Gonadotropin release inhibitor
The hormone of gonadotropins secreted by the anterior hypophyse gland effects on the gonads and play a crucial role in the process of gonadal development and function in vertebrates. In birds and mammals, luteinizinghormone (LH) regulates sex steroid production as well as ovulation, whereas follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) promotes spermatogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation. Since the isolation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a hypothalamic decapeptide, from mammalian brain in the early 1970s, several other GnRHs have been identified in the brains of other vertebrates. Based on extensive studies in vertebrates, it was generally believed that GnRH is the only hypothalamic regulator of the release of pituitary gonadotropins. Some neurochemicals and peripheral hormones [e.g.gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), opiates, gonadal sex steroids, inhibin] can modulate gonadotropin release, but GnRH was considered to have no hypothalamic antagonist.
- Tsutsui K, Bentley GE, Bedecarrats G, Osugi T, Ubuka T, Kriegsfeld LJ (2010). "Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and its control of central and peripheral reproductive function". Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 31 (3): 284–95. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2010.03.001. PMID 20211640.
- Ubuka T, Son YL, Tobari Y, Tsutsui K (2012). "Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone action in the brain and pituitary". Frontiers in Endocrinology. 3: 148. doi:10.3389/fendo.2012.00148. PMC . PMID 23233850.
- Ubuka T, Son YL, Bentley GE, Millar RP, Tsutsui K (2013). "Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), GnIH receptor and cell signaling". General and Comparative Endocrinology. 190: 10–7. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2013.02.030. PMID 23499786.