Vasoactive intestinal peptide

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Vasoactive intestinal peptide
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols VIP ; PHM27
External IDs OMIM192320 MGI98933 HomoloGene2539 ChEMBL: 5737 GeneCards: VIP Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE VIP 206577 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7432 22353
Ensembl ENSG00000146469 ENSMUSG00000019772
UniProt P01282 P32648
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003381 NM_011702
RefSeq (protein) NP_003372 NP_035832
Location (UCSC) Chr 6:
152.75 – 152.76 Mb
Chr 10:
5.64 – 5.65 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Vasoactive intestinal peptide also known as the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. VIP is a neuropeptide that belongs to a glucagon/secretin superfamily, the ligand of class II G protein-coupled receptors.[1] VIP is produced in many tissues of vertebrates including the gut, pancreas, and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus in the brain.[2][3] VIP stimulates contractility in the heart, causes vasodilation, increases glycogenolysis, lowers arterial blood pressure and relaxes the smooth muscle of trachea, stomach and gall bladder. In humans, the vasoactive intestinal peptide is encoded by the VIP gene.[4]

VIP has a half-life (t½) in the blood of about two minutes.


VIP has an effect on several tissues:

  • It is also found in the brain and some autonomic nerves. One region of the brain includes a specific area of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the location of the 'master circadian pacemaker'. The SCN coordinates daily timekeeping in the body and VIP plays a key role in communication between individual brain cells within this region. Further, VIP is also involved in synchronising the timing of SCN function with the environmental light-dark cycle. Combined, these roles in the SCN make VIP a crucial component of the mammalian circadian timekeeping machinery.


VIP is overproduced in VIPoma.[5] Can be associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (Pituitary, parathyroid and pancreatic tumors). Symptoms are typically:

  • Profuse non-bloody/non-mucoid diarrhea (3L+) causing dehydration and the associated electrolyte disturbances such as hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis.
  • Lethargy and exhaustion may ensue

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Umetsu Y, Tenno T, Goda N, Shirakawa M, Ikegami T, Hiroaki H (May 2011). "Structural difference of vasoactive intestinal peptide in two distinct membrane-mimicking environments". Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta 1814 (5): 724–30. doi:10.1016/j.bbapap.2011.03.009. PMID 21439408. 
  2. ^ Fahrenkrug J, Emson PC (Sep 1982). "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: functional aspects". British Medical Bulletin 38 (3): 265–70. PMID 6129023. 
  3. ^ Said SI (Apr 1986). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide". Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 9 (2): 191–200. doi:10.1007/bf03348097. PMID 2872248. 
  4. ^ Linder S, Barkhem T, Norberg A, Persson H, Schalling M, Hökfelt T, Magnusson G (Jan 1987). "Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 84 (2): 605–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.2.605. PMC 304259. PMID 3025882. 
  5. ^ a b c Bowen R (1999-01-24). "Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide". Pathophysiology of the Endocrine System: Gastrointestinal Hormones. Colorado State University. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  6. ^ "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide". General Practice Notebook. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  7. ^ Bergman RA, Afifi AK, Heidger PM. "Plate 6.111 Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)". Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy: Section 6 - Nervous Tissue. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  8. ^ Sanders MJ, Amirian DA, Ayalon A, Soll AH (Nov 1983). "Regulation of pepsinogen release from canine chief cells in primary monolayer culture". The American Journal of Physiology 245 (5 Pt 1): G641–6. PMID 6195927. 
  9. ^ Kulick RS, Chaiseha Y, Kang SW, Rozenboim I, El Halawani ME (Jul 2005). "The relative importance of vasoactive intestinal peptide and peptide histidine isoleucine as physiological regulators of prolactin in the domestic turkey". General and Comparative Endocrinology 142 (3): 267–73. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2004.12.024. PMID 15935152. 
  10. ^ Ottesen B, Pedersen B, Nielsen J, Dalgaard D, Wagner G, Fahrenkrug J (1987). "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) provokes vaginal lubrication in normal women". Peptides 8 (5): 797–800. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(87)90061-1. PMID 3432128. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]