Vasoactive intestinal peptide

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Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases VIP, PHM27, vasoactive intestinal peptide
External IDs OMIM: 192320 MGI: 98933 HomoloGene: 2539 GeneCards: VIP
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE VIP 206577 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 6: 152.75 – 152.76 Mb Chr 10: 5.64 – 5.65 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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Vasoactive intestinal peptide, also known as the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or VIP, is a peptide hormone that is vasoactive in the intestine. VIP is a neuropeptide of 28 amino acid residues that belongs to a glucagon/secretin superfamily, the ligand of class II G protein–coupled receptors.[3] VIP is produced in many tissues of vertebrates including the gut, pancreas, and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus in the brain.[4][5] VIP stimulates contractility in the heart, causes vasodilation, increases glycogenolysis, lowers arterial blood pressure and relaxes the smooth muscle of trachea, stomach and gall bladder. In humans, the vasoactive intestinal peptide is encoded by the VIP gene.[6]

VIP has a half-life (t½) in the blood of about two minutes.


VIP has an effect on several tissues:


VIP is overproduced in VIPoma.[7] Can be associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (Pituitary, parathyroid and pancreatic tumors). Symptoms are typically:

  • Profuse non-bloody/non-mucoid diarrhea (3L+) causing dehydration and the associated electrolyte disturbances such as hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis.
  • Lethargy and exhaustion may ensue

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Umetsu Y, Tenno T, Goda N, Shirakawa M, Ikegami T, Hiroaki H (May 2011). "Structural difference of vasoactive intestinal peptide in two distinct membrane-mimicking environments". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1814 (5): 724–30. doi:10.1016/j.bbapap.2011.03.009. PMID 21439408. 
  4. ^ Fahrenkrug J, Emson PC (September 1982). "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: functional aspects". British Medical Bulletin. 38 (3): 265–70. PMID 6129023. 
  5. ^ Said SI (April 1986). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide". Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 9 (2): 191–200. doi:10.1007/bf03348097. PMID 2872248. 
  6. ^ Linder S, Barkhem T, Norberg A, Persson H, Schalling M, Hökfelt T, Magnusson G (January 1987). "Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 84 (2): 605–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.2.605. PMC 304259Freely accessible. PMID 3025882. 
  7. ^ a b c Bowen R (1999-01-24). "Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide". Pathophysiology of the Endocrine System: Gastrointestinal Hormones. Colorado State University. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  8. ^ "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide". General Practice Notebook. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  9. ^ Bergman RA, Afifi AK, Heidger PM. "Plate 6.111 Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)". Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy: Section 6 - Nervous Tissue. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  10. ^ Sanders MJ, Amirian DA, Ayalon A, Soll AH (November 1983). "Regulation of pepsinogen release from canine chief cells in primary monolayer culture". The American Journal of Physiology. 245 (5 Pt 1): G641–6. PMID 6195927. 
  11. ^ Kulick RS, Chaiseha Y, Kang SW, Rozenboim I, El Halawani ME (July 2005). "The relative importance of vasoactive intestinal peptide and peptide histidine isoleucine as physiological regulators of prolactin in the domestic turkey". General and Comparative Endocrinology. 142 (3): 267–73. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2004.12.024. PMID 15935152. 
  12. ^ Ottesen B, Pedersen B, Nielsen J, Dalgaard D, Wagner G, Fahrenkrug J (1987). "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) provokes vaginal lubrication in normal women". Peptides. 8 (5): 797–800. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(87)90061-1. PMID 3432128. 

Further reading[edit]

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