HMS Cornwallis (1805)
|Operator:||Honourable East India Company|
|Builder:||M/Shipwright Jemsetjee Bomanjee, Bombay|
|Renamed:||HMS Akbar in February 1811|
|Naval General Service Medal (NGSM) with clasp "Java"|
|Fate:||Sold 1869 for breaking up|
|General characteristics [Note 1]|
|Class and type:||Fourth rate|
|Tons burthen:||1387 17⁄95, or 1360, or 1363 (bm)|
|Beam:||43 ft 1 1⁄4 in (13.138 m), or 42 ft 9 1⁄2 in (13.043 m)|
|Depth of hold:||15 ft 3 in (4.65 m), or 14 ft 10 1⁄2 in (4.534 m)|
HMS Cornwallis was a Royal Navy 54-gun fourth rate. Jemsatjee Bomanjee built the Marquis Cornwallis of teak for the Honourable East India Company (EIC) between 1800 and 1801. In March 1805 Admiral Sir Edward Pellew purchased her from the Company shortly after she returned from a voyage to Britain. She served in the Far East, sailing to Australia and the Pacific Coast of South America before returning to India. In February 1811 the Admiralty renamed her HMS Akbar. She captured forts and vessels in the Celebes and Amboyna, and participated in the invasion of Isle de France, and the 1811 invasion of Java. She also served in the West Indies before being laid up at Portsmouth in December 1816. She then stayed in Britain in a number of stationary medical and training capacities until the Admiralty sold her in the 1860s.
Service with the EIC
In December 1801, she sailed, together with the Upton Castle (an Indiaman), the Betsey ( an armed HEIC brig), some other vessels, and 1000 troops to Daman and Diu to persuade the Portuguese governor to resist any French incursion. The expedition was under the command of Captain John Mackellar, of the Royal Navy, whose own vessel, Terpsichore, was not ready for sea. The governor accepted the British reinforcements, which, as it turned out, were not needed.
Marquis Cornwallis, under the command of Captain Isaac Godsalve Richardson,[Note 3] left Bombay on 7 Feb 1803, reaching St Helena on 12 May, and arriving at the Downs on 1 August. On 8 May 1804, Marquis Cornwallis sailed from Portsmouth, still under Richardson's command. She sailed via St Helena to Bombay, where the company intended for her to remain. She was convoying the Marquis of Ely, the Marchioness of Exeter, the Lord Nelson, the Bruswick, the Princess Charlotte, the Marquis of Wellesley, and the Ann.[Note 4]
East Indies, Pacific and Indian Oceans
In 1805 Admiral Pellew purchased her for £68,630, and commissioned her "immediately". Commander Charles James Johnson took command in February 1806. She then served off Bombay and engaged in the long-distance blockade of Isle de France (now Mauritius).
On 11 November 1806, Sceptre and Cornwallis sailed into Saint Paul's Bay, on Île Bonaparte, in an attempt to cut out vessels there, which consisted of the French frigate Sémillante, three other armed ships and twelve captured British ships. (The eight ships that were prizes to Sémillante had a collective value of £1.5 million.) They fired on the French and took fire in return. However, when the slight breeze failed, Sceptre and Cornwallis found themselves unable to maneuver. They therefore left without having accomplished anything, but apparently also without having suffered damage or losses.
In February 1807, Cornwallis was ordered to Australia. After visiting Port Jackson, Cornwallis sailed to New Zealand and subsequently crossed the Pacific Ocean to the Juan Fernández Islands in the vain hope of finding enemy shipping.
Off Valparaiso, an accidental explosion caused serious damage and a number of casualties aboard the frigate, but she was still able to raid Spanish settlements in the region, capturing a number of sheep and pigs and a few small vessels on the Peruvian coast. In September, Cornwallis raided Spanish settlements and shipping near Panama and subsequently visited Acapulco and Hawaii before returning to Madras. During this voyage, on 14 December Captain Johnston sighted and named the islands at Johnston Atoll. It is unclear if any territorial claim was made to the discovery at the time.
In 1808, command passed to Captain Fleetwood Pellew. In 1808, Cornwallis, in company with Sceptre, engaged and damaged Sémillante, together with the shore batteries whose protection she had sought.
In 1809 Captain Christopher Cole took command. When he moved to Caroline, William Augustus Montagu replaced him. Montagu then engaged in a number of operations in the Dutch East Indies, attacking forts on islands in the Celebes and Amboyna.
On 17 January, Montagu and Cornwallis attacked a Dutch fort at Boolo Combo in Bouthian Bay in the Celebes. Montagu, under a flag of truce, had requested permission to water his ship. When the Dutch commander refused, the British landed a small force of 100 men from the European Madras regiment. The 30 or so Dutch troops and 200 local troops quickly gave up the fort, but continued to snipe from the woods. The British burnt 11 small vessels (20-50 tons each), and the public buildings, took the ammunition, and spiked the eight 9-pounder guns and two brass field pieces there. The action cost the British one man killed, and nine wounded, including the captain commanding the landing force, who was lightly wounded..
On 1 February Montagu spied a brig taking shelter under the guns of Manippa. He sent in three boats which brought the brig out. The British suffered no casualties despite coming under heavy small arms fire from the fort. Montagu took the cargo of foodstuffs off the brig to feed his crew, and then burnt the vessel. There were no British casualties
In February 1810, the British attacked Amboyna. In the campaign, Cornwallis captured the ship Mandarine, of 16 guns and 66 men, Captain Besman, on 3 February after a chase of four hours. Madarine had been out for four weeks but had captured nothing. Cornwallis suffered only one man wounded in the action. Mandarine then served as a tender to Cornwallis.[Note 5]
On 1 March Cornwallis chased a Dutch man-of-war brig all day until she took refuge in a small bay on the north side of the island of Amblaw. The wind being light and variable, and night approaching, Montagu sent in Cornwallis's boats, under the command of Lieutenant Henry John Peachy. After rowing all night, they captured the Dutch brig Margaritta Louisa, under Captain De Ruyter on 2 March. Margaritta Louisa was pierced for 14 guns but carried only eight, and a crew of 40 men. Margaritta Louisa had left Surabaya nine days earlier with 20 to 30,000 dollars for Ambonya, and supplies for Ternate. In the boarding, the British had one man seriously wounded and four men lightly wounded; the Dutch lost one man killed and 20 wounded.
Cornwallis, Dover, and Samarang in January 1816 shared in the prize money awarded for sundry property captured on and off Ambonya between 19 February 1810 and 21 March.[Note 6] Cornwallis and Dover also shared in Samarang's capture on 28 March of the Dutch brig Recruiter.[Note 7]
In late 1810, Cornwallis was deployed with Albemarle Bertie's squadron that forced the surrender of Isle de France. William Fisher took command in December 1810 after Montagu was selected from among the captains assembled for the invasion and reassigned to lead a naval brigade in support of the British Army forces' ground offensive.[Note 8]
In February 1811, Cornwallis was renamed HMS Akbar, freeing the name for the 3rd-rate ship of the line HMS Cornwallis that was launched in Bombay in 1813. For the next four years Akbar remained in the Indian Ocean under various commanders.
On 29 June 1811 Salsette captured the slaver Expedition off Mauritius. The prize crew took the ship and the slaves on her to the Portuguese colony of Goa because selling slaves was illegal in British India, but not Goa. Salsette shared the prize money with the crews of Drake and Cornwallis.
Between 4 August and 19 September 1811, Akbar participated in the capture of Java. In 1847 the Admiralty awarded the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "Java" to all surviving claimants from the campaign.
Akbar was paid-off in July 1812. Then in February 1813 she was at Woolwich Dockyard for conversion to a store ship. In the spring of 1813, Captain Archibald Dickson was appointed to command Akbar. Between March and December she was converted to a frigate. However, in late August she escorted Windham, General Hewett, and Wanstead out of the Channel as they left Britain with convicts for New South Wales.
On 15 May 1814, Akbar captured the Indian Lass.[Note 9]
Captain Charles Bullen took command in November 1814. Rear-Admiral Griffiths made her his flagship on the Bermuda station in 1815.
The court martial of captain, officers and men of Cyane for the loss of their vessel took place on board Akbar at Halifax on 28 June 1815. Then on 11 August Akbar and Arab captured the Hannah.[Note 10]
Akbar was laid up at Portsmouth in December 1816, but the next year was fitted as a troopship. Then between June and December 1824 she was fitted to serve as a quarantine ship for Pembroke. In September 1827 she was moved to Liverpool to serve as a lazaretto. She became a training ship in 1852 and a quarantine ship again around 1858. She was sold in 1862 for breaking up.
Notes, ctations, and references
- In the measurements below, the first measurement is from Winfield, who used Admiralty records. The second measurement is from the National Archives, who used data from the EIC based on measurements taken in 1803
- His commission as captain in the Bombay Marine was dated 9 May 1793.
- His commission as captain in the Bombay Marine was dated 9 May 1793.
- The Naval Chronicle gives the departure date for the convoy as 20 March.
- Mandarine is not Mandarin, which the British also captured during the same campaign.
- A first-class share was worth £991 13 s 9d; a sixth-class share was worth £9 2s 3d.
- A first-class share was worth £23 18s 9½d; a sixth-class share was worth 3s 10d.
- The Admiral's share of the prize money was £2650 5s 2d. A first-class share was worth £278 19s 5¾d; a sixth-class share, that of an ordinary seaman, was worth £3 7s 6¼d. A fourth and final payment was made in July 1828. A first-class share was worth £29 19s 5¼d; a sixth-class share was worth 8s 2½d. This time, Bertie received £314 14s 3½d.
- A first-class share of the prize money was worth ₤9 19s 9d; a sixth-class share, the entitlement of an ordinary seaman, was worth 3s 11¼d.
- A first-class share was worth ₤275 18s 9¾d; a sixth-class share was worth ₤2 15s 7½d. A second payment for Hannah, plus some money due for the capture of the Friede followed at the end of 1818. A first-class share was worth ₤109 11s 3½d; a sixth-class share was worth ₤1 2s 0¾d.
- The London Gazette: . 26 January 1849.
- Winfield (2008), p.122.
- National Archives: Marquis Conrwallis, - accessed 25 November 2014.
- Hackman (2001), p.335.
- Low (1877), p.216.
- Marshall (1824), Vol. 2, Part 1, p.219.
- Hardy (1811), p.293.
- Naval Chronicle, Vol. 11 (Jan-July 1804), p.261.
- James (1837), Vol. 5, p.65.
- The London Gazette: . 22 September 1810.
- The London Gazette: . 16 January 1816.
- The London Gazette: . 13 May 1815.
- The London Gazette: . 24 September 1814.
- The London Gazette: . 15 July 1828.
- History 1793-1844 from the newspapers
- The London Gazette: . 23 September 1815.
- Royal Naval Biography Vol IV part II p.447.
- McPhee (2006), pp.16-7.
- The London Gazette: . 2 December 1817.
- The London Gazette: . 3 February 1818.
- The London Gazette: . 21 February 1818.
- The London Gazette: . 26 December 1818.
- Hackman, Rowan (2001) Ships of the East India Company. (Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society). ISBN 0-905617-96-7
- Hardy, Horatio Charles (1811) A register of ships, employed in the service of the Honorable the United East India Company, from the year 1760 to 1810: with an appendix, containing a variety of particulars, and useful information interesting to those concerned with East India commerce. (Black, Parry, and Kingsbury).
- James, William (1837), The Naval History of Great Britain, from the Declaration of War by France in 1793, to the Accession of George IV., R. Bentley
- Low, Charles Rathbone (1877) History of the Indian Navy: (1613-1863)'. (R. Bentley and son).
- Marshall, John (1823-1835) Royal naval biography, or, Memoirs of the services of all the flag-officers, superannuated rear-admirals, retired-captains, post-captains, and commanders, whose names appeared on the Admiralty list of sea officers at the commencement of the present year 1823, or who have since been promoted ... (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown).
- McPhee, John (2006) Joseph Lycett: Convict Artist. (Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales). ISBN 978-1876991210
- Winfield, Rif (2008). British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793–1817: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 1-86176-246-1.