Richard van der Riet Woolley
|Sir Richard van der Riet Woolley|
24 April 1906|
Weymouth, Dorset, England
|Died||24 December 1986
Somerset West, South Africa
|Alma mater||University of Cape Town
University of Cambridge
|Known for||Astronomer Royal|
|Notable awards||Fellow of the Royal Society|
Woolley was born in Weymouth, Dorset and attended Allhallows College, then in Honiton, for about 18 months, but then moved with his parents to South Africa upon their retirement. There he attended and received his degree from the University of Cape Town. Woolley returned to the United Kingdom and studied at University of Cambridge. After two years at Mount Wilson Observatory he again returned to the United Kingdom in 1931.   
Woolley specialized in solar astronomy and in 1939 he was appointed director of the Commonwealth Solar Observatory in Canberra, Australia. He later returned to the United Kingdom to take up his appointment as Astronomer Royal from 1956 to 1971.
Woolley was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1953 and won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1971. From 1972 to 1976 he was director of the new South African Astronomical Observatory. He retired in the late 1970s and spent most of his retirement in South Africa.
Views on the practicality of space flight
Woolley is known for his initial disbelief in the practicalities of space flight, a notion he shared with Sir Harold Spencer Jones, his predecessor as Astronomer Royal. In a 1936 book review of P.E. Cleator's Rockets Through Space, Woolley wrote:
"The whole procedure [of shooting rockets into space]...presents difficulties of so fundamental a nature, that we are forced to dismiss the notion as essentially impracticable, in spite of the author's insistent appeal to put aside prejudice and to recollect the supposed impossibility of heavier-than-air flight before it was actually accomplished" 
On appointment as Astronomer Royal, he reiterated his long-held view that "space travel is utter bilge". Speaking to Time in 1956, Woolley noted
"It's utter bilge. I don't think anybody will ever put up enough money to do such a thing . . . What good would it do us? If we spent the same amount of money on preparing first-class astronomical equipment we would learn much more about the universe . . . It is all rather rot" 
In a 1995 letter to New Scientist, J.A. Terry and John Rudge pointed out that the quotation ascribed to Woolley is actually a misquotation of what he actually said (as they had heard themselves on Radio Newsreel), which was "All this talk about space travel is utter bilge, really." Woolley went on to say: "It would cost as much as a major war just to put a man on the moon." Terry and Rudge assert that Woolley's latter prediction turned out to be quite accurate, and state that the deletion of the first four words of the quotation by newspaper editors was in reaction to the fact that it was those self-same newspaper's hyperbolic articles, talking about space travel, that Woolley was criticising. "Anyone", said Terry and Rudge, "who had seen the flamboyant articles about space travel and the imminent colonisation of the moon and planets that were splashed all over the newspapers in 1956, with science fiction-style illustrations, must have been immediately aware of what the new Astronomer Royal was riled about."
- McCrea, W. (1988). "Richard van der Riet Woolley. 24 April 1906-24 December 1986". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 34: 922–926. Bibcode:1988BMFRS..34..922M. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1988.0028. JSTOR 770071.
- GRO Register of Births: JUN 1906 5a 296 WEYMOUTH - Richard Van der Riet Woolley
- Lynden-Bell, Donald (1987). "Professor Sir Richard Woolley, OBE, ScD, FRS, 1906–86". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 28 (4): 546–551. Bibcode:1987QJRAS..28..546B.
- Stickland, D. J. (1987). "Obituary: Sir Richard Woolley". The Observatory 107 (1077): 99. Bibcode:1987Obs...107...99S.
- Feast, M. W. (1987). "Sir Richard Woolley, An Appreciation". Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of Southern Africa 46 (1): 4–6. Bibcode:1987MNSSA..46....4F.
- Hyland, A. R.; Faulkner, D. J. (1989). "From the Sun to the Universe–The Woolley and Bok Directorships at Mount Stromlo". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia 8 (2): 216–228. Bibcode:1989PASAu...8..216H.
- Stratton, F.J.M. "The History of the Cambridge Observatories" Annals of the Solar Physics Observatory, Cambridge (1949)
- Lovell, Bernard (1971). "The Gold Medal: Sir Richard Woolley". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 12 (2): 135–137. Bibcode:1971QJRAS..12..135L.
- WOOLLEY, Sir Richard (van der Riet), Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2015; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014
- Cleator, P.E. (1936). Rockets Through Space; or, The Dawn of Interplanetary Travel. London: G.Allen & Unwin, ltd. OCLC 123158265.
- Woolley, Richard (1936). "Book Review: Rockets in Space, by P.E. Cleator". Nature 137 (3463): 417–470. Bibcode:1936Natur.137..417.. doi:10.1038/137417a0.
- Staff writers (16 January 1956). "Utter Bilge?". Time. Retrieved 2008-02-24.
- J.A. Terry & John Rudge (16 September 1995). "Current affairs". New Scientist.
- Australian Academy of Science
- Online catalogue of Woolley's working papers (part of the Royal Greenwich Observatory Archives held at Cambridge University Library)