ildras, Ilduara, Ildulfus
  • ik-, eq-, ig-, possibly to PGmc *eka "I": Igo, Ika, Ikila
  • it-, id- (no clear etymology): Idiverto, Itila, Itilo, Itimondo, Itaultus
  • iuv-, iub- (no clear etymology): Iovellinus, Iubarius, Iubinus, Iuuisclus, Iuvatus, Iuvericus, Iuvila, Iuvitus
  • ket-, qued-, quid-, to PGmc *kweþanan "to say": Kedisilo, Ketemera, Ketenando, Keti, Ketoi, Quedesendo, Quedulfus, Quidemirus, Quidericus, Quitarius, Quitoi
  • lal-, lel-, lil- (no clear etymology): Lalla, Lalli, Lallina, Lallinus, Lallus, Lelino, Leliola, Lilliola, Lelli, Lilla, Lilli, Lillo, Lilla
  • leo-, to PGmc *hlewaz "glory, renown": Leomirus
  • leode-, leude-, to PGmc *leudiz "man, people": Ledla, Leodarius, Leodefredus, Leodegasti, Leodegisius, Leodegundia, Leodemiro, Leodemundo, Leoderigus, Leodesindo, Leodeuigus, Leodo, Leodulfus
  • leov-, leub-, to PGmc *leubaz "beloved": Leovaldo, Leovegildus, Leovegoto, Leoveredus, Leoverigus, Leoverona, Leoverto, Leovesenda, Leovesindus, Leovilli, Leovus, Leuba, Leubegutus, Liuvilo, Lovoi, Lubellus, Lubila, Lubinus
  • lot-, to PGmc *hludaz "famous": Lotarius
  • mact- (later meit-), to PGmc *mahtiz "power, might": Meitinus, Matericus, Mectubrida, Meitilli, Meitulfus
  • mag-, to PGmc *magenan "might, power": Magan, Magila, Magitus, Maniaricus, Maniarius, Magnitus, Maniulfus, Megildus
  • mal- (unclear etymology, possibly related to PGmc *malanan "to grind"): Malaricus, Malaredus
  • malasc-, possibly to PGmc *malskaz "proud": Malasco
  • maldr-, possibly to PGmc *maldriz "flour": Maldras
  • man- (later ma-), to PGmc *manan "fellow": Manildi, Manusildi, Manileuva, Manilla, Maninus, Manosenda, Manosindus, Manualdus, Manulfus, Menegundia
  • mand-, mant-, to PGmc *manþaz "kind": Mandila, Mandinus, Mandulfo, Mantellus
  • mann- (later man-), to PGmc *mannz "man": Manitus, Manna, Mannello, Manni, Manno, Manoim, Mansuara
  • marc-, to PGmc *markō "region, border" or *marhaz "horse": Marco, Marcosendus, Marcitus
  • mart-, possibly to PGmc *marþuz "marten": Martila
  • matl-, matr-, to PGmc *maþlan "assembly": Matrosindus, Matrinus, Matroi
  • maur- (later mour-), possibly to PGmc *mauraz "ant" or Latin maurus "Moor": Mauran, Maurentan, Maurican, Mauron
  • medum- (later meom-), to PGmc *medumaz "middling, moderate": Meduma
  • mer-, mir-, mar-, to PGmc *mērjaz "famous": Margilli, Merila, Meroildi, Mervigius, Mira, Mirella, Mirellus, Miro, Mirosinda, Mirualdo
  • mod-, mud-, to PGmc *mōdaz "anger, wrath": Modericus, Moderido, Modildus, Modilli, Mudario, Mudila
  • mun-, mon-, to PGmc *muniz "thought": Monefonsus, Monobredo, Munisclus
  • mund-, mond-, to PGmc *mundō "protection": Monderico, Mondoi, Mundellus, Mundila, Mundildus, Mundinus, Mundus
  • nand-, nant-, to PGmc *nanþaz "bold, courageous": Nandamundus, Nandaricus, Nandinus, Nandoi, Nandulfo, Nandus, Nantemiro, Nantildo
  • naust- (no clear etymology): Naustus, Naustila
  • neu-, nu-, to PGmc *neujaz "new": Nuilla, Nuillo, Neufila
  • nit-, to PGmc *nīþaz "hatred" or *niþjaz "kinsman": Nitigisius
  • not-, to PGmc *nauthiz "need": Notarius
  • of-, to PGmc *ubjōn "abundance": Offa, Ofila, Offilo
  • old-, to PGmc *hulþaz "kind, clement": Olda, Oldaricus
  • opp-, possibly to PGmc *ōbjanan "to celebrate solemnly" (related to Latin opus "work"): Oppa, Oppila
  • osd-, to PGmc *huzdan "treasure": Osdulfus
  • pant-, to PGmc *pandan "pledge" or *banti "district": Pantardus, Panto, Pantinus
  • pap-, pep- (no clear etymology): Papellus, Papitus, Pappinus, Pappo, Pepi, Pipericus, Pipinus
  • penn-, pen- (no known etymology): Penetrudia, Penus, Pennino
  • rad-, rat-, to PGmc *rēdaz "advice": Rademirus, Rademundus, Radesindus, Radulfus, Ratario, Retericus
  • ragi-, ragn- (later rei-), to PGmc *raginab "advice, decision": Ragesenda, Ragesindus, Ragian, Ragifredo, Ragimiru, Ragito, Ragolfus, Raiola, Raiolo, Reginaldus, Reimondus, Reirigus
  • rak-, to PGmc *rakan "reason, talk" or *wrakaz "pursuer": Rakericus
  • ram-, to PGmc *rammaz "strong; ram": Ramila, Ramon, Ramulo
  • rana-, rani- (later ra-), probably to PGmc *rannjanan "to run": Ranarius, Ranemira, Ranemirus, Ranemundus, Ranilo, Ranisclus, Raniverga, Raniverta, Ranivertus, Ranosenda, Ranosindus, Ranualdus, Ranulfus
  • rand-, rant-, to PGmc *randaz "shield": Randemirus, Randili, Randinus, Rando, Randuarius, Randulfus, Rendericus
  • raup-, to PGmc *raupjanan "to plunder, to spoil": Rauparius
  • rec-, req-, ric-, to PGmc *rīkjaz "mighty, noble": Recaredus, Reccafredus, Recebrida, Recedrudia, Recelli, Recemera, Recemirus, Recemundus, Recesenda, Recesindus, Recesuinda, Recesuindus, Rechiarius, Recilli, Requilli, Recinus, Recualdus, Regaulfus, Reicionda, Rekeritus, Requefonsus, Rezevera, Ricardo, Riquila, Riquilo, Riquilodo, Riquoi
  • ref-, to PGmc *hrabnaz "crow": Refulfo
  • rem-, to PGmc *remez "rest, calmness": Remegildus, Remesario, Remesilli, Remesindus, Remestro, Remismundus, Remisol, Rimionda
  • rest-, to PGmc *ristiz "rising up": Restericus
  • rod-, rud-, to PGmc *hrōþaz "fame": Rodemirus, Rodevertus, Rodosildi, Rodougus, Roelindus, Rouvredo, Rudericus, Rudesindus, Rudila, Rudilo
  • rom-, rum-, to PGmc *hrōmaz "fame": Romarigus, Romila, Rumario
  • sala- (later sa-), to PGmc *salaz 'hall, dwelling': Salamirus, Salamarus, Salla
  • sand-, sant-, to PGmc *sanþaz "truth, justice": Sandinus, Sando, Santimirus
  • sar-, to PGmc *sarwan "arm, armament": Saroi, Saruilli
  • sax- (later seix-), to PGmc *sahsan "knife" and *sahxōn "Saxon": Saxo, Seixomir
  • scap-, to PGmc *skapan "vessel": Scapa
  • scarc-, to PGmc *skalkaz "servant; sword": Scarcila
  • scer-, to PGmc *skīriz "pure": Scerinus
  • sed-, to PGmc *seduz "custom": Sedino
  • sedeg-, to PGmc *sedīgaz "well-bred, well-behaved": Sedeges
  • seg-, sag-, sig- (later se-, si-), to PGmc *segez "victory": Sagatus, Sagildo, Sagulfus, Segemundus, Segesindo, Segestro, Segga, Segika, Segimarus, Segioi, Segomirus, Seguinus, Sigeberto, Sigefrida, Sigeredus, Sigericus, Sigesgundia, Sigesinda, Sigila, Sigu, Segio
  • sel-, to PGmc *sēliz "good, kind": Selmirus, Seloi
  • selv-, to PGmc *selbaz "self": Selvas, Selvatus
  • sen-, sin-, to PGmc *senaz "ever, old": Senatrudia, Seniberta, Senildi, Senuita, Senuldo, Sinerta, Sinifredus
  • send-, sent-, to PGmc *senþaz "companion" or *swenþaz "strong": Senda, Sendamirus, Sendello, Sendericus, Senderiga, Sendina, Sendinus, Sendoi, Sendon, Sendredus, Senduitu, Sendulfus, Senta, Sentarius, Sindamundus, Sindi, Sindigis, Sindila, Sindileuba, Sindilo, Sindiverga, Sindo, Sinduara
  • ser-, to PGmc *swēraz "valued, honoured": Seririgo, Serulfus, Servaldus
  • sigunt-, to PGmc *sebunþōn "seventh": Sigunterigo
  • sis-, ses-, possibly related to Old High German sisu "funerary song, ritual": Sescutus, Sesericus, Sesina, Sesmiro, Sesmundo, Sesoi, Sesuito, Sisa, Sisebutus, Sisegundia, Sisellus, Sisildus, Sisileova, Sisilli, Sisilu, Sisinus, Sisiverta, Sisiverto, Sisivigia, Sisnandus, Sisualdo, Sisuita, Sisuldus, Sisulfus, Zisila
  • sit-, to PGmc *setan "seat": Sitagellus, Siti, Sitividis
  • smer-, to PGmc *smerwōn "fat": Smerlo
  • sontr-, suntr-, to PGmc *sunþrjaz "southern": Sontrilli, Suntria
  • span-, to PGmc *spananan "to lead": Spanaricu, Spanarius, Spanilo, Spanosendo, Spanubrida
  • spand-, possibly to *spannanan "to join": Spandaricus
  • spar-, to PGmc *sparwaz "sparrow": Espallo, Sparuildi
  • speraut-, to PGmc *spreutanan "to sprout": Sperautan
  • spint-, to PGmc *spenþa "fat": Spintilo, Spintino
  • spod- (later espo-, with unclear etymology): Spodemiro, Spoderigo
  • stan-, to PGmc *stainaz "stone": Stanildi
  • stod-, with unclear etymology: Stodildi
  • strouc-, to PGmc *streukanan "to stroke": Strouco
  • suab-, sab-, sav-, sev-, to PGmc *swēbaz "Suebian": Sabaredus, Sabegoto, Sabila, Sabita, Sabitus, Savaracus, Savaricus, Savegodus, Savildi, Savoy, Sevegildo, Suabas, Suavar
  • sue-, to PGmc *swe- "own": Sueredus, Suimirus
  • sund-, sunt-, to PGmc *sunþiz "south": Sundemirus, Suntarius
  • suni-, seni-, sani-, soni-, to PGmc *sunjō "truth": Sanigia, Seniaredus, Seniulfus, Sonegildus, Songimera, Soniaricus, Sonifreda, Sonita, Suniagisclus, Suniarius, Suniemirus, Sunila, Sunildi, Sunilo, Sunitus
  • sunn-, to PGmc *sunnan "sun": Sonna
  • tanc-, to PGmc *þankaz "favor, grace": Tancila, Tancinus, Tancus, Tanquilli
  • tanth-, to PGmc *tanþz "tooth": Tandus
  • tat-, zaz-, to PGmc *tat-, with unclear etymology: Tata, Tatina, Zazitus, Zazo
  • teg-, to PGmc *þegnaz "thane, freeman": Tegila, Tegino, Tegio, Tegitus
  • teq-, with unclear etymology: Tequilo, Texilli
  • teud-, teod-, tod-, ted- (later teo-), to PGmc *þeudō "nation" and *þeudanaz "king": Teadario, Tederona, Tedoy, Teobaldus, Teoda, Teodefredo, Teodegildo, Teodegondia, Teodemirus, Teodemundus, Teodenandus, Teoderados, Teoderago, Teoderedus, Teodericus, Teodesinda, Teodesindus, Teodeverga, Teodiberta, Teodila, Teodildi, Teodilo, Teodinus, Teodisclus, Teodiu, Teodoriga, Teodulfus, Teton, Teudecutus, Teudisila, Theodivertus, Tiotevadus, Todegia, Todegogia, Toduldo, Tota, Tudiscaisum
  • tit-, tet-, to PGmc *taitōn "little boy": Tetina, Titila
  • tors-, turis-, to PGmc *þursaz "giant": Torsario, Turisulfus
  • trad-, to PGmc þrēdaz "quick": Tradus, Tradinus
  • tras-, to PGmc *þrasō "move, fight": Tracinus, Trasaricus, Trasarius, Trasavara, Trasendus, Trasido, Trasilli, Trasiuadus, Trasmira, Trasmiro, Trasmondo, Trasoi, Trassemutus, Trasuarius, Trasuinda, Trasulfus
  • trast-, to PGmc *traustaz "strong": Trastalo, Trastelus, Trastemiro, Trastidia, Trastina, Trastulfus, Trastivigia
  • trevu-, to PGmc *trewwaz "faithful": Trevuleus
  • truct- (later troit-) to *druhtiz "people, army" and druhtīnaz "lord, master": Tructinus, Tructa, Tructemiro, Tructemondo, Tructericus, Tructesinda, Tructesindus, Tructilli, Tructus, Truitellus, Truitero
  • trud-, to PGmc *drūdaz "friend, beloved": Truda, Trudigildus, Trudildi, Trudilo, Trudina, Trudinus, Trudulfus
  • tund-, tunt-, to PGmc *tunþuz "tooth": Tumtuldo, Tundulfus, Tuntila
  • un-, on-, to PGmc *hūnaz "cub" and "Hun": Uniscus, Unisco, Onaredus, Onegilda, Onegildo, Onemirus, Onesindus, Onildi, Unilli, Onoricus, Onosinda, Unemundus, Unileus, Unilla
  • vad-, guad- (later gua-, ga-), to PGmc *wadaz "ford": Guadla, Uaduuara, Vadamundus, Vademirus
  • vala-, guala-, quala-, to PGmc *walaz "the slain, battlefield" or *walhaz "Celt": Gualamarius, Gualamira, Gualamirus, Qualatrudia, Qualavara, Valarius
  • vamb-, to PGmc *wambō "belly": Vamba
  • vand-, guand-, to PGmc *wanduz "wand, rod": Guanadildi, Guandila, Guandilo, Guantaldus, Vandino, Vuanda
  • ven-, guin-, to PGmc *weniz "friend": Guina, Guinilli, Uenildi, Guinus
  • venet-, guend-, vened-, genit-, to PGmc *wenedaz "Vendian, Slav": Genitigia, Guendo, Venedario, Venetricus
  • ver-, to PGmc *wērō "pledge; true": Vera, Vermundus, Veremudus
  • via-, possibly to PGmc *wīhan "temple": Viaricus, Viamundus
  • vidr-, vedr-, quitr-, to PGmc *wiþra "against": Quitre, Vederoi, Vedragese, Vedrailli, Vidragildus, Vidraldus, Vidramirus
  • vidub-, to PGmc *widuwaz "widowed": Vidubas
  • vig-, veg-, to PGmc *wīgaz "fighter": Uegitus, Vigila, Vigilli, Vigilo, Vigiltu, Vigoy
  • vil-, guil-, quil-, to PGmc *weljōn "will": Guiliberto, Quella, Uiliaredus, Uilloi, Gilloi, Vilesinda, Viliamirus, Vilian, Viliaricu, Viliarius, Viliatus, Viliefredus, Vilifonsus, Viligus, Vilitro, Viliulfus, Vilivado, Villavaria, Villelmus, Villisendo, Villo
  • vim- (unclear etymology): Guimarigus, Uimaredus, Viman, Vimara
  • vinc-, to PGmc *wenkjanan "to move sideways, to avoid": Venze, Vincila
  • vis-, ius-, to PGmc *wesuz "good": Iusuandus, Uisulfus, Usegildus, Visaldus, Visaridus, Visellu
  • visand-, to PGmc *wisundaz "bison": Visandus
  • vist-, iust-, to PGmc *westan "west": Iusterigo, Iustiarius, Iustila, Vistemundo, Vistesinda, Iustesenda, Vistiberga, Vistisclo, Vistivara, Wistiz
  • vistr-, iustr-, to PGmc *westraz "westward": Iustri, Uistrello, Uistrileuba, Vestregoti, Visterla, Visterlo, Vistragildus, Vistramundi, Vistraricus, Vistrarius, Vistravara, Vistravarius, Vistregia, Vistremiro, Vistresindus, Vistrevius, Vistrildi, Vistresilli, Vistroi
  • vit- (later vid-), to PGmc *witan "knowledge": Uita, Vidila, Vitinus, Vitisclus
  • vitt-, vict (later vit-), to PGmc *witjan "comprehension": Uiti, Uittina, Victemirus, Victericus, Vitarius, Vitas, Vitila, Vitildus, Vitiza, Vittimero
  • viv, oyv-, to PGmc *wīban "wife, woman": Oyeuio, Vivildus
  • viz-, quiz- (unclear etymology): Quizino, Viza, Vizamundus, Vizila, Vizoi

Feminine roots[edit]

Elements common as the second syllable of feminine names include:

  • -berta, -verta, PGmc *berhtō "bright": Aliverta, Raniverta, Sisiverta, Teodiverta
  • -berga, -verga, PGmc *bergō "shelter": Aliverga, Astriverga, Gundiverga, Ildiverga, Kindiverga, Raniverga, Sindiverga, Teodeverga, Viscaverga, Vistiberga
  • -drudia/-trudia (later -druia), PGmc *drūd-jō "friend, beloved": Alatrudia, Aniedrudia, Ansetrudia, Cenabrida, Dagadrudia, Entrudi, Ermedrudia, Guntedrudia, Penetrudia, Qualatrudia, Recedrudia, Senatrudia
  • -fara, PGmc *farō "journey": Ermefara
  • -freda/-breda/-brida/-vrida, PGmc *friþ-ō "peace": Alifreda, Alobrida, Ansobrida, Belavrida, Genobreda, Gundebrida, Mectubrida, Recebrida, Sigefrida, Sonifreda, Spanubrida
  • -fonsa, PGmc *funs-ō "eager, ready": Argifonsa
  • -go, PGmc *gauj-ō "region, district": Ermego
  • -geba/-geva (later -eva), PGmc *gebō "gift": Argeva, Frogeva, Gudigeba, Gundigeva
  • -gelda, PGmc *geld-ō "reward": Kagilda, Onegilda
  • -isila, -gīsl-ō "hostage, sprout": Teudisila
  • -goto/-godo, PGmc *gaut-ō "Goth woman": Astrogoto, Ermegoto, Goldregodo, Leovegoto, Sabegoto, Vestregoti
  • -cuntia/-cundia/-guntia/-gundia/-gunza/-onda, PGmc *gunþ-jō "fight": Adegundia, Alaguntia, Ansiunda, Aragunti, Astragundia, Bergundi, Ebragundia, Eigonza, Eldegundia, Ermegundia, Fradegundia, Helaguntia, Ildoncia, Leodegundia, Menegundia, Reicionda, Rimionda, Sigesgundia, Siseguntia, Teodogoncia, Treitegundia
  • -ildi, -illi, PGmc *heldiz "battle": Abronilli, Amalilli, Ansuildi, Argenilli, Aruildi, Astruildi, Aurilli, Barsilli, Barilli, Berildi, Berosildi, Bonilde, Brunildi, Desteilli, Donadildi, Ebrildi, Ebrailli, Ermildi, Framilli, Fremosilli, Frogildi, Fronildi, Fronosili, Frumildi, Ganilli, Gasuildi, Gaudilli, Genildi, Ionilde, Getilli, Gogilli, Guanadildi, Guananildi, Guinilli, Uenildi, Guntilli, Gundesilli, Gutilli, Ibilli, Leovilli, Manildi, Manusildi, Margilli, Meitilli, Meroildi, Modilli, Onildi, Unilli, Randili, Recilli, Requilli, Remesilli, Rodosildi, Saruilli, Sarilli, Savildi, Senildi, Sisilli, Sontrilli, Sparuildi, Stanildi, Stodildi, Sunildi, Tanquilli, Tenildi, Teodildi, Texilli, Trasilli, Trasuildi, Tructilli, Trudildi, Vedrailli, Vergilli, Vigilli, Vistrildi, Vistresilli
  • -leuba, -leova, PGmc *leub-ō "beloved": Adileova, Ansileova, Argileuva, Asileva, Astileuva, Eileuva, Ermileuva, Froiloba, Gudileuva, Manileuva, Sindileuba, Sisileova, Uistrileuba
  • -mira, -mera, PGmc *mēr-ō "famous, excellent": Gesmira, Germira, Giudimira, Gualamira, Ketemera, Ranemira, Recemera, Songimera, Trasmira
  • -nanda (later -anda), PGmc *nanþ-ō "bold, courageous": Fredenanda, Gadenanda, Godenanda, Gondenanda
  • -rica (later -riga), PGmc *rīk-ō "ruler": Odorica, Senderiga, Teodoriga
  • -rotis, PGmc *rōt-iz "glad, cheerful": Gunterotis
  • -rona, PGmc *rūnō "mystery, secret": Gunderona, Leoverona, Tederona
  • -senda, -sinda, PGmc *senþ-ō "companion" or *swenþ-ō "strong": Adosinda, Arosinda, Audesinda, Bertosinda, Cenusenda, Eldesinda, Ermesinda, Eudisinda, Fredesinda, Froisenda, Fromosinda, Godesinda, Guisenda, Goysenda, Leovesenda, Manosenda, Mirosinda, Obstrisinda, Onosinda, Orosinda, Peruisenda, Ragesenda, Ranosenda, Recesenda, Sigesinda, Teodesinda, Tructesinda, Vilesinda, Vistesinda, Iustesenda
  • -suenda, -suinda, PGmc *swenþ-ō "strong": Recesuinda, Trasuinda
  • -vara, PGmc *warō "care, attention; possession": Astruara, Bertuara, Ilduara, Mansuara, Qualavara, Rezevera, Sinduara, Trasavara, Uaduuara, Visclavara, Villavaria, Vistivara, Vistravara
  • -vera, PGmc *wērō "pledge, plight": Gelvira, Gundivera
  • -vigia, -igia, PGmc *wīg-jō "fighter": Genitigia, Godoigia, Guntuigia, Sanigia, Sisivigia, Trastivigia, Vistregia
  • -vita, -vidis, probably related to PGmc *witjan "knowledge, comprehension": :Senuita, Sisuita, Sitividis

Suffixes used to derive hypocoristic feminine names include:

  • -alo: Facalo, Trastalo
  • -ilo (later -io): Acilo, Andilo, Anilo, Ansilo, Ardilo, Argilo, Berilo, Bitilo, Cisilo, Dadilo, Egilo, Ailo, Emilo, Esmerlo, Espallo, Fagilo, Faquilo, Frankilo, Froilo, Frunilo, Genilo, Genlo, Geodilo, Gracilo, Granilo, Guandilo, Gudilo, Gundilo, Gutilo, Itilo, Liuvilo, Nisilo, Nuillo, Nunnilo, Quintilo, Ranilo, Riquilo, Rudilo, Sindilo, Sisilu, Spanilo, Spintilo, Sunilo, Tafila, Teodilo, Tequilo, Trudilo, Vigilo, Visterlo
  • -ina: Bagina, Baquina, Berina, Fandina, Frogina, Gavina, Gendina, Getina, Gogina, Guntina, Gutina, Lallina, Nunnina, Sendina, Sesina, Tanina, Tidina, Tetina, Trastina, Trudina, Vergina, Zanina
  • -ita (later -ida): Acita, Cagita, Farita, Gomita, Nunnita, Sabita, Sonita
  • -ella: Farella, Gondella, Mirella, Nunella

Masculine roots[edit]

Elements common as the second syllable of masculine names include:

  • -badus, -vadus, PGmc *badwō "fight": Argevadus, Gisvado, Gundivadus, Tiotevadus, Trasiuadus, Vilivado
  • -baldus, -valdus, PGmc *balþaz "bold": Gundivaldo, Teobaldus
  • -bertus, -vertus, PGmc *berhtaz "bright": Alivertus, Ansvertus, Argeberto, Audibertus, Eldivertus, Filivertus, Fridiverto, Geodevertus, Gidiberto, Gugivertus, Guiliberto, Idiverto, Leoverto, Ranivertus, Rodevertus, Sigeberto, Sisiverto, Theodivertus
  • -butus, PGmc *bōtō "profit, usefulness": Sisebutus
  • -fredus, -fridus, -bredus, -vredus (later -vreu), PGmc *friþuz "peace": Alliefredus, Argifredus, Audofredo, Erdebredo, Ermefredo, Geodefredo, Gisovredus, Godefredus, Gundebredo, Ildebredus, Leodefredus, Monobredo, Osobredus, Ostrofredo, Ragifredo, Reccafredus, Rouvredo, Sinifredus, Teodefredo, Viliefredus, Visclafredo
  • -funsus, -fonsus, -bonsus, PGmc *funsaz "eager, ready": Adefonsus, Andifonso, Argefonsus, Belfonsus, Erifonsus, Ildefonsus, Monefonsus, Requefonsus, Vilifonsus
  • -fortis, probably Latin fortis "strong": Gundifortis
  • -gis, -ges, -geses, -garius, PGmc *gaizaz "spear": Adeqisio, Astragis, Eldegeses, Ermegis, Felgirus, Gudegisus, Heremigarium, Leodegisius, Nitigisius, Sindigis, Tudiscaisum, Vedragese
  • -gaster, -bastus, PGmc *gastiz "guest": Adegaster, Albiaster, Algaster, Ardabastus, Argivastro, Donagastro, Leodegasti
  • -gotus, -godus, PGmc *gautaz "Goth": Eldegotus, Ermegotus, Leubegutus, Savegodus, Sescutus, Teudecutus, Visigotus
  • -gogia, PGmc *gaujan "district": Todegogia
  • -gildus, -ildus, PGmc *geld-az "reward": Anagildus, Aquisildus, Atanagildus, Cagildo, Daildus, Donegildus, Egildus, Agildus, Engildus, Ermegildus, Fagildus, Falgildus, Fredilli, Fromildus, Frugildus, Gaudilti, Geodegildus, Goldegildo, Leovegildus, Megildus, Modildus, Mundildus, Nantildo, Onegildo, Pabregildus, Pederagildu, Remegildus, Sagildo, Sevegildo, Sisildus, Sitagellus, Sonegildus, Tarildus, Teodegildo, Tudeildus, Trenelldus, Trudigildus, Uanagildi, Usegildus, Vidragildus, Vigiltu, Vistragildus, Vitildus, Vivildus
  • -gisclus, -isclus, to -gīslaz "hostage, sprout": Fredisclus, Guntiesclo, Hermecisclus, Indisclus, Iuuisclus, Kedisilo, Munisclus, Odisclus, Ranisclus, Suniagisclus, Teodisclus, Vistisclo, Vitisclus
  • -ardus, PGmc *harduz "hard": Ianardo, Pantardus, Ricardo
  • -arius (later -eiro), PGmc *harjaz "army, host": Adarius, Agarius, Alarius, Amedeiro, Andiarius, Ascarius, Atarius, Aunarius, Baltarius, Bazarius, Belesarius, Bertarius, Cufarius, Donazarius, Ermiarius, Fredario, Frumarius, Gaifarius, Gitarius, Gualdarius, Guldarius, Gulfarius, Gumarius, Gundarius, Iubarius, Iustiarius, Leodarius, Lotarius, Magnarius, Mudario, Notarius, Olcarius, Quitarius, Ranarius, Ratario, Rauparius, Rechiarius, Remesario, Rumario, Sentarius, Spanarius, Suavarius, Suniarius, Suntarius, Teadario, Torsario, Trasarius, Truitero, Uandalarius, Valarius, Venedario, Viliarius, Visclario, Vistrarius, Vitarius
  • -atus (later -ado), PGmc *haþuz "war": Alvatus, Andeatus, Astratus, Eugienadus, Ganati, Gomadus, Guanatus, Guntato, Iuvatus, Sagatus, Selvatus, Viliatus
  • -elmus, PGmc *helmaz "helm": Villelmus
  • -leus, PGmc *hlewaz "renown": Eilleus, Trevuleus, Unileus
  • -ramnus, PGmc *hrabnaz "crow": Gunderamnus
  • -ringus, -lenco, PGmc *hrengaz "ring": Froaringus, Fralenko
  • -licus, PGmc *laikaz "dance, game, battle": Ivolicus
  • -lindus, PGmc *lenþaz "gentle, mild": Ermelindus, Roelindus, Teodelindus
  • -leobo, -levo, PGmc *leubaz "dear": Adileobo, Andilevo
  • -marius, -marus (later -meiro), PGmc mērjaz "great, famous": Ansemarus, Astremarus, Baldemarius, Gresumarus, Gualamarius, Gundemarus, Gutumarus, Leudemarus, Salamarus, Segimarus, Zamarius
  • -madus, PGmc *maþ- "good": Agimadus
  • -mirus, -mero, PGmc *mērjaz "famous, excellent": Acimiro, Adimirus, Agromirus, Alamiro, Aldemirus, Ansemirus, Antemirus, Ariamiro, Argemirus, Artemiro, Aumiro, Bademirus, Baldemirus, Baudemirus, Belmirus, Bertamirus, Bonimiro, Cartemiro, Caudemirus, Cendamiro, Crescemirus, Crodemirus, Dacamiro, Damiro, Docemiro, Dulcemirus, Eimirus, Eldemirus, Engomirus, Ermemirus, Felmiro, Framiro, Francemirus, Franomiro, Fredemiro, Frumirus, Gademiro, Geldemirus, Gelmiro, Geodemirus, Gesmiro, Godemiro, Gualamirus, Guimirus, Guldremirus, Gulfemirus, Guntemirus, Gutemirus, Karmirus, Leodemiro, Leomirus, Nantemiro, Odamirus, Onemirus, Ostromirus, Astromirus, Estromirus, Quidemirus, Rademirus, Ragimiru, Randemirus, Ranemirus, Recemirus, Rodemirus, Salamirus, Santimirus, Saxomirus, Segomirus, Selmirus, Sendamirus, Sesmiro, Spodemirus, Suimirus, Sulfemirus, Sundemirus, Suniemirus, Teodemirus, Trasmiro, Trastemiro, Tructemiro, Vademirus, Victemirus, Vidramirus, Viliamirus, Visclamirus, Vistremiro, Vittimero
  • -modus, PGmc *mōdaz "courage, anger, wrath": Trassemutus, Vermudus
  • -mundus (later -mondo), *mundaz "protection, guardianship": Ansemondus, Argemondo, Arumundo, Asemondus, Astramondus, Atalamondo, Badamundus, Camundus, Damondus, Dolcemondus, Eldemundus, Fredamundus, Gemundus, Geodemondo, Gismundus, Germundus, Godomundus, Gomundus, Gontemondus, Goymundus, Guimundus, Gutemondo, Hermundus, Itimondo, Keremondus, Leodemundo, Nandamundus, Odemundus, Olemundus, Rademundus, Ranemundus, Recemundus, Reimondus, Remismundus, Rosamundus, Segemundus, Sesmundo, Sindamundus, Teodemundus, Trasmondo, Tructemondo, Unemundus, Vadamundus, Viamundus, Visclamundus, Vistemundo, Vistramundi, Vizamundus, Zamondo
  • -nandus (later -ando), PGmc *nanþ-az "bold, courageous": Bretenandus, Ermenandus, Euvenandus, Fredenandus, Gudenandus, Ketenando, Reinantus, Riquinandus, Sisnandus, Teodenandus, Vittinandus
  • -redus, -radus, -ridus (later -reu), PGmc *rēdaz "advice": Aderedus, Alderedus, Anseredo, Argeredus, Asoredus, Astredo, Balderedo, Dagaredus, Egeredus, Enaredus, Engoredus, Evorido, Falderedo, Fateredus, Fraredus, Fulcaredus, Goldredo, Gomaredus, Guderedus, Gunderedo, Kenderedus, Leoveredus, Malaredus, Moderido, Onaredus, Osoredo, Provaredo, Recaredus, Sabaredus, Sendredus, Seniaredus, Sigeredus, Sueredus, Teoderedus, Uiliaredus, Uimaredus, Visaridus
  • -ricus (later -rigo), PGmc *rīkz "ruler, lord": Accaricus, Aderico, Alaricus, Aldericus, Aliaricus, Alvaricus, Andericus, Ansericus, Ardericus, Argericus, Ascarigus, Asparigus, Asterigo, Atanaricus, Atericus, Balderico, Betericus, Bliviaricus, Brandericus, Censerigus, Iensericus, Coniaricus, Desterigus, Domerigo, Eburicus, Eimericus, Eirigu, Elperico, Engorigus, Ermericus, Fredericus, Fromaricus, Fruaricus, Gauderigus, Geserigus, Getericus, Gildaricus, Golfarico, Gomarigus, Guderigo, Guimarigus, Guiricus, Gulderigus, Gunderigus, Ilderigus, Ionarico, Iusterigo, Iuvericus, Leoderigus, Leoverigus, Magnaricus, Malaricus, Matericus, Modericus, Monderico, Nandaricus, Odericus, Onoricus, Osorico, Ausarigus, Pipericus, Quidericus, Rakericus, Reirigus, Rendericus, Restericus, Retericus, Romarigus, Rudericus, Savaricus, Sendericus, Seririgo, Sesericus, Sigericus, Sigunterigo, Soniaricus, Spanaricu, Spandaricus, Spoderigo, Teodericus, Trasaricus, Tructericus, Turpericus, Venetricus, Vendericus, Genitrigus, Viaricus, Victericus, Viliaricu, Vistraricus
  • -racus (later -rago), PGmc *rakaz "straight": Savaracus, Teoderago
  • -rote, PGmc *rōtaz "glad": Ermerote
  • -sendus, -sindus, PGmc *senþaz "companion" or *swenþaz "strong": Adelasindo, Adesindus, Andosindus, Ardesendus, Argesindus, Arosindus, Auresindus, Ausendus, Badosindus, Bagesindus, Becosindo, Baldesindo, Baudesindus, Berosindus, Bonesindus, Eisindus, Eldesindus, Ermosindus, Evosindo, Floresindus, Fortesindus, Fredosindus, Froisendus, Fromosindus, Gaudesindo, Geodesindus, Gitesindus, Gomesindo, Gotesendus, Gudesindus, Guisindus, Gundesindus, Leodesindo, Leovesindus, Manosindus, Marcosendus, Onesindus, Quedesendo, Kedesendo, Radesindus, Ragesindus, Ranosindus, Recesindus, Remesindus, Rudesindus, Segesindo, Spanosendo, Storesindo, Teodesindus, Trasendus, Tructesindus, Villisendo, Vistresindus, Zendasindo
  • -scalcus, PGmc *skalkaz "servant": Gundiscalcus
  • -suendo, -suindo, PGmc *swenþaz "strong": Reccesuindus
  • -teus, -deus, -dius, PGmc *þewaz "servant": Ansedeus, Arnadius, Engladius, Filisteus, Gudesteus
  • -ualdus, -aldus, -gualdus, -allo, PGmc *waldaz "ruler, mighty": Ansuallo, Anualdus, Ardaldus, Arnaldus, Arualdus, Astualdu, Avaldus, Barvaldus, Bernaldus, Bidualdus, Ensaldus, Ermaldus, Fredoaldus, Fromaldus, Giraldus, Gomaldo, Gontualdo, Grimaldus, Guantaldus, Leovaldo, Manualdus, Mirualdo, Otualdo, Ranualdus, Recualdus, Reginaldus, Servaldus, Sisualdo, Trasoldi, Vidraldus, Visaldus
  • -uarius, -oarius, PGmc *warjaz "inhabitant, defender": Alduarius, Ansuario, Astruario, Freduarius, Oduarius, Osoarius, Randuarius, Trasuarius, Vistravarius
  • -oindus, PGmc *wendaz "wind": Aloindo, Eindu, Fredoindus
  • -oynus, PGmc *weniz "friend": Odoynus
  • -uerco, related to PGmc *werkan "work": Aliverko, Eldivercus
  • -uigio, -uigus, PGmc *wīgaz "fighter": Audugus, Baldoigius, Eldoigius, Ermoygius, Eroigius, Erigio, Guntigio, Leodeuigus, Mervigius, Rodougus, Viligus, Vistrevius
  • -oytus, -vitus, probably related to PGmc *witōn "wise": Aldroitus, Aloitus, Argevitus, Senduitu, Sesuito
  • -ulfus, -gulfus, PGmc *wulfaz "wolf": Adaulfus, Ataulfus, Agiulfus, Agrivulfum, Aliulfus, Andulfus, Ansiulphus, Anulfo, Ardulfus, Ariulfus, Arnulfo, Asarulfo, Asculfo, Asiulfus, Astrulfus, Astulfus, Aulfus, Berulfus, Betrulfus, Brandiulfus, Ebregulfus, Endulfus, Ermulfo, Eruulfus, Fardulfus, Fradiulfus, Fredulfus, Fregulfus, Frogiulfo, Gandulfo, Gardulfus, Gaulfus, Geodulfus, Gesulfus, Ierulfus, Gigulfo, Gomulfus, Gresulfo, Gudilulfo, Gundulfo, Ildulfus, Kendulfus, Leodulfus, Mandulfo, Maniulfus, Manulfus, Meitulfus, Nandulfo, Osdulfus, Quedulfus, Radulfus, Ragolfus, Randulfus, Ranulfus, Refulfo, Regaulfus, Sagulfus, Sendulfus, Seniulfus, Serulfus, Sisulfus, Teodulfus, Trastulfus, Trasulfus, Trudulfus, Tundulfus, Turisulfus, Uisulfus, Venariufi, Viliulfus
  • -uldus, -guldus, PGmc *wulþuz "splendor": Arebuldo, Atauldus, Ebreguldus, Framuldo, Frineguldus, Fronuldo, Gebuldus, Itaultus, Senuldo, Sisuldus, Toduldo, Tumtuldo

Suffixes used to derive hypocoristic masculine names are:

  • -eca, -ica (later -ega): Abrecan, Adica, Audeca, Begica, Egica, Elleca, Gagica, Segika
  • -ila (later -ia): Adila, Andila, Anila, Ansila, Attila, Audila, Azilane, Badila, Baldila, Becilla, Bergila, Berila, Blandila, Brandila, Butila, Cixila, Crizila, Cutella, Dadila, Danila, Ducila, Egila, Agila, Emila, Ermila, Fafila, Fafia, Fagila, Fandila, Favila, Fradila, Framila, Frankila, Froila, Gandila, Gaudilani, Gavila, Gladila, Gramila, Guadla, Guandila, Gudila, Gulfila, Gumila, Gundila, Ikila, Itila, Iudila, Iustila, Iuvila, Keila, Kinquila, Ledla, Lubila, Magila, Manilla, Mantila, Martila, Massila, Mellilla, Merila, Mudila, Mugila, Mumila, Mundila, Naustila, Nuilla, Neufila, Nunnila, Ofila, Oila, Opila, Ossila, Quintila, Ramila, Riquila, Romila, Rudila, Sabila, Scarcila, Sigila, Sindila, Sunila, Tancila, Tegila, Teodila, Titila, Tuntila, Unilla, Vertila, Vidila, Vigila, Vincila, Visterla, Vitila, Vizila, Zisila
  • -inus (later -ino): Addalinus, Aldinus, Bagino, Baltino, Baquino, Batinus, Berinus, Bertinus, Blandinus, Boninus, Brandinus, Cartinus, Crescino, Dadinus, Dalinus, Eldinus, Evorinus, Fandinus, Farino, Favino, Fofino, Fonsinus, Fruginus, Frauino, Gandinus, Gaudinas, Gavinus, Gentino, Gendinus, Golinus, Guginus, Gulfinus, Gultinus, Guntinus, Gutinus, Haginus, Hamdino, Iubinus, Karinus, Lallinus, Lelino, Lubinus, Mandinus, Maninus, Matlinus, Muginus, Mundinus, Nandinus, Naninus, Nunninus, Odinus, Audinus, Pantinus, Pappinus, Pennino, Pipinus, Quizino, Randinus, Recinus, Sandinus, Scerinus, Sedino, Sendinus, Sisinus, Spintino, Suffini, Tancinus, Tanino, Tatina, Tetina, Tegino, Teodinus, Tracinus, Tradinus, Tructinus, Trudinus, Uittina, Uittinus, Vandino, Goandinus, Vitinus, Zanino
  • -linus, -llinus: Abbelino, Adolinus, Francolino, Gundelinus, Iovellinus
  • -itus (later -ido): Cagitus, Carito, Crescitu, Donnitus, Froritum, Ganiti, Gegitus, Gogitus, Gumito, Guncitus, Iuvitus, Magitus, Magnitus, Manitus, Marcitus, Maxitus, Nannitus, Nonnitu, Papitus, Pegito, Pinnitus, Ragito, Sabitus, Sunitus, Sonnito, Tanitus, Atanitus, Tegitus, Trasido, Uegitus, Zanitus, Zazitus, Zenzitus
  • -ellus (later -elo): Betellus, Felellus, Francellus, Froiellus, Frumellus, Gigelus, Gumellus, Guntellus, Gutellus, Hermellus, Lubellus, Mannello, Mantellus, Mirellus, Mundellus, Nonellus, Papellus, Recelli, Sendello, Sisellus, Trastelus, Truitellus, Uistrello, Visellu, Zanellus

Superlative and comparative suffixes were also used in forming personal names: -iza: Boniza, Wittiza -istaz: Ariastre, Belestrio, Fromesta, Remestro, Segestro

Other suffixes imply origin or relationship:

  • -ingaz: Amingus, Bellengus, Gardingus
  • -iskaz: Vandaliscus "Vandal" (male), Huniscus "Hun" (male)
  • -iskō: Hunisco "Hun" (female)

Toponyms[edit]

Many of these names are also toponyms (towns, parishes, villages, hamlets and fields), usually in the form of a Latin or Germanic genitive of the owner's name and sometimes preceded by the type of property (a Galician word of Latin, Germanic or pre-Latin origin) such as vila (villa, palace, estate), vilar (hamlet) castro (castle), casa (house), porta (pass, ford), agro (field), sa (Germanic sala; hall, house), busto (dairy), cabana (cabin), lama (pastures), fonte (well, spring), pena (fort), pumar (orchard) and val (valley). About five percent of Galicia's 315 municipalities have this kind of name:

Several thousand such toponyms are known in Galicia, northern Portugal, western Asturias and other territories which were part of the Suebi kingdom.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In Colección Diplomática de Galicia Histórica. Santiago (1901), p. 225-226.
  2. ^ Boullón Agrelo (1999) p. 81-83.
  3. ^ Cf. Boullón Agrelo (1999) p. 98-101.
  4. ^ A few thousand Galician and Portuguese toponyms derive from the genitive form of a Germanic anthroponym. Cf. Sachs (1932).
  5. ^ Cf. Searle (1897). p. xii-xiv.
  6. ^ Cf. George T. Flom (1917) Alliteration and Variation in Old Germanic Name-Giving, in Modern Language Notes Vol. 32, No. 1 (Jan., 1917), pp. 7-17
  7. ^ Cf. Sachs (1932) p. 14-23.
  8. ^ Cf. Boullón Agrelo (1999) p. 342; and Rivas Quintas (1991) p. 242.
  9. ^ Piel (1937) p. 48.
  10. ^ Piel (1939) p. 79.
  11. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 95-96.
  12. ^ For this and other Proto-Germanic reconstructions: V. Orel (2003) A Handbook of Germanic Etymology; and G. Köbler (2007) Germanisches Wörterbuch.
  13. ^ Boullón Agrelo (1999) s.v. Ganildi.
  14. ^ Piel (1933) p. 225.
  15. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 40-41.
  16. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 81.
  17. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 58.
  18. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 60-61.
  19. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 59-61.
  20. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 101.
  21. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 73.
  22. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 78.
  23. ^ Sachs (1932) p. 80-81.
  24. ^ But Cf. Sachs (1932) p. 86, who interprets it as derived from Sandila.
  25. ^ Cf. Sachs (1932) p. 86.

Literature[edit]

Proto-Germanic reconstruction[edit]

  • Orel, Vladimir (2003). Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Leiden: Brill, 2003. ISBN 978-90-04-12875-0.
  • Köbler, Gerhard. (2007). Germanisches Wörterbuch. On-line [1].
  • Kroonen, Guus. (2013). Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Leiden: Brill, 2013. ISBN 978-9004183407.

Germanic personal names[edit]

Galician Medieval onomastics[edit]

  • Rivas Quintas, Elixio (1991) Onomástica persoal do noroeste hispano. Alvarellos: Lugo, 1991. ISBN 84-85311-93-0.
  • Boullón Agrelo, Ana I. (1999). Antroponimia medieval galega (ss. VIII-XII). Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1999. ISBN 978-3-484-55512-9.

Germanic toponymy in Galicia[edit]

  • Sachs, Georg (1932) Die germanischen Ortsnamen in Spanien und Portugal. Jena: Leipzig, 1932.
  • Piel, J. (1933-1940) Os nomes germânicos na toponímia portuguesa. In Boletim Português de Filologia vol. II-VII: Lisboa.