Global education

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Global education is a set of ideas taught to enhance one's perception of the world. It is taught within the curriculum where teachers integrate multiple dimensions, perspectives, and citizenships into everyday lessons.[1] It began as an undertaking to restructure education and society in the 1960s and 1970s, through the initiatives of educationalists, NGOs and intergovernmental organizations. This global approach seeks to break an educational program that is stuck in subject knowledge and national culture, and instead, seeks to discover alternative motivations for education and alternate futures.[2] Students learning to be global citizens through global education will learn more about international communities, social justice issues, and global events within a typical classroom setting.[3]

Other definitions[edit]

Australia:[4]

  • Enables young people to participate in shaping a better, shared future for the world. It emphasises the unity and interdependence of human society, developing a sense of self and appreciation of cultural diversity, affirmation of social justice and human rights, as well as building peace and actions for a sustainable future at different times and places.
  • Promotes positive values and prods students to take responsibility for their actions and to see themselves as global citizens who can contribute to a more peaceful, just and sustainable world.

United Kingdom:[5]

  • It is not a subject but a dimension that runs through the curriculum, an extra filter to help children make sense of all the information and opinions the world throws at them. It combines methodology - active and experiential discussion based activities, a caring, co-operative and open outlook on the classroom experience, and core concerns- finding out about all the world's cultures and groups, about the causes of poverty and inequality and about the environment.
  • It is a way of approaching everything being taught and how it is taught. It broadens horizons and encourages exploration of all subjects from a global perspective.

Network of Young Europeans:[6]

  • A creative approach to bring about change in society.
  • An active learning process based on the universal values of tolerance, solidarity, equality, justice, inclusion, co-operation and non-violence.
  • It begins with raising awareness of global challenges and creates a deeper understanding of the complex underlying issues thereby changing people‘s attitudes and encourages them to reflect on their own role in the world.

Tokyo Global Engineering Corporation:

  • The application of currently accepted scientific principles to the design of projects that cannot be implemented until the emergence of a global state. An example is an updated version of the Cosmopolitan Railway, using a vactrain instead of rail.

History[edit]

Throughout the colonial period, Dutch, French, and British universities established branch institutions or sponsored new schools in colonies. In Latin America and the Philippines, Roman Catholic universities established institutions and religious orders, like the Jesuits, attempted what may now be alluded to as multinational advanced education activities. History shows the fare of instructive foundations and the connecting of establishments from multiple nations for the most part spoke to a union of unequals. Outside institutions control local branches, or new institutions, which forces the outside institutions beliefs ideologies onto the new institution. New institutions are founded on foreign ideas and values. When initiatives or institutions are transported across borders, academic models, programs and curriculum from the older system are more accepted and generally last longer.

The idea of transporting academic institutions abroad is still a growing wonder, although not new. Traditional colonialism and government-sponsored programs created during the Cold War transported institutional models, methods, and curriculum from the home country to creating nations. A few number of esteemed American institutions have established campuses worldwide, typically in popular fields, such as business. The University of Chicago’s Business school has a campus in Spain where students in Spain and other European countries use the standard curriculum used at Chicago. Faculty from the University of Chicago teach the courses with an international focus. The program also includes a study abroad trip to the home campus. A surprising model of multinationalization is being under-taken by Singapore, which is welcoming various esteemed outside colleges, for example, the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School, to begin programs in Singapore. The foundations, which are deliberately chosen by the Singapore government, are offered motivating forces to come to Singapore. In a related pattern, various US-supported colleges have been built up in Kyrgyzstan, Qatar and Bulgaria, among different spots. These schools regularly begin through neighborhood activity, with solid connections to American colleges, and are for the most part managed by the US accomplices and, authorize in the US. Classes are taught in English and the curriculum is based off the United States.

"Twinning" programs have also begun to grow in popularity worldwide. These programs connect an academic institution in one nation with an accomplice school in another nation. Normally, the connections are amongst North and South, with the college in the North giving the essential educational modules and introduction. In such courses of action, scholarly degrees are regularly mutually granted. Twinning has the benefit of supporting establishments in the South in growing new curricular offerings, with the blessing of an outside college.

There are numerous aspects to the new multinationalization of advanced education. In most cases, the focal objective for the majority of the partners, particularly those in the North, is to procure a benefit. Foundations in the South that are pulled in to multinational activities may likewise be occupied with profiting and they are likewise worried about taking care of developing demand for access to higher training and giving new degree programs that may not be profit capable in local schools. Similarly, as with different parts of globalization in higher training, multinational plans between establishments are set apart by imbalance.[7]

Parts[edit]

Teachers work with students to teach them how to be Global Citizens. Global Citizens will bring international perspectives to their ideas creating a mindset that they are deeply connected to everyone in the world. Global citizens will embrace cultural and human diversity. Many schools are leaning towards adding global education to the curricula in order to build global citizens for a hope for a better society.[8]

Global Education deals with Social Justice issues across the world. Social Justice is taught to advocate for a better society in which people have equal accessibility to resources and equal treatment regardless of race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, class, or able-bodiedness. By creating a comfortable community, teachers can spark conversations with students that explore social justice issues locally and around the world to help understand the complexities of societies. Many teachers of Global Education expect students to be active in their community and challenge social justice issues outside of school. This can be done through community service engagement.[9]

Diversity is complex and can relate to many different topics. Teaching diversity though Global Education promotes a healthy and equal classroom that will reflect in the community. Understanding diversity allows students to have an open mind about others and life. They are able to address differences appropriately and have a deep understanding about themselves. This will allow for the world to become an inclusive place where issues among race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, class, or able-bodiedness are addressed correctly and with respect.[10]

In the United States[edit]

The National Education Association (NEA) recognizes Global Education to be a goal that educators strive to succeed in the classroom. The American association supports study abroad trips and teaching overseas for teachers to get a first hand experience of different cultures.[11]

Universities in the United States are also expanding their study abroad programs to enhance greater interconnectedness and global economic interdependence. The Institute of International Education (IIE) is researching effective ways that higher education in the United States can grow and create quality study abroad programs within the curriculum.[12]

Many K-12 schools within the United States have adapted a Global Education Framework that was created for state wide implementation. Within this framework consist of six essential steps for a successful global education curriculum within each school:[13]

  1. Global Competency Standards for Students and Teachers
  2. Effective and Scalable Teacher Supports, Resources, and Tools for infusing classroom with global knowledge and skills
  3. A New Approach to Language Instruction that includes statewide dual language/immersion plan beginning in elementary school
  4. Whole-School Models that include internationally-themes schools, transformation models for low-performing schools, and regional duel language/immersion schools
  5. Networking and Recognizing Districts, Schools, and Educators to drive implementation and innovation
  6. Global Experiences for Students and Educators including teacher exchange, educational travel, virtual exchange, and global academic competitions

American universities global education programs[edit]

Universities in the United States have recently been expanding on the degree programs relating to global education. Many universities offer Bachelor Degree programs and certifications in Global Education, M.S. degrees in Global and International Education, M.A. degrees in International Education, and doctorate degrees in International Education.[14]

Careers[edit]

People with a degree in International Education design, implement, manage, and evaluate multiple education programs within public and private primary and secondary schools, public and private higher education programs, national corporations, and cultural agencies. People in the job field can work at agencies across the world, within elite universities, and a variety of global education organizations.[15]

Awards and organizations[edit]

In January 2016, the Institute of International Education (IIE) announced the winners at the annual IIE Andrew Heiskell Awards for Innovation on International Education. The Heiskell awards were created to promote and honor outstanding commitments conducted in international higher education. Categories of the awards include: Internationalizing the Campus, Study Abroad, International Partnerships, and Internationalizing the HBCU. These awards hope to bring public awareness to the benefits of international education.[16]

The International Education Association of Australia (IEAA) awards professionals in the global education field for their outstanding contributions to international education in Australia by providing excellence and best practice. The International Education Association of Australia (IEAA) also supports the international education communities’ research, projects, journalism, publications, and more areas that contribute to the global perspectives in education.[17]

Children's literature[edit]

Evidence based practices have shown that literature can help children learn about global issues. By exploring diversity in text, connecting the literature to service learning and activism, promote critical thinking about themselves in the global community, and develop their global awareness with literacy elements. Literature introduced in the classroom can teach multiple skills that prepare for further learning within the global community.[18]

Technology[edit]

Technology is a key provider in learning about globalization and participating in the global community. Technology can be used in the classroom to communicate around the world, establish global relationships, learn more about global current events, and developing global research. The advancements of technology will have a positive impact of global education in primary schools and higher education schools.[19]

Information technology[edit]

Academic institutions have started using information technology (IT) to offer degree programs and other curriculum to students who are outside of the campus. Distance education is quickly growing both inside nations and universally. IT is starting to shape educating and learning and is affecting the administration of academic institutions. Distance education is not a new phenomenon, it has been around for years. The University of South Africa has been granting academic degrees to students through correspondence for decades. IT has greatly extended the range and methodological advancement of distance education, in the process adding to the development of separation training foundations.[7]

Service learning[edit]

A key role of global education is participating in service learning within the community or abroad. Service learning provides people with hands on learning with direct engagement and awareness with real word systematic issues. These issues can range between varieties of topics that can affect a community. Participating in service learning can strengthen the community as well as create deeper knowledge about how to create a better world. Service learning is considered a key factor in becoming a global citizen. Many schools around the world are starting to incorporate service-learning activities within the curriculum to promote the importance of community involvement.[20]

Service learning or local volunteer service work are included in conceptualized global citizenship programs. This approach is criticized because global relations are dramatically split into rich and poor, or oppressor and oppressed, respectively. Experiences of oppression are more complex than experiences of oppressing. Global citizenship education includes connecting nearby and worldwide issues and points of view and may incorporate such themes as human rights, social equity, and citizenship instruction, economic improvement, and globalization. Service learning can carry the possibility to recreate social disparities and advance, instead of dissipate, stereotypes.[21]

Service learning programs are different from other ways for experiential education by their intention to similarly benefit the provider and the recipient of the service and to keep equal focus on the service being given as well as the learning that is happening. Service learning programs are designed to mix service into courses. These programs are expected to provide services to others while also help the student to better understand their course, topics, or educational focus or major.[22]

In South Carolina, Delaware, Kentucky, and Vermont, service learning is firmly advanced as a system for education reform. Service learning builds up students' feeling of civic and social duty and their citizenship abilities. Students who engage in service learning are more occupied with their service and more spurred to learn. Service learning can also result in students feeling as though they have learned more in their classes. At the point when service learning meets a genuine group need and incorporates significant arranging, administration, reflection, and celebration, it normally prevails with regards to connecting with understudies in the learning undertaking. Service learning has gained more popularity among educational institutions in recent years and has also spread across the country. The number of supporters of service learning continues to increase as well.[23]

Essential elements of service learning[edit]

There are several elements that make service learning effective.[23]

  1. Clear educational objectives that require the use of ideas, substance, and abilities from the academic disciplines and include students in the development of their own insight.
  2. Students are occupied with assignments that test and extend them intellectually and formatively.
  3. Appraisal is utilized as an approach to improve understudy learning and in addition to archive and assess how well understudies have met substance and ability benchmarks.
  4. Students are occupied with benefit assignments that have clear objectives, address certified issues in the school or group, and have huge results for themselves as well as other people.
  5. Developmental and summative assessment are utilized in an orderly assessment of the administration exertion and its result.
  6. Student voice is amplified in choosing, outlining, actualizing, and assessing the administration venture.
  7. Decent variety is esteemed as exhibited by its members, its training, and its results.
  8. Correspondence and cooperation with the group are advanced and associations and joint effort are supported.
  9. Students are set up for all parts of their administration work. They have an unmistakable comprehension of errands and parts, and additionally the aptitudes and data required by the undertakings; attention to security precautionary measures; and information about and affectability to the general population with whom they will work.
  10. Student reflection happens previously, amid, and after administration; utilizes numerous techniques that empower basic reasoning; and is a focal power in the plan and satisfaction of curricular goals.
  11. Various strategies are intended to recognize, celebrate, and additionally approve understudies' administration work.

Organizations dealing with global education[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Diversity in the Classroom | Center for Teaching and Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://ctl.yale.edu/teaching/ideas-teaching/diversity-classroom
  2. ^ Standish, Alex (2014). "What is global education and where is it taking us?". The Curriculum Journal. 25: 166–186. 
  3. ^ Teaching Kids to be Global Citizens | Scholastic.com. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/teaching-kids-be-global-citizens
  4. ^ "What is". Global Education. Retrieved 2015-05-20. 
  5. ^ a b "The Global Teacher Project". Globalteacher.org.uk. Retrieved 2015-05-20. 
  6. ^ "What is global education? | GLEN". Glen-europe.org. Retrieved 2015-05-20. 
  7. ^ a b Altbach, Philip G. “Globalisation and the University: Myths and Realities in an Unequal World.” Tertiary Education and Management, vol. 10, no. 1, 2004, pp. 3–25., doi:10.1023/b:team.0000012239.55136.4b.
  8. ^ The Global Teacher Project. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://www.globalteacher.org.uk/global_ed.htm
  9. ^ Global Education. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://www.globaleducation.edu.au/
  10. ^ Tulasiewicz, W. (2012). Global values education: Teaching democracy and peace. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 42(4), 666-669. doi:10.1080/03057925.2012.686875
  11. ^ Global Education in the U.S. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://www.nea.org/home/37297.htm
  12. ^ Meeting America's Global Education Challenge. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://www.iie.org/Research-and-Publications/Research-Projects/Study-Abroad-Capacity-Research-Initiative
  13. ^ Framework for State Action on Global Education - P21. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://www.p21.org/our-work/global-education
  14. ^ US Programs. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://www.cies.us/?page=Programs
  15. ^ Department of Humanities and Social Sciences in the Professions. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/humsocsci/international/CareersinInternationalEducation
  16. ^ Press Release. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://www.iie.org/Who-We-Are/News-and-Events/Press-Center/Press-Releases/2016/2016-01-25-IIE-Announces-Winners-of-2016-Heiskell-Awards
  17. ^ IEAA Excellence Awards 2015. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from https://www.ieaa.org.au/what-we-do/ieaa-excellence-awards
  18. ^ ERIC - Breaking Boundaries with Global Literature: Celebrating Diversity in K-12 Classrooms, International Reading Association (NJ3), 2007. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED497893
  19. ^ Mapping the future: The future of education. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://reports.weforum.org/outlook-global-agenda-2015/future-agenda/mapping-the-future-the-future-of-education/
  20. ^ Center for Global Education. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://globaleducation.rutgers.edu/index.cfm?FuseAction=Abroad.ViewLink
  21. ^ Aktas, Fatih, et al. “Institutionalizing Global Citizenship.” Journal of Studies in International Education, vol. 21, no. 1, 2016, pp. 65–80., doi:10.1177/1028315316669815.
  22. ^ Furco, Andrew. “SERVICE-LEARNING: A BALANCED APPROACH TO EXPERIENTIAL EDUCATION .” University of Nebraska Omaha, digitalcommons.unomaha.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1104&context=slceslgen.
  23. ^ a b Billig, Shelley H. "Research on K-12 School-Based Service Learning: The Evidence Builds." Phi Delta Kappan 81.9 (2000): 658-64. ProQuest. Web. 4 Mar. 2018.
  24. ^ "DEEEP Homepage". Deeep.org. Retrieved 2015-05-20. 
  25. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20140822182633/http://glen-europe.org/. Archived from the original on August 22, 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)

Further reading[edit]