Gyraulus

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Gyraulus
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous - Recent, 125–0 Ma
Gyraulus (Armiger) crista.JPG
Two shells of Gyraulus crista
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia
clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Hygrophila
Superfamily: Planorboidea
Family: Planorbidae
Subfamily: Planorbinae
Tribe: Planorbini[1]
Genus: Gyraulus
Charpentier, 1837[2]
Type species
Planorbis albus O. F. Müller, 1774
Synonyms
  • Anisus (Gyraulus) Agassiz in Charpentier, 1837 (Gyraulus has genus rank)
  • Armiger Hartmann, 1843 (Armiger is ranked as subgenus of Gyraulus)
  • Caillaudia Bourguignat, 1883
  • Glyptanisus Iredale, 1943
  • Gyraulus (Armiger) Hartmann, 1843
  • Gyraulus (Caillaudia) Bourguignat, 1883
  • Gyraulus (Carinogyraulus) Polinski, 1929
  • Gyraulus (Choanomphalodes) Lindholm, 1927
  • Gyraulus (Gyraulus) Charpentier, 1837
  • Gyraulus (Lamorbis) Starobogatov, 1967
  • Gyraulus (Torquis) Dall, 1905
  • Planorbis (Armiger) Hartmann, 1843 (Armiger is ranked as subgenus of Gyraulus)
  • Planorbis (Gyraulus) Agassiz in Charpentier, 1837 (Gyraulus is treated as separate genus)

Gyraulus is a genus of small, mostly air-breathing, freshwater snails, aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails.[3]

The genus Gyraulus is known from the Early Cretaceous to the present. Fossils attributed to Gyraulus sp. have been found in the lakebottom sediments of the Yixian Formation in China, dating to 125 million years ago.[4]

The minute species Gyraulus crista, although technically a pulmonate gastropod, does not use air for respiration, but instead has a mantle cavity which is full of water.

Distribution[edit]

The distribution of this genus is Holarctic.

Habitat[edit]

These snail snails live on water plants in freshwater.

Shell description[edit]

Shell of the species within this genus are small, and are mostly almost planispiral in their coiling.

Species[edit]

Species within the genus Gyraulus include:

subgenus Armiger W. Hartmann, 1843[5]

subgenus Carinogyraulus Polinski, 1929:[7] represented as Gyraulus

subgenus Gyraulus Charpentier, 1837

subgenus Lamorbis Starobogatov, 1967:[9] represented as Gyraulis

subgenus Nautilinus Mousson, 1872[10]

subgenus Torquis Dall, 1905[12]

subgenus ?

Species inquerenda
  • Gyraulus acutus Clessin, 1907
  • Gyraulus percarinatus Paraense, 2000 name unavailable under ICZN Art. 16.4)
Species brought into synonymy
  • Gyraulus deformis Hartmann, 1844: synonym of Gyraulus acronicus (Férussac, 1807)
  • Gyraulus trochiformis applanatus (Thomä, 1845): synonym of † Gyraulus applanatus (Thomä, 1845)
  • Gyraulus (Gyraulus) trochiformis applanatus var. ludovici (Noulet, 1854): synonym of † Gyraulus ludovici (Noulet, 1854)
  • Gyraulus (Gyraulus) trochiformis kleini var. aequeumbilicatus (Hilgendorf, 1867): synonym of † Gyraulus kleini (Gottschick & Wenz, 1916)
  • Gyraulus (Gyraulus) trochiformis kleini var. subinvolutus Gottschick, 1920: synonym of † Gyraulus kleini (Gottschick & Wenz, 1916)
  • Gyraulus (Gyraulus) trochiformis kleini var. subkleini Gottschick, 1920: synonym of † Gyraulus kleini (Gottschick & Wenz, 1916)
  • Gyraulus (Gyraulus) trochiformis steinheimensis var. parvus (Hilgendorf, 1867): synonym of † Gyraulus steinheimensis (Hilgendorf, 1867)
  • Gyraulus (Gyraulus) trochiformis subhemistoma var. teres (Hilgendorf, 1867): synonym of † Gyraulus minutus (Hilgendorf, 1867)
  • Gyraulus (Gyraulus) trochiformis subhemistoma var. triquetrus (Hilgendorf, 1867): synonym of † Gyraulus triquetrus (Hilgendorf, 1867)
  • Gyraulus (Gyraulus) trochiformis trochiformis var. elegans (Hilgendorf, 1867): synonym of † Gyraulus trochiformis (Stahl, 1824)
  • Gyraulus (Gyraulus) trochiformis trochiformis var. turbiniformis (von Zieten, 1832): synonym of † Gyraulus trochiformis (Stahl, 1824)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Albrecht C., Kuhn K. & Streit B. (2007). "A molecular phylogeny of Planorboidea (Gastropoda, Pulmonata): insights from enhanced taxon sampling". Zoologica Scripta 36: 27-39. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00258.x.
  2. ^ Charpentier J. de (1837). "Catalogue des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles de la Suisse. Formant la seconde partie de la faune Helvétique". Neue Denkschriften der Allgemeinen Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die Gesammten Naturwissenschaften - Nouveaux Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles 1(2): 1-28, Tab. I-II [= 1-2]. Neuchatel. page 21.
  3. ^ Ivanov M., Hrdličková, S. & Gregorová, R. (2001) Encyklopedie zkamenělin. – Rebo Productions, Dobřejovice, 1. vydání, 312 pp., page 126. (in Czech)
  4. ^ Pan, H. and Zhu, X. (2007). "Early Cretaceous non-marine gastropods from the Xiazhuang Formation in North China." Cretaceous Research, 28(2): 215-224. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2006.12.001
  5. ^ Hartmann W. (1840). Erd- u. Süssw. Gast. (1), "Syst. Ueber."; 1842, (5, 6), 172.
  6. ^ "Armiger". Fauna Europaea, last update 27 January 2011, accessed 1 May 2011.
  7. ^ Polinski (1929). Glasnik srps. Kralj. Akad. Belgrade 65, 134, 161, 163.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Gyraulus". Fauna Europaea, last update 27 January 2011, accessed 1 May 2011.
  9. ^ Starobogatov (1967). Trudy zool. Inst. Leningr. 42: 296.
  10. ^ Mousson A. (1873) [September 1872]. N. Denkschr. schweiz. Ges. 25: 15.
  11. ^ "Nautilinus". Fauna Europaea, last update 27 January 2011, accessed 1 May 2011.
  12. ^ Dall (1905). Harriman Alaska Exp. 13: 83, 86.
  13. ^ a b "Torquis". Fauna Europaea, last update 27 January 2011, accessed 1 May 2011.
  14. ^ (German) Glöer P. & Bössneck U. (2007). "Zur Identität von Gyraulus piscinarum (Bourguignat, 1852) mit der Beschreibung von G. bekaensis n. sp. (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)". Mollusca 25(2): 139-146. PDF
  15. ^ ncbi: Gyraulus convexiusculus
  16. ^ Appleton C., Ghamizi M., Jørgensen A., Kristensen T. K., Lange C., Stensgaard A-S. & Van Damme D. (2009). Gyraulus costulatus. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 March 2011
  17. ^ a b c d e "Carinogyraulus". Fauna Europaea, last update 27 January 2011, accessed 1 May 2011.
  18. ^ Vinarski M.V., Glöer P. & Palatov D.M. (2013) Gyraulus elenae sp. n. — a new planorbid snail from eastern Turkey (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Zootaxa 3664(1): 095–098
  19. ^ Brown D. S. (1996). Gyraulus mauritianus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 7 August 2007.
  20. ^ a b "Lamorbis". Fauna Europaea, last update 27 January 2011, accessed 1 May 2011.

External links[edit]