Hemoglobin D-Punjab is one of the sub-variants of Hemoglobin D, a variant of hemoglobin found in human blood. It is so named because of its higher prevalence in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. It is also the most frequent abnormal hemoglobin variant in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. Studies indicate that Hemoglobin D-Punjab accounts for over 55% of the total hemoglobin variants there.
Hemoglobin D-Punjab was first discovered in the early 1950s in a mixed British and American family of Indian origin from the Los Angeles area; hence it is also sometimes called “D Los Angeles”. Hemoglobin D is the 4th most common hemoglobin variant. It developed as a response to the selective pressures of malaria in these regions of Asia.
Linkage with Hemoglobin D Trait
Hemoglobin is the main ingredient in red blood cells. People with hemoglobin D trait have slightly more hemoglobin A than hemoglobin D. People with Hemoglobin D trait do not have health problems related to having the trait. People with hemoglobin D trait do not have Hemoglobin D disease or sickle cell disease. They cannot develop these diseases later in life. Hemoglobin helps red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. Normal red blood cells have hemoglobin A. People with hemoglobin D trait have red blood cells that have normal hemoglobin A and an abnormal hemoglobin. The abnormal hemoglobin is called hemoglobin D..http://www.stjude.org/stjude/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=30f0db6324d6f110VgnVCM1000001e0215acRCRD Among the seven known types of Hemoglobin D, only Hemoglobin D Punjab can cause a serious hemoglobin disorder. While Hemoglobin D can be detected without a DNA test, one is needed to ascertain that a person who carries Hemoglobin D carries hemoglobin D-Punjab.
When a person has both Hemoglobin A and Hemoglobin D, one is said to have the Hemoglobin D Trait. Offspring of such individuals have increased risk of having Hemoglobin D Disease, Hemoglobin SD disease or Beta-thalassemia Disease.
Symptoms of Hemoglobin D Disease
Hemoglobin D Disease can cause mild hemolytic anemia and mild to moderate splenomegaly. The anemia usually occurs in the first few months of life, as fetal hemoglobin decreases and hemoglobin D increases.
1. Tyagi S, Marwaha N, Parmar V, Basu S. Sickle cell hemoglobin-D Punjab disease (Compound Heterozygous state). Ind J Hematol Blood Transf 2000;18:31-2. 2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1715661/ 3. http://www.idph.state.il.us/HealthWellness/fs/hemoglobin_d.htm 4. http://health.utah.gov/newbornscreening/Disorders/HB/Hb_D_Disease_DD/FactSheet_Provider_HbDD_En.pdf 5. www.chime.ucl.ac.uk/APoGI/data/rtf/hb/carriers/b/dp/carbook.rtf