Gordon B. Hancock

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Gordon Blaine Hancock
Gordon Blaine Hancock.jpg
Dr. Hancock in 1931
BornJune 23, 1884
DiedJuly 24, 1970
Known forSouthern Conference on Race Relations, Double-duty dollar

Gordon Blaine Hancock (June 23, 1884 – July 24, 1970) was a professor at Virginia Union University and a leading spokesman for African American equality in the generation before the civil rights movement.[1]

Hancock was a nationally-syndicated columnist for the Norfolk Journal and Guide whose columns were published in 114 black newspapers.[1] He was one of the organizers of the 1942 Southern Conference on Race Relations and gave the opening keynote address.[2][3] This conference led to the publication of "A Basis for Inter-Racial Cooperation and Development in the South: A Statement by Southern Negroes," known as the Durham Manifesto, which asserted that the group was "fundamentally opposed to the principle and practice of segregation," including staunch opposition to Jim Crow.[4]

Hancock joined the faculty at Virginia Union University in 1921.[1] He became the chairman of the department of Economics and Sociology as well as the Director of the Francis J. Torrance School of Race Relations at Virginia Union University.[5] He linked education to activism, requiring students to perform community service, and encouraged black people to patronize black-owned businesses, calling this the "Double Duty Dollar." [1]

Personal life[edit]

Gordon Hancock and his church.

Hancock was born in Ninety Six, South Carolina to Robert and Anna Hancock who had been formerly enslaved.[6][1] He earned degrees from Benedict College and Colgate University, and received a master's degree in sociology from Harvard University. [1] He was married to Florence Marie Dickson. He was the pastor of Moore Street Baptist church in Richmond from 1925 until he retired in 1963.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Gavins, Raymond (1970-07-24). "Hancock, Gordon Blaine (1884–1970)". Retrieved 2019-01-29.
  2. ^ "Durham Manifesto". Encyclopedia.com. 1942-10-20. Retrieved 2019-01-29.
  3. ^ "October 1942: The Southern Conference on Race Relations and the "Durham Manifesto" « North Carolina Miscellany". UNC Chapel Hill Libraries. 2010-10-01. Retrieved 2019-01-29.
  4. ^ "Durham Manifesto". Museum of Durham History. 2013-11-10. Retrieved 2019-01-29.
  5. ^ Hancock, Gordon (1931). At Calm Sedalia. Norfolk, VA: Guide Publishing Co.
  6. ^ Gavins, Raymond (1974). "Gordon Blaine Hancock: A Black Profile From the New South". The Journal of Negro History. University of Chicago Press. 59 (3): 207–227. doi:10.2307/2716763. ISSN 0022-2992.