Hrafnsmál (Old Norse "raven song") is a fragmentary skaldic poem generally accepted as being written by the 9th-century Norwegian skald Þorbjörn Hornklofi. Hrafnsmál largely consists of a conversation between an unnamed valkyrie and a raven; the two discuss the life and martial deeds of Harald Fairhair. Due to this, the poem is sometimes referred to as Haraldskvæði. The meter of the poem is dominantly Málaháttr, while smaller portions are in Ljóðaháttr and Fornyrðislag.
Editions and translations
- Borrow, George (Trans.) (1862). Once A Week: An Illustrated Miscellany of Literature, Art, Science &Popular Information. Vol. VII. June to December, 1862. London: Bradbury & Evans, 11, Bouverie Street. Entitled Harald Harfagr. Features an illustration by Anthony Frederick Augustus Sandys.
- Kershaw, Nora (1922). Anglo-Saxon and Norse Poems. Cambridge at the University Press.
- Hollander, Lee Milton (1980). Old Norse Poems: The Most Important Nonskaldic Verse Not Included in the Poetic Edda. Forgotten Books. ISBN 1-60506-715-6
- R. D. Fulk 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 91. http://skaldic.abdn.ac.uk/db.php?id=1436&if=default&table=text
- Huginn and Muninn, the ravens of the god Odin
- Valravn, a supernatural "raven of the slain" appearing in 19th century Danish folk songs
- Orchard (1997:89).
- Hollander (1980:54).
- Hrafnsmál from heimskringla.no