HEAT repeat

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HEAT repeat
Alpha solenoid pp2a 2iae with single repeat center.png
An example of an alpha solenoid structure composed of 15 HEAT repeats. The protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit is shown with the N-terminus in blue at bottom and the C-terminus in red at top. A single helix-turn-helix motif is shown in the center with the outer helix in pink, the inner helix in green, and the turn in white. From PDB: 2IAE​.[1][2]

A HEAT repeat is a protein tandem repeat structural motif composed of two alpha helices linked by a short loop. HEAT repeats can form alpha solenoids, a type of solenoid protein domain found in a number of cytoplasmic proteins. The name "HEAT" is an acronym for four proteins in which this repeat structure is found: Huntingtin, elongation factor 3 (EF3), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and the yeast kinase TOR1.[3] HEAT repeats form extended superhelical structures which are often involved in intracellular transport; they are structurally related to armadillo repeats. The nuclear transport protein importin beta contains 19 HEAT repeats.


  1. ^ Cho, Uhn Soo; Xu, Wenqing (1 November 2006). "Crystal structure of a protein phosphatase 2A heterotrimeric holoenzyme". Nature. 445 (7123): 53–57. doi:10.1038/nature05351. PMID 17086192.
  2. ^ Groves MR, Hanlon N, Turowski P, Hemmings BA, Barford D (January 1999). "The structure of the protein phosphatase 2A PR65/A subunit reveals the conformation of its 15 tandemly repeated HEAT motifs". Cell. 96 (1): 99–110. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80963-0. PMID 9989501.
  3. ^ Andrade MA, Bork P (October 1995). "HEAT repeats in the Huntington's disease protein". Nat. Genet. 11 (2): 115–6. doi:10.1038/ng1095-115. PMID 7550332.

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