The presence of glomerulations, also known as petechial hemorrhages, in the bladder suggests that the bladder wall has been damaged, irritated and/or inflamed. In fact, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Diagnostic Criteria for IC, developed in 1987, required the presence of glomerulations or Hunner's Ulcers to make a firm diagnosis of IC and is still used, today, to determine patient eligibility for some clinical trials. Research conducted by Waxman,[clarification needed] however, determined that the hydrodistention procedure itself may have created these tiny broken blood vessels. Thus, a diagnosis of IC is now based upon other, less invasive methods, such as the PUF questionnaire.
In addition to traditional IC therapies, diet modification remains a core self care strategy as foods that are irritating to the bladder dramatically worsen the symptoms that patients may experience. Foods high in acid and/or caffeine (such as all coffees, regular teas, green teas, sodas, diet sodas, artificial sweeteners and most fruit juices) should be avoided. The daily goal of patients should be to soothe rather than irritate the bladder wall.