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Haemulon album
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Superfamily: Percoidea
Family: Haemulidae
T. N. Gill, 1885[1]

Haemulidae is a family of fishes in the order Perciformes known commonly as grunts. It is made up of the two subfamilies Haemulinae (grunters) and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips), which in turn contain about 133 species in 19 genera.[4] These fish are found in tropical fresh, brackish, and salt waters around the world. They are bottom-feeding predators, and named for the ability of Haemulinae to produce sound by grinding their teeth.[5] They also engage in mutualistic relationship with cleaner gobies of genus Elacatinus, allowing them to feed on ectoparasites on their bodies.[6]

Subfamilies and genera[edit]

The family Haemulidae is divided into the following subfamilies and genera:[3][7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Richard van der Laan; William N. Eschmeyer & Ronald Fricke (2014). "Family-group names of Recent fishes". Zootaxa. 3882 (2): 001–230.
  2. ^ José Julián Tavera; P. Arturo Acero; Eduardo F Balart; Giacomo Bernardi (2012). "Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae), with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of New World species". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 12 (57): 57. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-57. PMC 3472276. PMID 22537107.
  3. ^ a b J. S. Nelson; T. C. Grande; M. V. H. Wilson (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). Wiley. p. 457. ISBN 978-1-118-34233-6.
  4. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). "Haemulidae" in FishBase. March 2006 version.
  5. ^ Johnson, G.D.; Gill, A.C. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-12-547665-2.
  6. ^ Sazima, I.; et al. (September 2000). "Daily cleaning activity and diversity of clients of the barber goby, Elacatinus figaro, on rocky reefs in southeastern Brazil". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 59 (1): 69–77. doi:10.1023/a:1007655819374.
  7. ^ Eschmeyer, William N.; Fricke, Ron & van der Laan, Richard (eds.). "Genera in the family Haemulidae". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 19 March 2021.