Haigui (Chinese: 海归; pinyin: hǎiguī) is a Chinese language slang term for Chinese people who have returned to mainland China after having studied abroad for several years. These graduates from foreign universities are highly sought after in Chinese business, and thus can gain employment ahead of those who have graduated from Chinese universities. However, the salary demands of haigui are considered unrealistically high by some employers. The homophonic 海龟 (also hǎiguī) meaning "sea turtle" is sometimes used as a metaphor since sea turtles also travel great distances overseas. The term "overseas turtle" is also used.
Some haigui have returned to China due to the late-2000s recession in the U.S. and Europe. According to PRC government statistics, only a quarter of the 1.2 million Chinese people who have gone abroad to study in the past 30 years have returned. As MIT Sloan School of Management professor Yasheng Huang states:
The Chinese educational system is terrible at producing workers with innovative skills for Chinese economy. It produces people who memorize existing facts rather than discovering new facts; who fish for existing solutions rather than coming up with new ones; who execute orders rather than inventing new ways of doing things. In other words they do not solve problems for their employers.
The word is a pun, as hai 海 means "ocean" and gui 龟 is a homophone of gui 归 meaning "to return." The name was first used by Ren Hong, a young man returning to China as a graduate of Yale University seven years after leaving aboard a tea freighter from Guangzhou to the United States.
- Sun Yat-Sen first president of Republic of China
- Zhou Enlai first premier and foreign minister of People's Republic of China
- Deng Xiaoping Chief Secretary of China's Communist Party and President of People's Republic of China
- Qian Xuesen father of the Chinese rocket program
- Victor Koo
- Fan, Cindy (March 7, 2010). "Materialism and Social Unrest". New York Times.
- "Overseas Chinese Try to Build a Community in Homeland". China Daily.
- Herships, Sally (March 30, 2015). "Rhodes Trust plans global scholarship expansion". Marketplace.
- Zhou, Wanfeng (December 17, 2008). "China goes on the road to lure "sea turtles" home". Reuters.
- Huang, Yasheng (March 7, 2010). "A Terrible Education System". New York Times.
- "China's long march to the modern world". Abu Dhabi Media Company. December 19, 2008. Archived from the original on April 10, 2010.
- "Hai Gui: The Sea Turtles Come Marching Home". Asia Pacific Management Forum. Archived from the original on 2013-01-17.