In 1887 he obtained his doctorate at the University of Munich, where he spent the next several years as an assistant to Otto Bollinger at the institute of pathology. In 1889 he became habilitated for pathology, becoming an associate professor at Munich in 1899.
At Munich, he performed studies involving the pathological anatomy of the spinal cord, and did research of hyaline degeneration and caseous necrosis. With pathologist Eugen Albrecht, he conducted studies of coagulative necrosis.
He was the author of Grundriss der pathologischen Anatomie, a book that was issued in several editions and published in English as "A Text-book of Pathology and Pathological Anatomy", (translation by James Ewing; Lea brothers & Company, 1902). Other noteworthy efforts by Schmaus include:
- Zur Kenntniss der diffuser Hirnsklerose, 1888 - Towards the understanding of diffuse cerebral sclerosis.
- Die Kompressions-Myelitis bei Karies der Wirbelsäule, 1890 - On compression-myelitis in caries of the spine.
- Beiträge zur pathologischen Anatomie der Rückenmarkserschütterung, 1890 - Contribution to the pathological anatomy of spinal cord concussions.
- Über den Ausgang der cyanotischen Induration der Niere in Granularatrophie, 1893 - On cyanotic induration of the kidney in granular atrophy.
- Zur Frage der Coagulations nekrose (with Eugen Albrecht), 1899 - On coagulative necrosis.
- Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie 9 by K. G. Saur Verlag GmbH & Company, Walter De Gruyter Incorporated
- Pagel: Biographisches Lexikon hervorragender Ärzte des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. Berlin, Wien 1901, Sp. 1506. (biography)
- Google Books (publications)