Jeyhounabad, Kermanshah Province, Iran
|Died||February 28, 1920 (aged 48)|
Jeyhounabad, Kermanshah Province, Iran
|Children||Nur Ali Elahi, Yar Ali, Bahram, Malek Jan Nemati, Javaher, and Mariam|
Hajj Nematollah (Persian: حاجی نعمتالله 1871 – February 28, 1920) was an influential mystic and religious leader of the Qajar Empire. He was born in Jeyhounabad, Iran and is considered one of the greatest leaders and mystics in Kurdish and Ahl-e Haqq history. Two of his most famous works of poetry and history are Furqān al-Akhbar (aka "The Firkan") and Ḥaqq al-Ḥaqāyiq yā Shāhnāmah-ʾi Ḥaqīqat. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, "The chief source of information about the Ahl-e Haqq is the Firqan al-Akhbar, written in... early 20th century by (Hajj Nemat)…"
Hajj Nemat's great-grandfather, Bayan Beg, accompanied Aga Abbas (one of the successors of Shah Hayas) to Jeyhounabad in the late 18th century. Bayan Beg's son, Esmail Beg, was Hajj Nemat’s grandfather.
Nematollah Jeyhounabadi was born in 1871 (1288 Hijri calendar) in the small village of Kurdish Jeyhounabad. Before his birth, Persia was going through one of the worst droughts in history. His father, Bayan, named him Nematollah ("Grace of God") because on the day of his birth, Iran finally received the rain it so desperately needed.
In 1893 he married Sakina and they had their first child, Nur Ali Elahi, in 1895. At the age of thirty, during a grave illness, he claimed that he went on a journey to the beyond where he was appointed by God to announce the imminent return of the divine. Thousands of people flocked around him, and on his command ceased to take tea, tobacco and opium. He “believed the time had come to reveal the Real Truth”, and “by God’s command abandoned the world and became the messenger of the Lord of the Hour”. After the advent was postponed twice, he went silent and waited for the Great Essence to appear.
Hajj Nemat was married to Sakina Khanoom, with whom he had 7 children. They had 3 sons, and four daughters. The names of his sons were Nur Ali Elahi, Yar Ali, Bahram, and his daughters were Malak Jân Nemati, Javaher, and Mariam. In the last few days of his life Hajj Nemat had predicted his own death. Within 48 hours of his death his first grandchild, Hajj Amin Elahi, was born.
The original manuscript of Forqan ol-Akhbar was completed in 1910 by Hajj Nemat and is written in four parts. His son Nur Ali Elahi wrote an introduction to Forqan ol-Akhbar and the biography of his father under the title of Kashf Al-Haqa’iq (which is approximately the first 14 pages of the manuscript, and features Nur Ali Elahi's calligraphy). Forqan ol-Akhbar is the only manuscript entirely handwritten by Hajj Nemat and is considered a historical masterpiece. Hajj Nemat gave the manuscript to Dr. Saeed Khan Kordestani in order for him to transport it to France to have it translated by Dr. Vladimir Minorsky. Unfortunately Dr. Minorsky died in 1966 before the manuscript was fully translated and published. After Minorsky’s death the manuscript became misplaced and remains unpublished as of this date.
The first part of Forqan ol-Akhbar deals with the fundamental principles of the haqiqat established in pre-eternity by the Divinity who in the stage of ya-yi ghaybat became externalized in the garment of Khawandagar. The law remained concealed till the coming of Sultan Sahak. Then the daftardars recorded these doctrines, but each in his own way and according to the sources which were accessible to him. As a result, the Ahl-e Haqq community has no single sacred book, and its divisions are distinguished by different views. The Ahl-e Haqq required a kutb-I kull which would be unique. So after 1324/1906 Ne’matollah, by God’s command, abandoned the world and became the "messenger of the Lord of the hour", of Pir Benyamin (explained as bin + ya + amin "faithful son of Ya"). Then comes the explanation of reincarnation (gardish-e dun be-dun, "going from one garment to another"). The creatures of the world are divided into two distinct categories according to their original element (zarda-gil or khak-i siyah). To the first belong the saved and luminous beings, whose receptive sardars are Benyamin and Sayyid Muhammad (in his Avatar of Buzurg-sawar). To the other category belong beings of fire and darkness whose respective sardars are Iblis and Khannas, with whom are associated the first three caliphs, Mu’awiya, Aisha, etc. The intermixture of the two categories of beings produces combinations which may be externally recognized.
The second part of the treatise is mainly concerned with the correspondence of the avatars through the ages. Thus manifestations of Benyamin are Noah, Jesus and provisionally (mihman) Rustam of the Persian epic; those of Razbar: Bilkis, the Queen of Saba; Mary, the mother of Jesus, etc.; those of Sayyid Muhammad: Zoroaster, Muhammad, etc. Next we are given the history of Sultan Sahak (Ishak) and of his successors.
The third part relates the personal experiences of Hajj Ne’matollah and the commandments which he received from God during his journey to the beyond (safar-I ukba), notably his mission to unite the 12 Ahl-e Haqq khanadans, to give absolution from sins (az khiyanat pak namudan) and to intercede (shifa’at) with the Lord of Time.
The fourth part is a full description of rites and customs (amr wa-nahy), with the Gurani text of the formulae recited on each occasion.
Ḥaqq al-Ḥaqāyiq yā Shāhnāmah-ʾi Ḥaqīqat
The style of Ḥaqq al-Ḥaqāyiq yā Shāhnāmah-ʾi Ḥaqīqat is poetic. There is an entire chapter about Ali, "The beginning was Ali and the end is Ali. Both worlds are luminous from the light of Ali. Ali is the manifestation of the pure essence of God, He is the King and Lord of both worlds. A sparkle of His essence, like the sun appeared at my time. I became so illuminated by him, that I knew of no God, other than Him."
Hajj Nemat wrote about 20 books and essays. Among them is Edalat Nameh (The book of Justice) which is concerning government. Forqan ol-Akhbar, Shah-Nama, and Kuch-e Kurdi (in Kurdish verse) are all about the same subject. He also has a "Masnavi" in Persian and there is a book of his predictions. In this book, the duration of the Pahlavi dynasty and their destiny in World War II can be found and there are also predictions about World War III and other subjects.
- Minorsky, Dr. Vladimir. "Notes sur la secte des Ahl-I Haqq", (Deuxieme partie), in Revue du Monde Musulman, Volumes XLIV-XLV, 1921, 205-302.
- 1966, Bibliothèque Iranienne, Librairie D’Amerique Et D’Orient Adrien - Maisonneuve
- FirqÄn al-AkhbÄr -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia Archived December 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. at www.britannica.com
- Elahi, Nur Ali. Asar ol-haqq, Vol 1, #1849
- Stead, F.D. The Ali Ilahi Sect in Persia, in: The Moslem World, April 1932, Vol XXII, No. 2, page 188
- Minorsky, Dr. Vladimir. "Etudes sur les Ahl-I Haqq, I. Toumari=Ahl-I Haqq", Revue de L’Histoire des Religions, volume XCVII, No. 1, January 1928, pp. 90-105.
- Hajj Nematollah, Ḥaqq al-Ḥaqāyiq yā Shāhnāmah-ʾi Ḥaqīqat, page 394 (1982)
- Corbin, Henry. Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth, translated from French by Nancy Pearson, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977 (Paris 1960).
- Ivanow, Wladimir. The Truthworshippers of Kurdistan, Leiden: The Ismaili Society, 1953.
- Klippel, Ernst. Unter Drusen, Kurden und Teufelsanbetern, Berlin: Ullstein, 1926.
- M. Reza Hamzeh’ee, The Yaresan Berlin:Klaus Schwarz, 1990.
- Minorsky, Dr. Vladimir. "Ahl-I Hakk", Encyclopaedia of Islam.
- Minorsky, Dr. Vladimir. "The Guran", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Volume, XI, 1943–1946, pp. 75–103.
- Nur Ali Elahi, Burhan al-Haqq, Edited by Taqi Tafazoli, Tehran: Amir Kabir, 1342 H.G. (1964).