Gliese Catalogue of Nearby Stars
First edition and supplements
In 1957 German astronomer Wilhelm Gliese published his first star catalogue of nearly one thousand stars located within 20 parsecs (65 ly) of Earth, listing their known properties and ordered by right ascension. Items from the first catalogue were designated GL NNN and the stars were numbered from 1-915.
He published a significant update to his original catalogue as the Catalogue of Nearby Stars in 1969, extending the range out to 22 parsecs (72 ly). The update extended the list to 1,529 stars, and the stars were then designated Gl NNN.NA and numbered from 1.0 to 915.0. New stars not in the original Gliese catalogue were given fractional numbers to slot them 'between' existing Gliese stars to retain the existing right ascension order.
A supplement to the catalogue, published in 1970 by Richard van der Riet Woolley and associates, extended the range out to 25 parsecs (82 ly). This supplement added catalogue numbers in the range 9001–9850 using the now deprecated Wo prefix. Stars in this range now also use the GJ prefix.
The "GJ" (Gliese-Jahreiss) prefix has become standard to refer to these stars shorthand.
Gliese published an extension to the second edition of the catalogue in 1979 in collaboration with Hartmut Jahreiß. The combined catalogue is now commonly referred to as the Gliese–Jahreiß (GJ) catalog. This catalogue was published with two tables: Table 1 uses the designations GJ NNNN for entries numbered 1000-1294 for confirmed nearby stars; Table 2 uses the designations GJ NNNN for entries numbered 2001-2159 for suspected nearby stars. Since the publication of this catalogue all of the stars in the combined catalogue and succeeding supplements are designated by the preferred GJ prefix.
Gliese published the Third Catalogue of Nearby Stars (CNS3) in 1991, again in collaboration with Hartmut Jahreiß; the list now containing information on more than 3,800 stars. Although this catalogue is designated as preliminary it is still the one in current use. This catalogue lists a total of 3,803 stars. Most of these stars already had GJ numbers, but there were also 1,388 stars which were not numbered. As no final version has been forthcoming, the need to give these 1,388 some name has resulted in them being numbered 3001–4388 (NN numbers, for "no name"), and data files of this catalogue now usually include these numbers. An example of a star which is often referred to by one of these unofficial GJ numbers is GJ 3021.
The releases of the different versions of this catalogue over the years also documents the progression of publication from the printed form of the earlier catalogues to publication in electronic form of the later catalogues, as is now the case with most other large catalogues.
Some stars are best known by the original catalogue number, such as Gliese 581 and Gliese 710. The Gliese catalogue stars are frequent targets of study due to their proximity to Earth. Brighter nearby stars are included in the Gliese catalog, although they are usually known by other names; for example, Sirius is Gliese 244, while Alpha Centauri is Gliese 559.
- Gliese 1
- Gliese 2
- Gliese 16.1
- Gliese 33
- Gliese 65
- Gliese 67
- Gliese 75
- Gliese 86
- Gliese 105
- Gliese 163, a red dwarf with a system of at least three planets
- Gliese 174
- Gliese 176
- Gliese 179
- Gliese 221, a red dwarf with a system of at least two planets
- Gliese 229, a red dwarf in the constellation Lepus
- Gliese 229B, a brown dwarf orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 229
- Gliese 250
- Gliese 370
- Gliese 370 b, an extrasolar planet orbiting the orange star Gliese 370. As of August 25, 2011, it is considered to be the best candidate for habitability
- Gliese 436
- Gliese 445
- Gliese 504
- Gliese 504 b, a extrasolar planet 57 light years away from Earth
- Gliese 541 - Arcturus
- Gliese 542
- Gliese 551 - Proxima Centauri
- Gliese 559 (A and B) - Alpha Centauri
- Gliese 570
- Gliese 581, a red dwarf in the constellation Libra
- Gliese 581 b, an extrasolar planet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 581
- Gliese 581 c, an extrasolar planet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 581
- Gliese 581 d, an extrasolar planet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 581
- Gliese 581 e, an extrasolar planet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 581
- Gliese 581 f, an extrasolar planet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 581
- Gliese 581 g, an extrasolar planet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 581 and the most Earth-like goldilocks planet.
- Gliese 623
- Gliese 651
- Gliese 651 b, an extrasolar planet orbiting the star Gliese 651
- Gliese 667, a triple star system
- Gliese 673
- Gliese 676, a binary star system whose primary has a system of at least three planets
- Gliese 710, a red dwarf in the constellation Serpens Cauda
- Gliese 721 is Vega, one of the brightest stars in the sky
- Gliese 725
- Gliese 747AB
- Gliese 777
- Gliese 783
- Gliese 876
- Gliese 882 - 51 Pegasi, having the first exoplanet ever discovered, orbiting a sun-like star
- Gliese 884
- Gliese 892
- Gliese 1214, a red dwarf in the constellation Ophiuchus
- Gliese 1214 b, a super-Earth
- Gliese 3021
- Gliese 3470
- Gliese 3470 b, a sunny super-Earth with a temperature of 604°K (331 °C, 628 °F)
- Gliese, W. (1957). Katalog der Sterne näher ALS 20 Parsek für 1950.0 (in German). Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Heidelberg, 89 Seiten. Bibcode:1957MiABA...8....1G.
- Gliese, W. "Catalogue of Nearby Stars. Edition 1969". Veröffentlichungen des Astronomischen Rechen-Instituts Heidelberg, Nr. 22, Verlag G. Braun, Karlsruhe, 117 Seiten. Bibcode:1969VeARI..22....1G.
- Woolley, R. V. D. R.; Epps, E. A.; Penston, M. J.; Pocock, S. B. (July 1997). Stars within 25 pc of the Sun (Woolley+ 1970) (VizieR On-line Data Catalog: V/32A. Originally published in: 1970ROAn....5....1W ed.). SIMBAD. Bibcode:1997yCat.5032....0W.
- Gliese, W.; Jahreiß, H. (1979). "Nearby Star Data Published 1969-1978". Astronomy & Astrophysics, Supplement Service 38: 423–448. Bibcode:1979A&AS...38..423G.
- "Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects". Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
- Gliese, W.; Jahreiß, H. (1991). "Preliminary Version of the Third Catalogue of Nearby Stars". In L.E. Brotzmann; S.E. Gesser. The Astronomical Data Center CD-ROM: Selected Astronomical Catalogs I. Greenbelt, MD: NASA/Astronomical Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center. Bibcode:1991adc..rept.....G.
- STAUFFER J.; TANNER A.M.; BRYDEN G.; RAMIREZ S.; BERRIMAN B.; CIARDI D.R.; KANE S.R.; MIZUSAWA T.; PAYNE A.; PLAVCHAN P.; VON BRAUN K.; WYATT P.; KIRKPATRICK J.D (2010). "Accurate Coordinates and 2MASS Cross-IDs for (Almost) All Gliese Catalog Stars". Publications of the Astrophysical Society of the Pacific 122: 885–897. arXiv:1006.2441. Bibcode:2010PASP..122..885S. doi:10.1086/655773.