Fox et al., 1995
Helicobacter bilis is a bacterium in the Helicobacteraceae family, Campylobacterales order. It is a fusiform bacterium with three to 14 multiple bipolar sheathed flagella and periplasmic fibers wrapped around the cell. It is resistant to cephalothin and nalidixic acid, but sensitive to metronidazole. Like Helicobacter hepaticus, it colonizes the bile, liver, and intestine of mice, and is associated with multifocal chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular tumors.
This strain was originally isolated from a 47-year-old man with a one-month history of diarrhea, fever, and lower abdominal pain, and designated Flexispira rappini Romero et al. 1988. Hänninen et al. (2005) proposed to include this taxon in the species Helicobacter bilis, although based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, it is one of 10 distinct groups, which has been called Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (provisionally Helicobacter rappini) [Dewhirst et al. 2000]. H. rappini has also been isolated from the feces of healthy people, dogs, and mice, as well as from patients with bacteremia. H. bilis and the other taxa include isolates from a wide range of host species, and have been associated with diarrhea, hepatitis, cholangitis, gallstones, liver cancer, and ovine abortion.
- Fox JG, Yan LL, Dewhirst FE, et al. (February 1995). "Helicobacter bilis sp. nov., a novel Helicobacter species isolated from bile, livers, and intestines of aged, inbred mice". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 33 (2): 445–54. PMC 227964. PMID 7536217. Retrieved 2013-07-22.
- Shomer NH, Dangler CA, Schrenzel MD, Fox JG (November 1997). "Helicobacter bilis-induced inflammatory bowel disease in scid mice with defined flora". Infection and Immunity. 65 (11): 4858–64. PMC 175697. PMID 9353076. Retrieved 2013-07-22.
- Kostomitsopoulos N, Donnelly H, Kostavasili I, Paronis E, Alexakos P, Karayannacos P (May 2007). "Eradication of Helicobacter bilis and H. hepaticus from infected mice by using a medicated diet". Lab Animal. 36 (5): 37–40. doi:10.1038/laban0507-37. PMID 17450169.
- Whary MT, Fox JG (2006). "Detection, eradication, and research implications of Helicobacter infections in laboratory rodents". Lab Animal. 35 (7): 25–7, 30–6. doi:10.1038/laban0706-25. PMID 16807564.
- Lemke, L. B.; Ge, Z.; Whary, M. T.; Feng, Y.; Rogers, A. B.; Muthupalani, S.; Fox, J. G. (2009). "Concurrent Helicobacter bilis Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Attenuates Proinflammatory H. pylori-Induced Gastric Pathology". Infection and Immunity. 77 (5): 2147–2158. doi:10.1128/IAI.01395-08. ISSN 0019-9567. PMC 2681733. PMID 19223483.
- Hanninen, M.-L. (2005). "Extension of the species Helicobacter bilis to include the reference strains of Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxa 2, 3 and 8 and Finnish canine and feline flexispira strains". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 55 (2): 891–898. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.63245-0. ISSN 1466-5026.
- "Helicobacter bilis" at the Encyclopedia of Life
- Type strain of Helicobacter bilis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase
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