Grammar-based codes or Grammar-based compression are compression algorithms based on the idea of constructing a context-free grammar (CFG) for the string to be compressed. Examples include universal lossless data compression algorithms. To compress a data sequence , a grammar-based code transforms into a context-free grammar . The problem of finding a smallest grammar for an input sequence is known to be NP-hard, so many grammar-transform algorithms are proposed from theoretical and practical viewpoints. Generally, the produced grammar is further compressed by statistical encoders like arithmetic coding.
Examples and characteristics
The class of grammar-based codes is very broad. It includes block codes, variations of the incremental parsing Lempel-Ziv code, the multilevel pattern matching (MPM) algorithm, and many other new universal lossless compression algorithms. Grammar-based codes are universal in the sense that they can achieve asymptotically the entropy rate of any stationary, ergodic source with a finite alphabet.
The compression programs of the following are available from external links.
- Sequitur is a classical grammar compression algorithm that sequentially translates an input text into a CFG, and then the produced CFG is encoded by an arithmetic coder.
- Re-Pair is a greedy algorithm using the strategy of most-frequent-first substitution. The compressive performance is powerful, although the main memory space requirement is very large.
- GLZA, which constructs a grammar that may be reducible, i.e., contain repeats, where the entropy-coding cost of "spelling out" the repeats is less than the cost creating and entropy-coding a rule to capture them. (In general, the compression-optimal SLG is not irreducible, and the Smallest Grammar Problem is different from the actual SLG compression problem.)
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- Conrad, Kennon J.; Wilson, Paul R. (2016), "Grammatical Ziv-Lempel Compression: Achieving PPM-Class Text Compression Ratios with LZ-Class Decompression Speed", IEEE Data Compression Conference (DCC), doi:10.1109/DCC.2016.119