People's Republic of China
|Anthem: "March of the Volunteers"|
(Pinyin: Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ)
|Official languages||Standard Chinese[a]|
|Recognised regional languages|
|Official script||Simplified Chinese[b]|
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic|
|Legislature||National People's Congress|
|c. 2070 BCE|
|1 January 1912|
|1 October 1949|
|20 September 1954|
|4 December 1982|
|20 December 1999|
|9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi)[f] (3rd/4th)|
• Water (%)
• 2020 census
|145/km2 (375.5/sq mi) (83rd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2021 estimate|
|$26.66 trillion (1st)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2021 estimate|
|$16.64 trillion (2nd)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2018)|| 46.7|
|HDI (2019)|| 0.761|
high · 85th
|Currency||Renminbi (元/¥)[h] (CNY)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard Time)|
|Driving side||right (Mainland);|
|Calling code||+86 (Mainland);|
|ISO 3166 code||CN|
China (Chinese: 中国; pinyin: Zhōngguó), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; Chinese: 中华人民共和国; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical time zones and borders 14 different countries, the second most of any country in the world after Russia. Covering an area of approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the world's third or fourth largest country.[i] The country consists of 23 provinces,[j] four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions (Hong Kong and Macau). The national capital is Beijing, the largest city and financial center is Shanghai, followed by Guangzhou; and the technological and innovative hub is Shenzhen.
China emerged as one of the world's first civilisations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. China was one of the world's foremost economic powers for most of the two millennia from the 1st until the 19th century. For millennia, China's political system was based on absolute hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin reunited core China and established the first Chinese empire. The succeeding Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements. The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty (618 – 907) and Northern Song Dynasty (960 – 1127) completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new Silk Road brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and the Horn of Africa. The Qing Empire, China's last dynasty, which formed the territorial basis for modern China, suffered heavy losses to foreign imperialism.
The Chinese monarchy collapsed in 1912 with the 1911 Revolution, when the Republic of China (ROC) replaced the Qing dynasty. China was invaded by the Empire of Japan during World War II. The Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949 when the Communist Party (CCP) established the People's Republic of China on the mainland while the Kuomintang-led ROC government retreated to the island of Taiwan.[k] Both claim to be the sole legitimate government of China, although the United Nations has recognized the PRC as the sole representation since 1971. China conducted a series of economic reforms since 1978, and entered into the World Trade Organization in 2001.
China is currently governed as a unitary one-party socialist republic by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). China is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and a founding member of several multilateral and regional cooperation organizations such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the Silk Road Fund, the New Development Bank, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and the RCEP, and is a member of the BRICS, the G8+5, the G20, the APEC, and the East Asia Summit. It ranks among the lowest in international measurements of civil liberties, government transparency, freedom of the press, freedom of religion and ethnic minorities. Chinese authorities have been criticized by political dissidents and human rights activists for widespread human rights abuses, including political repression, mass censorship, mass surveillance of their citizens and violent suppression of protests.
China is the world's largest economy by GDP at purchasing power parity and the second-largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's second wealthiest country. The nation is the world's fastest-growing major economy, the world's largest manufacturer and exporter and has the world's largest standing army by military personnel, with the second-largest defense budget and is an officially recognized nuclear-weapon state.
The word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century; however, it was not a word used by the Chinese themselves during this period in time. Its origin has been traced through Portuguese, Malay, and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Chīna, used in ancient India. "China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation[l] of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.[m] Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn (چین), which was in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna (चीन). Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata (5th century BCE) and the Laws of Manu (2nd century BCE). In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived ultimately from the name of the Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE). Although usage in Indian sources precedes this dynasty, this derivation is still given in various sources. The origin of the Sanskrit word is a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. Alternative suggestions include the names for Yelang and the Jing or Chu state. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China" (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó). The shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó (中国; 中國) from zhōng ("central") and guó ("state"),[n] a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne.[o] It was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing. It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is also translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English. China (PRC) is sometimes referred to as the Mainland when distinguishing the ROC from the PRC.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China 2.25 million years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; they have been dated to between 680,000 and 780,000 years ago. The fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens (dated to 125,000–80,000 years ago) have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County, Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, at Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800 to 5400 BCE, and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE. Some scholars have suggested that the Jiahu symbols (7th millennium BCE) constituted the earliest Chinese writing system.
Early dynastic rule
According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE. The Xia dynasty marked the beginning of China's political system based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, which lasted for a millennium. The dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period. The succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE. Their oracle bone script (from c. 1500 BCE) represents the oldest form of Chinese writing yet found and is a direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters.
The Shang was conquered by the Zhou, who ruled between the 11th and 5th centuries BCE, though centralized authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords. Some principalities eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou, no longer fully obeyed the Zhou king, and continually waged war with each other in the 300-year Spring and Autumn period. By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th–3rd centuries BCE, there were only seven powerful states left.
The Warring States period ended in 221 BCE after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms, reunited China and established the dominant order of autocracy. King Zheng of Qin proclaimed himself the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty. He enacted Qin's legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, measurements, road widths (i.e., cart axles' length), and currency. His dynasty also conquered the Yue tribes in Guangxi, Guangdong, and Vietnam. The Qin dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after the First Emperor's death, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion.
Following a widespread civil war during which the imperial library at Xianyang was burned,[p] the Han dynasty emerged to rule China between 206 BCE and CE 220, creating a cultural identity among its populace still remembered in the ethnonym of the Han Chinese. The Han expanded the empire's territory considerably, with military campaigns reaching Central Asia, Mongolia, South Korea, and Yunnan, and the recovery of Guangdong and northern Vietnam from Nanyue. Han involvement in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the land route of the Silk Road, replacing the earlier path over the Himalayas to India. Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world. Despite the Han's initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin philosophy of Legalism in favor of Confucianism, Qin's legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors.
After the end of the Han dynasty, a period of strife known as Three Kingdoms followed, whose central figures were later immortalized in one of the Four Classics of Chinese literature. At its end, Wei was swiftly overthrown by the Jin dynasty. The Jin fell to civil war upon the ascension of a developmentally disabled emperor; the Five Barbarians then invaded and ruled northern China as the Sixteen States. The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Wei, whose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors' apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects, largely integrating them into Chinese culture. In the south, the general Liu Yu secured the abdication of the Jin in favor of the Liu Song. The various successors of these states became known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, with the two areas finally reunited by the Sui in 581. The Sui restored the Han to power through China, reformed its agriculture, economy and imperial examination system, constructed the Grand Canal, and patronized Buddhism. However, they fell quickly when their conscription for public works and a failed war in northern Korea provoked widespread unrest.
Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese economy, technology, and culture entered a golden age. The Tang Empire retained control of the Western Regions and the Silk Road, which brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and the Horn of Africa, and made the capital Chang'an a cosmopolitan urban center. However, it was devastated and weakened by the An Lushan Rebellion in the 8th century. In 907, the Tang disintegrated completely when the local military governors became ungovernable. The Song dynasty ended the separatist situation in 960, leading to a balance of power between the Song and Khitan Liao. The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade.
Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses. The Song dynasty also saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang, and a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and porcelain were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity. However, the military weakness of the Song army was observed by the Jurchen Jin dynasty. In 1127, Emperor Huizong of Song and the capital Bianjing were captured during the Jin–Song Wars. The remnants of the Song retreated to southern China.
The Mongol conquest of China began in 1205 with the gradual conquest of Western Xia by Genghis Khan, who also invaded Jin territories. In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty, which conquered the last remnant of the Song dynasty in 1279. Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300. A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang led a rebellion that overthrew the Yuan in 1368 and founded the Ming dynasty as the Hongwu Emperor. Under the Ming dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture. It was during this period that admiral Zheng He led the Ming treasure voyages throughout the Indian Ocean, reaching as far as East Africa.
In the early years of the Ming dynasty, China's capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing. With the budding of capitalism, philosophers such as Wang Yangming further critiqued and expanded Neo-Confucianism with concepts of individualism and equality of four occupations. The scholar-official stratum became a supporting force of industry and commerce in the tax boycott movements, which, together with the famines and defense against Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598) and Manchu invasions led to an exhausted treasury. In 1644, Beijing was captured by a coalition of peasant rebel forces led by Li Zicheng. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell. The Manchu Qing dynasty, then allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sangui, overthrew Li's short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty.
The Qing dynasty, which lasted from 1644 until 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China. Its conquest of the Ming (1618–1683) cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically. After the Southern Ming ended, the further conquest of the Dzungar Khanate added Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang to the empire. The centralized autocracy was strengthened to suppress anti-Qing sentiment with the policy of valuing agriculture and restraining commerce, the Haijin ("sea ban"), and ideological control as represented by the literary inquisition, causing social and technological stagnation. In the mid-19th century, the dynasty experienced Western imperialism in the Opium Wars with Britain and France. China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the British under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, the first of the Unequal Treaties. The First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula, as well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan.
Fall of the Qing dynasty
In the mid-19th century, the Qing dynasty experienced Western imperialism in the Opium Wars with Britain and France. China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the British under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, the first of the Unequal Treaties. The First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula, as well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan.
The Qing dynasty also began experiencing internal unrest in which tens of millions of people died, especially in the White Lotus Rebellion, the failed Taiping Rebellion that ravaged southern China in the 1850s and 1860s and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in the northwest. The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the 1880s and 1890s.
In the 19th century, the great Chinese diaspora began. Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879, in which between 9 and 13 million people died. The Guangxu Emperor drafted a reform plan in 1898 to establish a modern constitutional monarchy, but these plans were thwarted by the Empress Dowager Cixi. The ill-fated anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901 further weakened the dynasty. Although Cixi sponsored a program of reforms, the Xinhai Revolution of 1911–1912 brought an end to the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China. Puyi, the last Emperor of China, abdicated in 1912.
Establishment of the Republic and World War II
On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China was established, and Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang (the KMT or Nationalist Party) was proclaimed provisional president. On 12 February 1912, regent Empress Dowager Longyu sealed the imperial abdication decree on behalf of 4 year old Puyi, the last emperor of China, ending 5,000 years of monarchy in China. In March 1912, the presidency was given to Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who in 1915 proclaimed himself Emperor of China. In the face of popular condemnation and opposition from his own Beiyang Army, he was forced to abdicate and re-establish the republic in 1916.
After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, China was politically fragmented. Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but virtually powerless; regional warlords controlled most of its territory. In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang, under Chiang Kai-shek, the then Principal of the Republic of China Military Academy, was able to reunify the country under its own control with a series of deft military and political manoeuvrings, known collectively as the Northern Expedition. The Kuomintang moved the nation's capital to Nanjing and implemented "political tutelage", an intermediate stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen's San-min program for transforming China into a modern democratic state. The political division in China made it difficult for Chiang to battle the communist People's Liberation Army (PLA), against whom the Kuomintang had been warring since 1927 in the Chinese Civil War. This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, especially after the PLA retreated in the Long March, until Japanese aggression and the 1936 Xi'an Incident forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan.
The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), a theater of World War II, forced an uneasy alliance between the Kuomintang and the PLA. Japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population; in all, as many as 20 million Chinese civilians died. An estimated 40,000 to 300,000 Chinese were massacred in the city of Nanjing alone during the Japanese occupation. During the war, China, along with the UK, the United States, and the Soviet Union, were referred to as "trusteeship of the powerful" and were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in the Declaration by United Nations. Along with the other three great powers, China was one of the four major Allies of World War II, and was later considered one of the primary victors in the war. After the surrender of Japan in 1945, Taiwan, including the Pescadores, was returned to Chinese control. China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained. The continued distrust between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war. Constitutional rule was established in 1947, but because of the ongoing unrest, many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China.
Civil War and the People's Republic
Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with the CCP in control of most of mainland China, and the Kuomintang retreating offshore to Taiwan, reducing its territory to only Taiwan, Hainan, and their surrounding islands. On 1 October 1949, CCP Chairman Mao Zedong formally proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China at the new nation's founding ceremony and inaugural military parade in Tiananmen Square, Beijing. In 1950, the People's Liberation Army captured Hainan from the ROC and incorporated Tibet. However, remaining Kuomintang forces continued to wage an insurgency in western China throughout the 1950s.
The government consolidated its popularity among the peasants through land reform, which included the execution of between 1 and 2 million landlords. China developed an independent industrial system and its own nuclear weapons. The Chinese population increased from 550 million in 1950 to 900 million in 1974. However, the Great Leap Forward, an idealistic massive reform project, resulted in an estimated 15 to 35 million deaths between 1958 and 1961, mostly from starvation. In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, sparking a decade of political recrimination and social upheaval that lasted until Mao's death in 1976. In October 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic in the United Nations, and took its seat as a permanent member of the Security Council.
Reforms and contemporary history
After Mao's death, the Gang of Four was quickly arrested by Hua Guofeng and held responsible for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution. Elder Deng Xiaoping took power in 1978, and instituted significant economic reforms. The Party loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives, and the communes were gradually disbanded in favor of working contracted to households. This marked China's transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open-market environment. China adopted its current constitution on 4 December 1982. In 1989, the suppression of student protests in Tiananmen Square brought condemnations and sanctions against the Chinese government from various foreign countries.
Jiang Zemin, Li Peng and Zhu Rongji led the nation in the 1990s. Under their administration, China's economic performance pulled an estimated[by whom?] 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%.[better source needed] The country joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, and maintained its high rate of economic growth under Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao's leadership in the 2000s. However, the growth also severely impacted the country's resources and environment, and caused major social displacement.
Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping has ruled since 2012 and has pursued large-scale efforts to reform China's economy  (which has suffered from structural instabilities and slowing growth), and has also reformed the one-child policy and penal system, as well as instituting a vast anti corruption crackdown. In 2013, China initiated the Belt and Road Initiative, a global infrastructure investment project.
On 1 July 2021, the People's Republic of China celebrated the 100th anniversary of the establishment of the CCP (first of the Two Centenaries) with a huge gathering in Tiananmen Square and cultural artistic performance in Beijing National Stadium in Beijing.
China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the arid north to the subtropical forests in the wetter south. The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 km (9,000 mi) long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China and South China seas. China connects through the Kazakh border to the Eurasian Steppe which has been an artery of communication between East and West since the Neolithic through the Steppe route – the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Road(s).
The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E. The geographical center of China is marked by the Center of the Country Monument at . China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast territory. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas. High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. The world's highest point, Mount Everest (8,848 m), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border. The country's lowest point, and the world's third-lowest, is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (−154 m) in the Turpan Depression.
China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist.
A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert. Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms, prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in dust storms plaguing northern China each spring, which then spread to other parts of East Asia, including Japan and Korea. China's environmental watchdog, SEPA, stated in 2007 that China is losing 4,000 km2 (1,500 sq mi) per year to desertification. Water quality, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China's relations with other countries. Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people. According to academics, in order to limit climate change in China to 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) electricity generation from coal in China without carbon capture must be phased out by 2045. Official government statistics about Chinese agricultural productivity are considered unreliable, due to exaggeration of production at subsidiary government levels. Much of China has a climate very suitable for agriculture and the country has been the world's largest producer of rice, wheat, tomatoes, eggplant, grapes, watermelon, spinach, and many other crops.
China is one of 17 megadiverse countries, lying in two of the world's major biogeographic realms: the Palearctic and the Indomalayan. By one measure, China has over 34,687 species of animals and vascular plants, making it the third-most biodiverse country in the world, after Brazil and Colombia. The country signed the Rio de Janeiro Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 5 January 1993. It later produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, with one revision that was received by the convention on 21 September 2010.
China is home to at least 551 species of mammals (the third-highest such number in the world), 1,221 species of birds (eighth), 424 species of reptiles (seventh) and 333 species of amphibians (seventh). Wildlife in China shares habitat with, and bears acute pressure from, the world's largest population of humans. At least 840 animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due mainly to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine. Endangered wildlife is protected by law, and as of 2005[update], the country has over 2,349 nature reserves, covering a total area of 149.95 million hectares, 15 percent of China's total land area.[better source needed] Most wild animals have been eliminated from the core agricultural regions of east and central China, but they have fared better in the mountainous south and west. The Baiji was confirmed extinct on 12 December 2006.
China has over 32,000 species of vascular plants, and is home to a variety of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and Asian black bear, along with over 120 bird species. The understory of moist conifer forests may contain thickets of bamboo. In higher montane stands of juniper and yew, the bamboo is replaced by rhododendrons. Subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China, support a high density of plant species including numerous rare endemics. Tropical and seasonal rainforests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, contain a quarter of all the animal and plant species found in China. China has over 10,000 recorded species of fungi, and of them, nearly 6,000 are higher fungi.
In the early 2000s, China has suffered from environmental deterioration and pollution due to its rapid pace of industrialisation. While regulations such as the 1979 Environmental Protection Law are fairly stringent, they are poorly enforced, as they are frequently disregarded by local communities and government officials in favor of rapid economic development. China is the country with the second highest death toll because of air pollution, after India. There are approximately 1 million deaths caused by exposure to ambient air pollution. Although China ranks as the highest CO2 emitting country in the world, it only emits 8 tons of CO2 per capita, significantly lower than developed countries such as the United States (16.1), Australia (16.8) and South Korea (13.6).
In recent years, China has clamped down on pollution. In March 2014, CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping "declared war" on pollution during the opening of the National People's Congress. After extensive debate lasting nearly two years, the parliament approved a new environmental law in April. The new law empowers environmental enforcement agencies with great punitive power and large fines for offenders, defines areas which require extra protection, and gives independent environmental groups more ability to operate in the country. In 2020, Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping announced that China aims to peak emissions before 2030 and go carbon-neutral by 2060 in accordance with the Paris climate accord. According to Climate Action Tracker, if accomplished it would lower the expected rise in global temperature by 0.2 - 0.3 degrees - "the biggest single reduction ever estimated by the Climate Action Tracker". In September 2021 Xi Jinping announced that China will not build "coal-fired power projects abroad". The decision can be "pivotal" in reducing emissions. The Belt and Road Initiative did not include financing such projects already in the first half of 2021.
The country also had significant water pollution problems: 8.2% of China's rivers had been polluted by industrial and agricultural waste in 2019. China had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.14/10, ranking it 53rd globally out of 172 countries. In 2020, a sweeping law was passed by the Chinese government to protect the ecology of the Yangtze River. The new laws include strengthening ecological protection rules for hydropower projects along the river, banning chemical plants within 1 kilometer of the river, relocating polluting industries, severely restricting sand mining as well as a complete fishing ban on all the natural waterways of the river, including all its major tributaries and lakes.
China is also the world's leading investor in renewable energy and its commercialization, with $52 billion invested in 2011 alone; it is a major manufacturer of renewable energy technologies and invests heavily in local-scale renewable energy projects. By 2015, over 24% of China's energy was derived from renewable sources, while most notably from hydroelectric power: a total installed capacity of 197 GW makes China the largest hydroelectric power producer in the world. China also has the largest power capacity of installed solar photovoltaics system and wind power system in the world. Greenhouse gas emissions by China are the world's largest, as is renewable energy in China.
The People's Republic of China is the third-largest country in the world by land area after Russia and Canada.[q] China's total area is generally stated as being approximately 9,600,000 km2 (3,700,000 sq mi).[better source needed] Specific area figures range from 9,572,900 km2 (3,696,100 sq mi) according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, to 9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi) according to the UN Demographic Yearbook, and the CIA World Factbook.
China has the longest combined land border in the world, measuring 22,117 km (13,743 mi) from the mouth of the Yalu River (Amnok River) to the Gulf of Tonkin. China borders 14 nations and extends across much of East Asia, bordering Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar (Burma) in Southeast Asia; India, Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan, and Pakistan[r] in South Asia; Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia; and Russia, Mongolia, and North Korea in Inner Asia and Northeast Asia. Additionally, China shares maritime boundaries with South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and the Philippines.
The Chinese constitution states that The People's Republic of China "is a socialist state governed by a people’s democratic dictatorship that is led by the working class and based on an alliance of workers and peasants," and that the state institutions "shall practice the principle of democratic centralism." The PRC is one of the world's only socialist states governed by a communist party. The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist, with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against free access to the Internet, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, the right to have children, free formation of social organizations and freedom of religion. Its current political, ideological and economic system has been termed by its leaders as a "consultative democracy" "people's democratic dictatorship", "socialism with Chinese characteristics" (which is Marxism adapted to Chinese circumstances) and the "socialist market economy" respectively.
Since 2018, the main body of the Chinese constitution declares that "the defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)." The 2018 amendments constitutionalized the de facto one-party state status of China, wherein the CCP General Secretary (party leader) holds ultimate power and authority over state and government and serves as the informal Paramount leader. The current General Secretary is Xi Jinping, who took office on November 15, 2012, and was re-elected on 25 October 2017. The electoral system is pyramidal. Local People's Congresses are directly elected, and higher levels of People's Congresses up to the National People's Congress (NPC) are indirectly elected by the People's Congress of the level immediately below.
Another eight political parties, have representatives in the NPC and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). China supports the Leninist principle of "democratic centralism", but critics describe the elected National People's Congress as a "rubber stamp" body.
Since both the CCP and the People's Liberation Army (PLA) promote according to seniority, it is possible to discern distinct generations of Chinese leadership. In official discourse, each group of leadership is identified with a distinct extension of the ideology of the party. Historians have studied various periods in the development of the government of the People's Republic of China by reference to these "generations".
|First||Mao Zedong||1949||1976||Mao Zedong Thought|
|Hua Guofeng||1976||1978||Two Whatevers|
|Second||Deng Xiaoping||1978||1989||Deng Xiaoping Theory|
|Third||Jiang Zemin||1989||2002||Three Represents|
|Fourth||Hu Jintao||2002||2012||Scientific Outlook on Development|
|Fifth||Xi Jinping||2012||Xi Jinping Thought|
China is a one-party state led by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The National People's Congress in 2018 altered the country's constitution to remove the two-term limit on holding the Presidency of China, permitting the current leader, Xi Jinping, to remain president of China (and General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party) for an unlimited time, earning criticism for creating dictatorial governance. The President is the titular head of state, elected by the National People's Congress. The Premier is the head of government, presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions. The incumbent president is Xi Jinping, who is also the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, making him China's paramount leader. The incumbent premier is Li Keqiang, who is also a senior member of the CCP Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body.
In 2017, Xi called on the communist party to further tighten its grip on the country, to uphold the unity of the party leadership, and achieve the "Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation". Political concerns in China include the growing gap between rich and poor and government corruption. Nonetheless, the level of public support for the government and its management of the nation is high, with 80–95% of Chinese citizens expressing satisfaction with the central government, according to a 2011 survey. A 2020 survey from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research also found that 75% of Chinese were satisfied with the government on information dissemination amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, while 67% were satisfied with its delivery of daily necessities.
The People's Republic of China is officially divided into 23 provinces, five autonomous regions (each with a designated minority group), and four municipalities—collectively referred to as "mainland China"—as well as the special administrative regions (SARs) of Hong Kong and Macau. Geographically, all 31 provincial divisions of mainland China can be grouped into six regions: North China, Northeast China, East China, South Central China, Southwest China, and Northwest China.
China considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province, although Taiwan is governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which rejects the PRC's claim. Conversely, the ROC constitution claims sovereignty over all divisions governed by the PRC.
|Provinces (省)||Claimed Province|
|Autonomous regions (自治区)||Municipalities (直辖市)||Special administrative regions (特别行政区)|
The PRC has diplomatic relations with 175 countries and maintains embassies in 162. In 2019, China had the largest diplomatic network in the world. Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few other countries; it is thus the largest and most populous state with limited recognition, with a population of more than 1.4 billion. In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. China was also a former member and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, and still considers itself an advocate for developing countries. Along with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, China is a member of the BRICS group of emerging major economies and hosted the group's third official summit at Sanya, Hainan in April 2011.
Under its interpretation of the One-China policy, Beijing has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China. Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan, especially in the matter of armament sales.
Much of current Chinese foreign policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai's Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and is also driven by the concept of "harmony without uniformity", which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences. This policy may have led China to support states that are regarded as dangerous or repressive by Western nations, such as Zimbabwe, North Korea and Iran. China has a close economic and military relationship with Russia, and the two states often vote in unison in the UN Security Council.
China became the world's largest trading nation in 2013, as measured by the sum of imports and exports, as well as the world's biggest commodity importer. comprising roughly 45% of maritime's dry-bulk market. By 2016, China was the largest trading partner of 124 other countries. China is the largest trading partner for the ASEAN nations, with a total trade value of $345.8 billion in 2015 accounting for 15.2% of ASEAN's total trade. ASEAN is also China's largest trading partner. In 2020, China became the largest trading partner of the European Union for goods, with the total value of goods trade reaching nearly $700 billion. China, along with ASEAN, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand, is a member of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, the world's largest free-trade area covering 30% of the world's population and economic output. China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. In 2004, it proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues. The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005.
China has had a long and complex trade relationship with the United States. In 2000, the United States Congress approved "permanent normal trade relations" (PNTR) with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries. China has a significant trade surplus with the United States, its most important export market. In the early 2010s, US politicians argued that the Chinese yuan was significantly undervalued, giving China an unfair trade advantage.[needs update]
Since the turn of the century, China has followed a policy of engaging with African nations for trade and bilateral co-operation; in 2019, Sino-African trade totalled $208 billion, having grown 20 times over two decades. According to Madison Condon "China finances more infrastructure projects in Africa than the World Bank and provides billions of dollars in low-interest loans to the continent’s emerging economies." China maintains extensive and highly diversified trade links with the European Union. China has furthermore strengthened its trade ties with major South American economies, and is the largest trading partner of Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, Argentina, and several others.
China's Belt and Road Initiative has expanded significantly over the last six years and, as of April 2020, includes 138 countries and 30 international organizations. In addition to intensifying foreign policy relations, the focus here is particularly on building efficient transport routes. The focus is particularly on the maritime Silk Road with its connections to East Africa and Europe and there are Chinese investments or related declarations of intent at numerous ports such as Gwadar, Kuantan, Hambantota, Piraeus and Trieste. However many of these loans made under the Belt and Road program are unsustainable and China has faced a number of calls for debt relief from debtor nations.
Ever since its establishment after the Chinese Civil War, the PRC has claimed the territories governed by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity today commonly known as Taiwan, as a part of its territory. It regards the island of Taiwan as its Taiwan Province, Kinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and islands the ROC controls in the South China Sea as a part of Hainan Province and Guangdong Province. These claims are controversial because of the complicated Cross-Strait relations, with the PRC treating the One-China policy as one of its most important diplomatic principles.[better source needed]
Land border disputes
China has resolved its land borders with 12 out of 14 neighboring countries, having pursued substantial compromises in most of them. As of 2020, China currently has a disputed land border with only India and Bhutan.
Maritime border disputes
China is additionally involved in maritime disputes with multiple countries over the ownership of several small islands in the East and South China Seas, such as the Senkaku Islands and the Scarborough Shoal.
Sociopolitical issues and human rights
China uses a massive espionage network of cameras, facial recognition software, sensors, surveillance of personal technology, and a social credit system as a means of social control of persons living in China. The Chinese democracy movement, social activists, and some members of the Chinese Communist Party believe in the need for social and political reform. While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the 1970s, political freedom is still tightly restricted. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China states that the "fundamental rights" of citizens include freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the right to a fair trial, freedom of religion, universal suffrage, and property rights. However, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution by the state. Although some criticisms of government policies and the ruling Communist Party are tolerated, censorship of political speech and information, most notably on the Internet, are routinely used to prevent collective action. By 2020, China plans to give all its citizens a personal "Social Credit" score based on how they behave.[needs update] The Social Credit System, now being piloted in a number of Chinese cities,[needs update] is considered a form of mass surveillance which uses big data analysis technology.
A number of foreign governments, foreign press agencies, and NGOs have criticized China's human rights record, alleging widespread civil rights violations such as detention without trial, forced abortions, forced confessions, torture, restrictions of fundamental rights, and excessive use of the death penalty. The government suppresses popular protests and demonstrations that it considers a potential threat to "social stability", as was the case with the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
The Chinese state is regularly accused of large-scale repression and human rights abuses in Tibet and Xinjiang, including violent police crackdowns and religious suppression throughout the Chinese nation. At least one million members of China's Muslim Uyghur minority have been detained in mass detention camps, termed "Vocational Education and Training Centers", aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities, and their religious beliefs. According to the U.S. Department of State, actions including political indoctrination, torture, physical and psychological abuse, forced sterilization, sexual abuse, and forced labor are common in these facilities. The state has also sought to control offshore reporting of tensions in Xinjiang, intimidating foreign-based reporters by detaining their family members. According to a 2020 report, China's treatment of Uyghurs meets UN definition of genocide, and several groups called for a UN investigation. On 19 January 2021, the United States Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, announced that the United States Department of State had determined that "genocide and crimes against humanity" had been perpetrated by China against the Uyghurs.
Global studies from Pew Research Center in 2014 and 2017 ranked the Chinese government's restrictions on religion as among the highest in the world, despite low to moderate rankings for religious-related social hostilities in the country. The Global Slavery Index estimated that in 2016 more than 3.8 million people were living in "conditions of modern slavery", or 0.25% of the population, including victims of human trafficking, forced labor, forced marriage, child labor, and state-imposed forced labor. The state-imposed forced system was formally abolished in 2013, but it is not clear to which extent its various practices have stopped. The Chinese penal system includes labor prison factories, detention centers, and re-education camps, which fall under the heading Laogai ("reform through labor"). The Laogai Research Foundation in the United States estimated that there were over a thousand slave labour prisons and camps, known collectively as the Laogai.
In 2019, a study called for the mass retraction of more than 400 scientific papers on organ transplantation, because of fears the organs were obtained unethically from Chinese prisoners. While the government says 10,000 transplants occur each year, a report by the Falun Gong-linked IETAC alleged that between 60,000 and 100,000 organs are transplanted each year and claimed that this gap was being made up by executed prisoners of conscience.
With 2.3 million active troops, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the largest standing military force in the world, commanded by the Central Military Commission (CMC). China has the second-biggest military reserve force, only behind North Korea. The PLA consists of five major service branches: the Ground Force (PLAGF), the Navy (PLAN), the Air Force (PLAAF), the Rocket Force (PLARF) and the Strategic Support Force (PLASSF). According to the Chinese government, military budget for 2017 totalled US$151.5 billion, constituting the world's second-largest military budget, although the military expenditures-GDP ratio with 1.3% of GDP is below world average. However, many authorities – including SIPRI and the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense claim that China hides its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget.
Since 2010, China has had the world's second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totaling approximately US$15.66 trillion (101.6 trillion Yuan) as of 2020. In terms of purchasing power parity (PPP GDP), China's economy has been the largest in the world since 2014, according to the World Bank. China is also the world's fastest-growing major economy. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $14.28 trillion by 2019. China's economic growth has been consistently above 6 percent since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978. China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. Between 2010 and 2019, China's contribution to global GDP growth has been 25% to 39%.
China had one of the largest economies in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since economic reforms began in 1978, China has developed into a highly diversified economy and one of the most consequential players in international trade. Major sectors of competitive strength include manufacturing, retail, mining, steel, textiles, automobiles, energy generation, green energy, banking, electronics, telecommunications, real estate, e-commerce, and tourism. China has three out of the ten largest stock exchanges in the world—Shanghai, Hong Kong and Shenzhen—that together have a market capitalization of over $15.9 trillion, as of October 2020. China has four (Shanghai, Hong Kong, Beijing, and Shenzhen) out of the world's top ten most competitive financial centers, which is more than any country in the 2020 Global Financial Centres Index. By 2035, China's four cities (Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou and Shenzhen) are projected to be among the global top ten largest cities by nominal GDP according to a report by Oxford Economics.
China has been the world's No. 1 manufacturer since 2010, after overtaking the US, which had been No. 1 for the previous hundred years. China has also been No. 2 in high-tech manufacturing since 2012, according to US National Science Foundation. China is the second largest retail market in the world, next to the United States. China leads the world in e-commerce, accounting for 40% of the global market share in 2016 and more than 50% of the global market share in 2019. China is the world's leader in electric vehicles, manufacturing and buying half of all the plug-in electric cars (BEV and PHEV) in the world in 2018. China is also the leading producer of batteries for electric vehicles as well as several key raw materials for batteries. China had 174 GW of installed solar capacity by the end of 2018, which amounts to more than 40% of the global solar capacity.
Foreign and some Chinese sources have claimed that official Chinese government statistics overstate China's economic growth. However, several Western academics and institutions have stated that China's economic growth is higher than indicated by official figures.
China has a large informal economy, which arose as a result of the country's economic opening. The informal economy is a source of employment and income for workers, but it is unrecognized and suffers from lower productivity. In 2021, China announced it had eliminated poverty through a series of direct-action poverty alleviation policies.
Wealth in China
As of 2020, China was second in the world, after the US, in total number of billionaires and total number of millionaires, with 698 Chinese billionaires and 4.4 million millionaires. In 2019, China overtook the US as the home to the highest number of people who have a net personal wealth of at least $110,000, according to the global wealth report by Credit Suisse. According to the Hurun Global Rich List 2020, China is home to five of the world's top ten cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou in the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 10th spots, respectively) by the highest number of billionaires, which is more than any other country. China had 85 female billionaires as of January 2021, two-thirds of the global total, and minted 24 new female billionaires in 2020.
However, it ranks behind over 60 countries (out of around 180) in per capita economic output, making it an upper-middle income country. Additionally, its development is highly uneven. Its major cities and coastal areas are far more prosperous compared to rural and interior regions. China brought more people out of extreme poverty than any other country in history—between 1978 and 2018, China reduced extreme poverty by 800 million. China reduced the extreme poverty rate—per international standard, it refers to an income of less than $1.90/day—from 88% in 1981 to 1.85% by 2013. According to the World Bank, the number of Chinese in extreme poverty fell from 756 million to 25 million between 1990 and 2013. The portion of people in China living below the international poverty line of $1.90 per day (2011 PPP) fell to 0.3% in 2018 from 66.3% in 1990. Using the lower-middle income poverty line of $3.20 per day, the portion fell to 2.9% in 2018 from 90.0% in 1990. Using the upper-middle income poverty line of $5.50 per day, the portion fell to 17.0% from 98.3% in 1990.
From its founding in 1949 until late 1978, the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy. Following Mao's death in 1976 and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule. Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs). Inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs) were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses. Modern-day China is mainly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership, and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism. The state still dominates in strategic "pillar" sectors such as energy production and heavy industries, but private enterprise has expanded enormously, with around 30 million private businesses recorded in 2008.[better source needed] In 2018, private enterprises in China accounted for 60% of GDP, 80% of urban employment and 90% of new jobs.
In the early 2010s, China's economic growth rate began to slow amid domestic credit troubles, weakening international demand for Chinese exports and fragility in the global economy. China's GDP was slightly larger than Germany's in 2007; however, by 2017, China's $12.2 trillion-economy became larger than those of Germany, UK, France and Italy combined. In 2018, the IMF reiterated its forecast that China will overtake the US in terms of nominal GDP by the year 2030. Economists also expect China's middle class to expand to 600 million people by 2025.
In 2020, China was the only major economy in the world to grow, recording a 2.3% growth due to its success in taming the coronavirus within its borders.
China in the global economy
|Share of world GDP (PPP)|
China is a member of the WTO and is the world's largest trading power, with a total international trade value of US$4.62 trillion in 2018. Its foreign exchange reserves reached US$3.1 trillion as of 2019, making its reserves by far the world's largest. In 2012, China was the world's largest recipient of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), attracting $253 billion. In 2014, China's foreign exchange remittances were $US64 billion making it the second largest recipient of remittances in the world. China also invests abroad, with a total outward FDI of $62.4 billion in 2012, and a number of major takeovers of foreign firms by Chinese companies. China is a major owner of US public debt, holding trillions of dollars worth of U.S. Treasury bonds. China's undervalued exchange rate has caused friction with other major economies, and it has also been widely criticized for manufacturing large quantities of counterfeit goods.
|Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2018|
Following the 2007–08 financial crisis, Chinese authorities sought to actively wean off of its dependence on the U.S. dollar as a result of perceived weaknesses of the international monetary system. To achieve those ends, China took a series of actions to further the internationalization of the Renminbi. In 2008, China established dim sum bond market and expanded the Cross-Border Trade RMB Settlement Pilot Project, which helps establish pools of offshore RMB liquidity. This was followed with bilateral agreements to settle trades directly in renminbi with Russia, Japan, Australia, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and Canada. As a result of the rapid internationalization of the renminbi, it became the eighth-most-traded currency in the world, an emerging international reserve currency, and a component of the IMF's special drawing rights; however, partly due to capital controls that make the renminbi fall short of being a fully convertible currency, it remains far behind the Euro, Dollar and Japanese Yen in international trade volumes.
Class and income inequality
China has had the world's largest middle class population since 2015, and the middle class grew to a size of 400 million by 2018. In 2020, a study by the Brookings Institution forecast that China's middle-class will reach 1.2 billion by 2027 (almost 4 times the entire U.S. population today), making up one fourth of the world total. Wages in China have grown a lot in the last 40 years—real (inflation-adjusted) wages grew seven-fold from 1978 to 2007. By 2018, median wages in Chinese cities such as Shanghai were about the same as or higher than the wages in Eastern European countries. China has the world's highest number of billionaires, with nearly 878 as of October 2020, increasing at the rate of roughly five per week. China has a high level of economic inequality, which has increased in the past few decades. In 2018 China's Gini coefficient was 0.467, according to the World Bank.
Science and technology
China was once a world leader in science and technology up until the Ming dynasty. Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions, such as papermaking, printing, the compass, and gunpowder (the Four Great Inventions), became widespread across East Asia, the Middle East and later to Europe. Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers. By the 17th century, Europe and the Western world surpassed China in scientific and technological advancement. The causes of this early modern Great Divergence continue to be debated by scholars to this day.
After repeated military defeats by the European colonial powers and Japan in the 19th century, Chinese reformers began promoting modern science and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement. After the Communists came to power in 1949, efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union, in which scientific research was part of central planning. After Mao's death in 1976, science and technology was established as one of the Four Modernizations, and the Soviet-inspired academic system was gradually reformed.
Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, China has made significant investments in scientific research and is quickly catching up with the US in R&D spending. In 2017, China spent $279 billion on scientific research and development. According to the OECD, China spent 2.11% of its GDP on research and development (R&D) in 2016. Science and technology are seen as vital for achieving China's economic and political goals, and are held as a source of national pride to a degree sometimes described as "techno-nationalism". According to the World Intellectual Property Indicators, China received 1.54 million patent applications in 2018, representing nearly half of patent applications worldwide, more than double the US. In 2019, China was No. 1 in international patents application. China was ranked 12th, 3rd in Asia & Oceania region and 2nd for countries with a population of over 100 million in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, it has increased its ranking considerably since 2013, where it was ranked 35th. China ranks first globally in the important indicators, including patents, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, and creative goods exports and it also has 2 (Shenzhen-Hong Kong-Guangzhou and Beijing in the 2nd and 3rd spots respectively) of the global top 5 science and technology clusters, which is more than any other country. Chinese tech companies Huawei and ZTE were the top 2 filers of international patents in 2017. Chinese-born academicians have won the Nobel Prize in Physics four times, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and Fields Medal once respectively, though most of them conducted their prize-winning research in western nations.[s][improper synthesis?]
China is developing its education system with an emphasis on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM); in 2009, China graduated over 10,000 PhD engineers, and as many as 500,000 BSc graduates, more than any other country. China also became the world's largest publisher of scientific papers in 2016. Chinese technology companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing, and Chinese supercomputers are consistently ranked among the world's most powerful. China has been the world's largest market for industrial robots since 2013 and will account for 45% of newly installed robots from 2019 to 2021.
The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active. In 1970, China launched its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, becoming the fifth country to do so independently. In 2003, China became the third country to independently send humans into space, with Yang Liwei's spaceflight aboard Shenzhou 5; as of 2021[update], thirteen Chinese nationals have journeyed into space, including two women. In 2011, China's first space station module, Tiangong-1, was launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large crewed station by the early 2020s. In 2013, China successfully landed the Chang'e 3 lander and Yutu rover onto the lunar surface. In 2016, the first quantum science satellite was launched in partnership with Austria dedicated to testing the fundamentals of quantum communication in space. In 2019, China became the first country to land a probe—Chang'e 4—on the far side of the moon. In 2020, the first experimental 6G test satellite was launched and Chang'e 5 successfully returned moon samples to the Earth, making China the third country to do so independently after the United States and the Soviet Union. In 2021, China became the second nation in history to independently land a rover (Zhurong) on Mars, joining the United States.
After a decades-long infrastructural boom, China has produced numerous world-leading infrastructural projects: China has the world's largest bullet train network, the most supertall skyscrapers in the world, the world's largest power plant (the Three Gorges Dam), the largest energy generation capacity in the world, a global satellite navigation system with the largest number of satellites in the world, and has initiated the Belt and Road Initiative, a large global infrastructure building initiative with funding on the order of $50–100 billion per year. The Belt and Road Initiative could be one of the largest development plans in modern history.
China is the largest telecom market in the world and currently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1.5 billion subscribers, as of 2018. It also has the world's largest number of internet and broadband users, with over 800 million Internet users as of 2018[update]—equivalent to around 60% of its population—and almost all of them being mobile as well. By 2018, China had more than 1 billion 4G users, accounting for 40% of world's total. China is making rapid advances in 5G—by late 2018, China had started large-scale and commercial 5G trials.
China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom, are the three large providers of mobile and internet in China. China Telecom alone served more than 145 million broadband subscribers and 300 million mobile users; China Unicom had about 300 million subscribers; and China Mobile, the biggest of them all, had 925 million users, as of 2018. Combined, the three operators had over 3.4 million 4G base-stations in China. Several Chinese telecommunications companies, most notably Huawei and ZTE, have been accused of spying for the Chinese military.
China has developed its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou, which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in 2012 as well as global services by the end of 2018. Upon the completion of the 35th Beidou satellite, which was launched into orbit on 23 June 2020, Beidou followed GPS and GLONASS as the third completed global navigation satellite in the world.
Since the late 1990s, China's national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of a network of national highways and expressways. In 2018, China's highways had reached a total length of 142,500 km (88,500 mi), making it the longest highway system in the world. China has the world's largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both auto sales and production. A side-effect of the rapid growth of China's road network has been a significant rise in traffic accidents, though the number of fatalities in traffic accidents fell by 20% from 2007 to 2017. In urban areas, bicycles remain a common mode of transport, despite the increasing prevalence of automobiles – as of 2012[update], there are approximately 470 million bicycles in China.
China's railways, which are state-owned, are among the busiest in the world, handling a quarter of the world's rail traffic volume on only 6 percent of the world's tracks in 2006.[better source needed] As of 2017, the country had 127,000 km (78,914 mi) of railways, the second longest network in the world. The railways strain to meet enormous demand particularly during the Chinese New Year holiday, when the world's largest annual human migration takes place.
China's high-speed rail (HSR) system started construction in the early 2000s. By the end of 2020, high speed rail in China had reached 37,900 kilometers (23,550 miles) of dedicated lines alone, making it the longest HSR network in the world. Services on the Beijing–Shanghai, Beijing–Tianjin, and Chengdu–Chongqing Lines reach up to 350 km/h (217 mph), making them the fastest conventional high speed railway services in the world. With an annual ridership of over 2.29 billion passengers in 2019 it is the world's busiest.[better source needed] The network includes the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, the single longest HSR line in the world, and the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, which has three of longest railroad bridges in the world. The Shanghai Maglev Train, which reaches 431 km/h (268 mph), is the fastest commercial train service in the world.
Since 2000, the growth of rapid transit systems in Chinese cities has accelerated. As of January 2021[update], 44 Chinese cities have urban mass transit systems in operation and 39 more have metro systems approved. As of 2020, China boasts the five longest metro systems in the world with the networks in Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Shenzhen being the largest.
There were approximately 229 airports in 2017, with around 240 planned by 2020. China has over 2,000 river and seaports, about 130 of which are open to foreign shipping. In 2017, the Ports of Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Ningbo-Zhoushan, Guangzhou, Qingdao and Tianjin ranked in the Top 10 in the world in container traffic and cargo tonnage.
Water supply and sanitation
Water supply and sanitation infrastructure in China is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, as well as water scarcity, contamination, and pollution. According to data presented by the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF in 2015, about 36% of the rural population in China still did not have access to improved sanitation. The ongoing South–North Water Transfer Project intends to abate water shortage in the north.
This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: China's Census for 2020 is out. Update all population data to this year. In addition, China has announced it would be replacing its two-child policy with a three-child policy..(June 2021)
The national census of 2010 recorded the population of the People's Republic of China as approximately 1,370,536,875. About 16.60% of the population were 14 years old or younger, 70.14% were between 15 and 59 years old, and 13.26% were over 60 years old. The population growth rate for 2013 is estimated to be 0.46%. China used to make up much of the world's poor; now it makes up much of the world's middle class. Although a middle-income country by Western standards, China's rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions—800 million, to be more precise—of its people out of poverty since 1978. By 2013, less than 2% of the Chinese population lived below the international poverty line of US$1.9 per day, down from 88% in 1981. China's own standards for poverty are higher and still the country is on its way to eradicate national poverty completely by 2019. From 2009 to 2018, the unemployment rate in China has averaged about 4%.
Given concerns about population growth, China implemented a two-child limit during the 1970s, and, in 1979, began to advocate for an even stricter limit of one child per family. Beginning in the mid 1980s, however, given the unpopularity of the strict limits, China began to allow some major exemptions, particularly in rural areas, resulting in what was actually a "1.5"-child policy from the mid-1980s to 2015 (ethnic minorities were also exempt from one child limits). The next major loosening of the policy was enacted in December 2013, allowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child. In 2016, the one-child policy was replaced in favor of a two-child policy. Data from the 2010 census implies that the total fertility rate may be around 1.4, although due to under-reporting of births it may be closer to 1.5–1.6.
According to one group of scholars, one-child limits had little effect on population growth or the size of the total population. However, these scholars have been challenged. Their own counterfactual model of fertility decline without such restrictions implies that China averted more than 500 million births between 1970 and 2015, a number which may reach one billion by 2060 given all the lost descendants of births averted during the era of fertility restrictions, with one-child restrictions accounting for the great bulk of that reduction.
The policy, along with traditional preference for boys, may have contributed to an imbalance in the sex ratio at birth. According to the 2010 census, the sex ratio at birth was 118.06 boys for every 100 girls, which is beyond the normal range of around 105 boys for every 100 girls. The 2010 census found that males accounted for 51.27 percent of the total population. However, China's sex ratio is more balanced than it was in 1953, when males accounted for 51.82 percent of the total population.
China legally recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, who altogether comprise the Zhonghua Minzu. The largest of these nationalities are the ethnic Chinese or "Han", who constitute more than 90% of the total population. The Han Chinese – the world's largest single ethnic group – outnumber other ethnic groups in every provincial-level division except Tibet and Xinjiang. Ethnic minorities account for less than 10% of the population of China, according to the 2010 census. Compared with the 2000 population census, the Han population increased by 66,537,177 persons, or 5.74%, while the population of the 55 national minorities combined increased by 7,362,627 persons, or 6.92%. The 2010 census recorded a total of 593,832 foreign nationals living in China. The largest such groups were from South Korea (120,750), the United States (71,493) and Japan (66,159).
There are as many as 292 living languages in China. The languages most commonly spoken belong to the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, which contains Mandarin (spoken by 70% of the population), and other varieties of Chinese language: Yue (including Cantonese and Taishanese), Wu (including Shanghainese and Suzhounese), Min (including Fuzhounese, Hokkien and Teochew), Xiang, Gan and Hakka. Languages of the Tibeto-Burman branch, including Tibetan, Qiang, Naxi and Yi, are spoken across the Tibetan and Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau. Other ethnic minority languages in southwest China include Zhuang, Thai, Dong and Sui of the Tai-Kadai family, Miao and Yao of the Hmong–Mien family, and Wa of the Austroasiatic family. Across northeastern and northwestern China, local ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu, Mongolian and several Turkic languages: Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Salar and Western Yugur. Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea. Sarikoli, the language of Tajiks in western Xinjiang, is an Indo-European language. Taiwanese aborigines, including a small population on the mainland, speak Austronesian languages.
Standard Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect, is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds. Mongolian, Uyghur, Tibetan, Zhuang and various other languages are also regionally recognized throughout the country.
Chinese characters have been used as the written script for the Sinitic languages for thousands of years. They allow speakers of mutually unintelligible Chinese varieties to communicate with each other through writing. In 1956, the government introduced simplified characters, which have supplanted the older traditional characters in mainland China. Chinese characters are romanized using the Pinyin system. Tibetan uses an alphabet based on an Indic script. Uyghur is most commonly written in Persian alphabet-based Uyghur Arabic alphabet. The Mongolian script used in China and the Manchu script are both derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet. Zhuang uses both an official Latin alphabet script and a traditional Chinese character script.
China has urbanized significantly in recent decades. The percent of the country's population living in urban areas increased from 20% in 1980 to over 60% in 2019. It is estimated that China's urban population will reach one billion by 2030, potentially equivalent to one-eighth of the world population.
China has over 160 cities with a population of over one million, including the 19 megacities (cities with a population of over 10 million) of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenzhen, Wuhan, Harbin, Shijiazhuang, Suzhou, Hangzhou, Xi'an, Zhengzhou, Baoding, Linyi, Changsha, Dongguan and Qingdao. Shanghai is China's most populous urban area while Chongqing is its largest city proper. By 2025, it is estimated that the country will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants. The figures in the table below are from the 2017 census, and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations). The large "floating populations" of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult; the figures below include only long-term residents.
- Population of Hong Kong as of 2018 estimate.
- The data of Chongqing in the list is the data of "Metropolitan Developed Economic Area", which contains two parts: "City Proper" and "Metropolitan Area". The "City proper" are consist of 9 districts: Yuzhong, Dadukou, Jiangbei, Shapingba, Jiulongpo, Nan'an, Beibei, Yubei, & Banan, has the urban population of 5,646,300 as of 2018. And the "Metropolitan Area" are consist of 12 districts: Fuling, Changshou, Jiangjin, Hechuan, Yongchuan, Nanchuan, Qijiang, Dazu, Bishan, Tongliang, Tongnan, & Rongchang, has the urban population of 5,841,700. Total urban population of all 26 districts of Chongqing are up to 15,076,600.
Since 1986, compulsory education in China comprises primary and junior secondary school, which together last for nine years. In 2019, about 89.5 percent of students continued their education at a three-year senior secondary school. The Gaokao, China's national university entrance exam, is a prerequisite for entrance into most higher education institutions. In 2010, 27 percent of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education.[better source needed] This number increased significantly over the last years, reaching a tertiary school enrolment of 58.42 percent in 2020. Vocational education is available to students at the secondary and tertiary level. More than 10 million Chinese students graduated from vocational colleges nationwide every year.
China has the largest education system in the world, with about 282 million students and 17.32 million full-time teachers in over 530,000 schools. In February 2006, the government pledged to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees. Annual education investment went from less than US$50 billion in 2003 to more than US$817 billion in 2020. However, there remains an inequality in education spending. In 2010, the annual education expenditure per secondary school student in Beijing totalled ¥20,023, while in Guizhou, one of the poorest provinces in China, only totalled ¥3,204. Free compulsory education in China consists of primary school and junior secondary school between the ages of 6 and 15. In 2020, the graduation enrollment ratio at compulsory education level reached 95.2 percent, exceeding average levels recorded in high-income countries, and around 91.2% of Chinese have received secondary education.
China's literacy rate has grown dramatically, from only 20% in 1949 and 65.5% in 1979. to 96% of the population over age 15 in 2018. In the same year, China (Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang) was ranked the highest in the world in the Programme for International Student Assessment ranking for all three categories of Mathematics, Science and Reading. China ranks first in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with 168 goal medals since its first participation in 1985. China also ranks first in the all-time medal count at the International Physics Olympiad, the International Chemistry Olympiad, and the International Olympiad in Informatics.
China had over 3,000 universities, with over 40 million students enrolled in mainland China. As of 2020, China had the world's second-highest number of top universities. Currently, China trails only the United States in terms of representation on lists of top 200 universities according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU). China is home to the two best universities (Tsinghua University and Peking University) in the whole Asia-Oceania region and emerging countries according to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. Both are members of the C9 League, an alliance of elite Chinese universities offering comprehensive and leading education.
The National Health and Family Planning Commission, together with its counterparts in the local commissions, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population. An emphasis on public health and preventive medicine has characterized Chinese health policy since the early 1950s. At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases. Diseases such as cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever, which were previously rife in China, were nearly eradicated by the campaign. After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms in 1978, the health of the Chinese public improved rapidly because of better nutrition, although many of the free public health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People's Communes. Healthcare in China became mostly privatized, and experienced a significant rise in quality. In 2009, the government began a 3-year large-scale healthcare provision initiative worth US$124 billion. By 2011, the campaign resulted in 95% of China's population having basic health insurance coverage. In 2011, China was estimated to be the world's third-largest supplier of pharmaceuticals, but its population has suffered from the development and distribution of counterfeit medications.
As of 2017[update], the average life expectancy at birth in China is 76 years, and the infant mortality rate is 7 per thousand. Both have improved significantly since the 1950s.[t] Rates of stunting, a condition caused by malnutrition, have declined from 33.1% in 1990 to 9.9% in 2010. Despite significant improvements in health and the construction of advanced medical facilities, China has several emerging public health problems, such as respiratory illnesses caused by widespread air pollution, hundreds of millions of cigarette smokers, and an increase in obesity among urban youths. China's large population and densely populated cities have led to serious disease outbreaks in recent years, such as the 2003 outbreak of SARS, although this has since been largely contained. In 2010, air pollution caused 1.2 million premature deaths in China.
The COVID-19 pandemic was first identified in Wuhan in December 2019. Despite this, there is no convincing scientific evidence on the virus's origin, and further studies are being carried out around the world on a possible origin for the virus. The Chinese government has been criticized for its handling of the epidemic and accused of concealing the extent of the outbreak before it became an international pandemic.
The government of the People's Republic of China officially espouses state atheism, and has conducted antireligious campaigns to this end. Religious affairs and issues in the country are overseen by the State Administration for Religious Affairs. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by China's constitution, although religious organizations that lack official approval can be subject to state persecution.
Over the millennia, Chinese civilization has been influenced by various religious movements. The "three teachings", including Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism (Chinese Buddhism), historically have a significant role in shaping Chinese culture, enriching a theological and spiritual framework which harks back to the early Shang and Zhou dynasty. Chinese popular or folk religion, which is framed by the three teachings and other traditions, consists in allegiance to the shen (神), a character that signifies the "energies of generation", who can be deities of the environment or ancestral principles of human groups, concepts of civility, culture heroes, many of whom feature in Chinese mythology and history. Among the most popular cults are those of Mazu (goddess of the seas), Huangdi (one of the two divine patriarchs of the Chinese race), Guandi (god of war and business), Caishen (god of prosperity and richness), Pangu and many others. China is home to many of the world's tallest religious statues, including the tallest of all, the Spring Temple Buddha in Henan.
Clear data on religious affiliation in China is difficult to gather due to varying definitions of "religion" and the unorganized, diffusive nature of Chinese religious traditions. Scholars note that in China there is no clear boundary between three teachings religions and local folk religious practice. A 2015 poll conducted by Gallup International found that 61% of Chinese people self-identified as "convinced atheist", though it is worthwhile to note that Chinese religions or some of their strands are definable as non-theistic and humanistic religions, since they do not believe that divine creativity is completely transcendent, but it is inherent in the world and in particular in the human being. According to a 2014 study, approximately 74% are either non-religious or practise Chinese folk belief, 16% are Buddhists, 2% are Christians, 1% are Muslims, and 8% adhere to other religions including Taoists and folk salvationism. In addition to Han people's local religious practices, there are also various ethnic minority groups in China who maintain their traditional autochthone religions. The various folk religions today comprise 2–3% of the population, while Confucianism as a religious self-identification is common within the intellectual class. Significant faiths specifically connected to certain ethnic groups include Tibetan Buddhism and the Islamic religion of the Hui, Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and other peoples in Northwest China. The 2010 population census reported the total number of Muslims in the country as 23.14 million.
A 2021 poll from Ipsos and the Policy Institute at King's College London found that 35% of Chinese people said there was tension between different religious groups, which was the second lowest percentage of the 28 countries surveyed.
Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism. For much of the country's dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations, which have their origins in the Han dynasty. The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, such as the belief that calligraphy, poetry and painting were higher forms of art than dancing or drama. Chinese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective. Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today.
The first leaders of the People's Republic of China were born into the traditional imperial order but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformist ideals. They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism, and the Confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of obedience to the state. Some observers see the period following the establishment of the PRC in 1949 as a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as "regressive and harmful" or "vestiges of feudalism". Many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera, were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time. Access to foreign media remains heavily restricted.
Today, the Chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional Chinese culture as being integral to Chinese society. With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival, and folk and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide. A poll in October 2020 of respondents in Spain, Slovakia, Latvia, Serbia, and Russia found that majorities in those countries considered China to be "culturally attractive".
Tourism in China
China received 55.7 million inbound international visitors in 2010, and in 2012 was the third-most-visited country in the world. It also experiences an enormous volume of domestic tourism; an estimated 740 million Chinese holidaymakers travelled within the country in October 2012. China hosts the world's second-largest number of World Heritage Sites (56) after Italy, and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world (first in the Asia-Pacific). It is forecast by Euromonitor International that China will become the world's most popular destination for tourists by 2030.
Chinese literature is based on the literature of the Zhou dynasty. Concepts covered within the Chinese classic texts present a wide range of thoughts and subjects including calendar, military, astrology, herbology, geography and many others. Some of the most important early texts include the I Ching and the Shujing within the Four Books and Five Classics which served as the Confucian authoritative books for the state-sponsored curriculum in dynastic era. Inherited from the Classic of Poetry, classical Chinese poetry developed to its floruit during the Tang dynasty. Li Bai and Du Fu opened the forking ways for the poetic circles through romanticism and realism respectively. Chinese historiography began with the Shiji, the overall scope of the historiographical tradition in China is termed the Twenty-Four Histories, which set a vast stage for Chinese fictions along with Chinese mythology and folklore. Pushed by a burgeoning citizen class in the Ming dynasty, Chinese classical fiction rose to a boom of the historical, town and gods and demons fictions as represented by the Four Great Classical Novels which include Water Margin, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West and Dream of the Red Chamber. Along with the wuxia fictions of Jin Yong and Liang Yusheng, it remains an enduring source of popular culture in the East Asian cultural sphere.
In the wake of the New Culture Movement after the end of the Qing dynasty, Chinese literature embarked on a new era with written vernacular Chinese for ordinary citizens. Hu Shih and Lu Xun were pioneers in modern literature. Various literary genres, such as misty poetry, scar literature, young adult fiction and the xungen literature, which is influenced by magic realism, emerged following the Cultural Revolution. Mo Yan, a xungen literature author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2012.
Chinese cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history and geographical variety, in which the most influential are known as the "Eight Major Cuisines", including Sichuan, Cantonese, Jiangsu, Shandong, Fujian, Hunan, Anhui, and Zhejiang cuisines. All of them are featured by the precise skills of shaping, heating, and flavoring.[better source needed] Chinese cuisine is also known for its width of cooking methods and ingredients, as well as food therapy that is emphasized by traditional Chinese medicine.[better source needed] Generally, China's staple food is rice in the south, wheat-based breads and noodles in the north. The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. The bean products, such as tofu and soy milk, remain as a popular source of protein. Pork is now the most popular meat in China, accounting for about three-fourths of the country's total meat consumption. While pork dominates the meat market, there is also the vegetarian Buddhist cuisine and the pork-free Chinese Islamic cuisine. Southern cuisine, due to the area's proximity to the ocean and milder climate, has a wide variety of seafood and vegetables; it differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across dry northern China. Numerous offshoots of Chinese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese food, have emerged in the nations that play host to the Chinese diaspora.
Chinese music covers a highly diverse range of music from traditional music to modern music. Chinese music dates back before the pre-imperial times. Traditional Chinese musical instruments were traditionally grouped into eight categories known as bayin (八音). Traditional Chinese opera is a form of musical theatre in China originating thousands of years and has regional style forms such as Beijing opera and Cantonese opera. Chinese pop (C-Pop) includes mandopop and cantopop. Chinese rap, Chinese hip hop and Hong Kong hip hop have become popular in contemporary times.
Cinema was first introduced to China in 1896 and the first Chinese film, Dingjun Mountain, was released in 1905. China has the largest number of movie screens in the world since 2016, China became the largest cinema market in the world in 2020. The top 3 highest-grossing films in China currently are Wolf Warrior 2 (2017), Ne Zha (2019), and The Wandering Earth (2019).
Hanfu is the historical clothing of the Han people in China. The qipao or cheongsam is a popular Chinese female dress. The hanfu movement has been popular in contemporary times and seeks to revitalize Hanfu clothing.
China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world. There is evidence that archery (shèjiàn) was practiced during the Western Zhou dynasty. Swordplay (jiànshù) and cuju, a sport loosely related to association football date back to China's early dynasties as well.
Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Chinese culture, with morning exercises such as qigong and t'ai chi ch'uan widely practiced, and commercial gyms and private fitness clubs are gaining popularity across the country. Basketball is currently the most popular spectator sport in China. The Chinese Basketball Association and the American National Basketball Association have a huge following among the people, with native or ethnic Chinese players such as Yao Ming and Yi Jianlian held in high esteem. China's professional football league, now known as Chinese Super League, was established in 1994, it is the largest football market in Asia. Other popular sports in the country include martial arts, table tennis, badminton, swimming and snooker. Board games such as go (known as wéiqí in Chinese), xiangqi, mahjong, and more recently chess, are also played at a professional level. In addition, China is home to a huge number of cyclists, with an estimated 470 million bicycles as of 2012[update]. Many more traditional sports, such as dragon boat racing, Mongolian-style wrestling and horse racing are also popular.
China has participated in the Olympic Games since 1932, although it has only participated as the PRC since 1952. China hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 51 gold medals – the highest number of gold medals of any participating nation that year. China also won the most medals of any nation at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, with 231 overall, including 95 gold medals. In 2011, Shenzhen in Guangdong, China hosted the 2011 Summer Universiade. China hosted the 2013 East Asian Games in Tianjin and the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing; the first country to host both regular and Youth Olympics. Beijing and its nearby city Zhangjiakou of Hebei province will also collaboratively host the 2022 Olympic Winter Games, which will make Beijing the first city in the world to hold both the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics.
- English (Hong Kong SAR only), Portuguese (Macau SAR only).
- In the Hong Kong SAR Traditional Chinese characters and English alphabet are used,
- In the Macau SAR Traditional Chinese characters and Portuguese orthography are used,
- In Inner Mongolia the Mongolian script is used alongside simplified Chinese,
- In the Tibet Autonomous Region the Tibetan script is used alongside simplified Chinese,
- In Xinjiang the Uyghur Arabic alphabet is used alongside simplified Chinese,
- In Guangxi and Wenshan Prefecture the Latin alphabet is used alongside simplified Chinese,
- In the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture Chosŏn'gŭl is used alongside simplified Chinese.
- Although PRC President is head of state, it is a largely ceremonial office with limited power under CCP General Secretary.
- Including both state and party's central military chairs.
- Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.
- The area given is the official United Nations figure for the mainland and excludes Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. It also excludes the Trans-Karakoram Tract (5,180 km2 (2,000 sq mi)), Aksai Chin (38,000 km2 (15,000 sq mi)) and other territories in dispute with India. The total area of China is listed as 9,572,900 km2 (3,696,100 sq mi) by the Encyclopædia Britannica. For further information, see Territorial changes of the People's Republic of China.
- This figure was calculated using data from the CIA World Factbook.
- The total area ranking relative to the United States depends on the measurement of the total areas of both countries. See List of countries and dependencies by area for more information.
The following two primary sources (non-mirrored) represent the range (min./max.) of estimates of China's and the United States' total areas.
Both sources (1) exclude Taiwan from the area of China; (2) exclude China's coastal and territorial waters.
However, the CIA World Factbook includes the United States coastal and territorial waters, while Encyclopædia Britannica excludes the United States coastal and territorial waters.
- The Encyclopædia Britannica lists China as world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada) with a total area of 9,572,900 km2, and the United States as fourth-largest at 9,525,067 km2.
- The CIA World Factbook lists China as fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada and the United States) with a total area of 9,596,960 km2, and the United States as the third-largest at 9,833,517 km2.
Notably, the Encyclopædia Britannica specifies the United States' area (excluding coastal and territorial waters) as 9,525,067 km2, which is less than either source's figure given for China's area. Therefore, while it can be determined that China has a larger area excluding coastal and territorial waters, it is unclear which country has a larger area including coastal and territorial waters.
United Nations Statistics Division's figure for the United States is 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 sq mi) and China is 9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi). These closely match the CIA World Factbook figures and similarly include coastal and territorial waters for the United States, but exclude coastal and territorial waters for China.
Further explanation of disputed ranking: The dispute about which is the world's third-largest country arose from the inclusion of coastal and territorial waters for the United States. This discrepancy was deduced from comparing the CIA World Factbook and its previous iterations against the information for United States in Encyclopædia Britannica, particularly its footnote section. In sum, according to older versions of the CIA World Factbook (from 1982 to 1996), the U.S. was listed as the world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada, and China) with a total area of 9,372,610 km2 (3,618,780 sq mi). However, in the 1997 edition, the U.S. added coastal waters to its total area (increasing it to 9,629,091 km2 (3,717,813 sq mi)). And then again in 2007, U.S. added territorial water to its total area (increasing it to 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 sq mi)). During this time, China's total area remained unchanged. In other words, no coastal or territorial water area was added to China's total area figure. The United States has a coastal water area of 109,362 km2 (42,225 sq mi), and a territorial water area of 195,213 km2 (75,372 sq mi), for a total of 304,575 km2 (117,597 sq mi) of additional water space. This is larger than entire countries like Italy, New Zealand] and the United Kingdom. Adding this figure to the U.S. will boost it over China in ranking since China's coastal and territorial water figures are currently unknown (no official publication) and thus cannot be added into China's total area figure.
- The disputed 23rd province of Taiwan is claimed by the People's Republic of China but it does not administer it. See § Administrative divisions
- The KMT solely governed the island until its transition to democracy in 1996.
- "[...] Next vnto this, is found the great China, whose kyng is thought to bee the greatest prince in the worlde, and is named Santoa Raia".
- "[...] The Very Great Kingdom of China". (Portuguese: ...O Grande Reino da China...).
- Although this is the present meaning of guó, in Old Chinese (when its pronunciation was something like /*qʷˤək/) it meant the walled city of the Chinese and the areas they could control from them.
- Its use is attested from the 6th-century BC Classic of History, which states "Huangtian bestowed the lands and the peoples of the central state to the ancestors" (皇天既付中國民越厥疆土于先王).
- Owing to Qin Shi Huang's earlier policy involving the "burning of books and burying of scholars", the destruction of the confiscated copies at Xianyang was an event similar to the destructions of the Library of Alexandria in the west. Even those texts that did survive had to be painstakingly reconstructed from memory, luck, or forgery. The Old Texts of the Five Classics were said to have been found hidden in a wall at the Kong residence in Qufu. Mei Ze's "rediscovered" edition of the Book of Documents was only shown to be a forgery in the Qing dynasty.
- According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the total area of the United States, at 9,522,055 km2 (3,676,486 sq mi), is slightly smaller than that of China. Meanwhile, the CIA World Factbook states that China's total area was greater than that of the United States until the coastal waters of the Great Lakes was added to the United States' total area in 1996. From 1989 through 1996, the total area of US was listed as 9,372,610 km2 (3,618,780 sq mi) (land area plus inland water only). The listed total area changed to 9,629,091 km2 (3,717,813 sq mi) in 1997 (with the Great Lakes areas and the coastal waters added), to 9,631,418 km2 (3,718,711 sq mi) in 2004, to 9,631,420 km2 (3,718,710 sq mi) in 2006, and to 9,826,630 km2 (3,794,080 sq mi) in 2007 (territorial waters added).
- China's border with Pakistan and part of its border with India falls in the disputed region of Kashmir. The area under Pakistani administration is claimed by India, while the area under Indian administration is claimed by Pakistan.
- Tsung-Dao Lee, Chen Ning Yang, Daniel C. Tsui, Charles K. Kao, Yuan T. Lee, Tu Youyou Shing-Tung Yau
- The national life expectancy at birth rose from about 31 years in 1949 to 75 years in 2008, and infant mortality decreased from 300 per thousand in the 1950s to around 33 per thousand in 2001.
- "Erleichterung von Zuwanderung für Unternehmen vorteilhaft".
- "Chinese Religion | Data on Chinese Religions | GRF". www.globalreligiousfutures.org.
- "Xi Jinping is making great attempts to 'Sinicize' Marxist–Leninist Thought 'with Chinese characteristics' in the political sphere," states Lutgard Lams, "Examining Strategic Narratives in Chinese Official Discourse under Xi Jinping" Journal of Chinese Political Science (2018) volume 23, pp. 387–411 at p. 395
- "China (People's Republic of) 1982 (rev. 2004)". Constitute project. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- "Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). UN Statistics. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- "China". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Largest Countries in the World by Area – Worldometers". worldometers.info.
- "China". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- Wee, Sui-Lee (11 May 2021). "China's 'Long-Term Time Bomb': Falling Births Drive Slow Population Growth". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
- "Population density (people per km2 of land area)". IMF. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
- "China World Economic Outlook Database: April 2021". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
- "China Economic Update, December 2019 : Cyclical Risks and Structural Imperatives" (PDF). openknowledge.worldbank.org. World Bank. p. 21. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
The Gini coefficient, a measure of overall income inequality, declined to 0.462 in 2015, and has since risen to 0.467 in 2018 (Figure 27). Higher income inequality is partly driven by unequal regional income distribution. The eastern coastal regions have been the driver of China's rapid growth, due to its geographic location and the early introduction of reforms. As a result, the eastern coastal region is now home to 38% of the population, and its per capita GDP was 77% higher than that of the central, western, and northeastern regions in 2018. This gap widened further in the first three quarters of 2019. This is in part due to a disproportionate slowdown in interior provinces, which are more dependent on commodities and heavy industry. The slowdown has been negatively affected by structural shifts, especially necessary cuts in overcapacity (Figure 28).
- "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- "China". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- "China". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
- "United States". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 3 July 2016. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "31 Years of CIA World Factbook". CIA. Retrieved 31 January 2014. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "China". Oxford English Dictionary.ISBN 0-19-957315-8
- Eden, Richard (1555), Decades of the New World, p. 230.
- Myers, Henry Allen (1984). Western Views of China and the Far East, Volume 1. Asian Research Service. p. 34.
- Dames, Mansel Longworth, ed. (1918), The Book of Duarte Barbosa, Vol. II, London, p. 211, ISBN 978-81-206-0451-3
- Barbosa, Duarte (1946), Livro em que dá Relação do que Viu e Ouviu no Oriente, Lisbon, archived from the original on 22 October 2008. (in Portuguese)
- "China". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000). Boston and New York: Houghton-Mifflin.
- Wade, Geoff. "The Polity of Yelang and the Origin of the Name 'China'". Sino-Platonic Papers, No. 188, May 2009, p. 20.
- Martino, Martin, Novus Atlas Sinensis, Vienna 1655, Preface, p. 2.
- Bodde, Derk (1978). Denis Twitchett; Michael Loewe (eds.). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 1, The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 BC – AD 220. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8.
- Yule, Henry (1866). Cathay and the Way Thither. pp. 3–7. ISBN 978-81-206-1966-1.
- Wilkinson, Endymion (2000), Chinese History: A Manual, Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph No. 52, Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, p. 132, ISBN 978-0-674-00249-4
- 《尚書》, 梓材. (in Chinese)
- Tang, Xiaoyang; Guo, Sujian; Guo, Baogang (2010). Greater China in an Era of Globalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-0-7391-3534-1.
- "Two "Chinese" flags in Chinatown 美國唐人街兩面「中國」國旗之爭". BBC.
- "Chou Hsi-wei on Conflict Zone". Deutsche Welle.
So-called 'China', we call it 'Mainland', we are 'Taiwan'. Together we are 'China'.
- "China-Taiwan Relations". Council on Foreign Relations.
- "What's behind the China-Taiwan divide?". BBC.
- Ciochon, Russell; Larick, Roy (1 January 2000). "Early Homo erectus Tools in China". Archaeology. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- "The Peking Man World Heritage Site at Zhoukoudian". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 23 June 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- Shen, G.; Gao, X.; Gao, B.; Granger, De (March 2009). "Age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus determined with (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating". Nature. 458 (7235): 198–200. Bibcode:2009Natur.458..198S. doi:10.1038/nature07741. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 19279636. S2CID 19264385.
- Rincon, Paul (14 October 2015). "Fossil teeth place humans in Asia '20,000 years early'". BBC News. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Rincon, Paul (17 April 2003). "'Earliest writing' found in China". BBC News. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- Qiu Xigui (2000) Chinese Writing English translation of 文字學概論 by Gilbert L. Mattos and Jerry Norman Early China Special Monograph Series No. 4. Berkeley: The Society for the Study of Early China and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley. ISBN 978-1-55729-071-7
- Tanner, Harold M. (2009). China: A History. Hackett Publishing. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-0-87220-915-2.
- Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project by People's Republic of China
- "Bronze Age China". National Gallery of Art. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- China: Five Thousand Years of History and Civilization. City University of HK Press. 2007. p. 25. ISBN 978-962-937-140-1.
- Pletcher, Kenneth (2011). The History of China. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-61530-181-2.
- Fowler, Jeaneane D.; Fowler, Merv (2008). Chinese Religions: Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-84519-172-6.
- William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol. 17, No. 3, Early Writing Systems (February 1986) pp. 420–436 (436)
- David N. Keightley, "Art, Ancestors, and the Origins of Writing in China", Representations No. 56, Special Issue: The New Erudition. (Autumn 1996), pp.68–95 
- Hollister, Pam (1996). "Zhengzhou". In Schellinger, Paul E.; Salkin, Robert M. (eds.). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 904. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6.
- Allan, Keith (2013). The Oxford Handbook of the History of Linguistics. Oxford University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-19-958584-7.
- "Warring States". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Sima Qian, Translated by Burton Watson. Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty I, pp. 11–12. ISBN 0-231-08165-0.
- Bodde, Derk. (1986). "The State and Empire of Ch'in", in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
- Lewis, Mark Edward (2007). The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han. London: Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02477-9.
- Cotterell, Arthur (2011), The Imperial Capitals of China, Pimlico, pp. 35–36
- "Dahlman, Carl J; Aubert, Jean-Eric. China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st century". World Bank Publications via Eric.ed.gov. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- Goucher, Candice; Walton, Linda (2013). World History: Journeys from Past to Present – Volume 1: From Human Origins to 1500 CE. Routledge. p. 108. ISBN 978-1-135-08822-4.
- Whiting, Marvin C. (2002). Imperial Chinese Military History. iUniverse. p. 214
- Ki-Baik Lee (1984). A new history of Korea. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-61576-2. p.47.
- David Andrew Graff (2002). Medieval Chinese warfare, 300–900. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-23955-9. p.13.
- Adshead, S. A. M. (2004). T'ang China: The Rise of the East in World History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 54
- Nishijima, Sadao (1986), "The Economic and Social History of Former Han", in Twitchett, Denis; Loewe, Michael (eds.), Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 545–607, ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8
- Bowman, John S. (2000). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 104–105.
- City University of HK Press (2007). China: Five Thousand Years of History and Civilization. ISBN 962-937-140-5. p.71
- Paludan, Ann (1998). Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05090-2. p. 136.
- Essentials of Neo-Confucianism: Eight Major Philosophers of the Song and Ming Periods. Greenwood Publishing Group. 1999. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-313-26449-8.
- "Northern Song dynasty (960–1127)". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- 从汝窑、修内司窑和郊坛窑的技术传承看宋代瓷业的发展. wanfangdata.com.cn. 15 February 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250–1276. Stanford University Press. 1962. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8047-0720-6.
- May, Timothy (2012), The Mongol Conquests in World History, London: Reaktion Books, p. 1211, ISBN 9781861899712
- Weatherford, Jack (2004), "2: Tale of Three Rivers", Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World, New York: Random House/Three Rivers Press, p. 95, ISBN 978-0-609-80964-8
- Ping-ti Ho. "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song, Series 1, No 1, (1970). pp. 33–53.
- Rice, Xan (25 July 2010). "Chinese archaeologists' African quest for sunken ship of Ming admiral". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- "Wang Yangming (1472—1529)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- 论明末士人阶层与资本主义萌芽的关系. docin.com. 8 April 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- John M. Roberts (1997) A Short History of the World Oxford University Press p. 272 ISBN 0-19-511504-X
- The Cambridge History of China: Volume 10, Part 1, by John K. Fairbank, p.37
- 中国通史·明清史. 九州出版社. 2010. pp. 104–112. ISBN 978-7-5108-0062-7.
- 中华通史·第十卷. 花城出版社. 1996. p. 71. ISBN 978-7-5360-2320-8.
- Ainslie Thomas Embree, Carol Gluck (1997) Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching M.E. Sharpe p.597 ISBN 1-56324-265-6
- "Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- "Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- "Dimensions of need – People and populations at risk". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 1995. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- Editors, History com. "Last emperor of China abdicates". HISTORY. Retrieved 22 May 2021.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "The abdication decree of Emperor Puyi (1912)". Chinese Revolution. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
- Eileen Tamura (1997) China: Understanding Its Past. Volume 1. University of Hawaii Press ISBN 0-8248-1923-3 p.146
- "The abdication decree of Emperor Puyi (1912)". Chinese Revolution. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- Stephen Haw (2006) Beijing: A Concise History. Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-39906-8 p.143
- Bruce Elleman (2001) Modern Chinese Warfare Routledge ISBN 0-415-21474-2 p.149
- Graham Hutchings (2003) Modern China: A Guide to a Century of Change Harvard University Press ISBN 0-674-01240-2 p.459
- Peter Zarrow (2005) China in War and Revolution, 1895–1949 Routledge ISBN 0-415-36447-7 p.230
- M. Leutner (2002) The Chinese Revolution in the 1920s: Between Triumph and Disaster Routledge ISBN 0-7007-1690-4 p.129
- Hung-Mao Tien (1972) Government and Politics in Kuomintang China, 1927–1937 (Volume 53) Stanford University Press ISBN 0-8047-0812-6 pp. 60–72
- Suisheng Zhao (2000) China and Democracy: Reconsidering the Prospects for a Democratic China Routledge ISBN 0-415-92694-7 p.43
- David Ernest Apter, Tony Saich (1994) Revolutionary Discourse in Mao's Republic Harvard University Press ISBN 0-674-76780-2 p.198
- "Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan". BBC — History. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- "Judgement: International Military Tribunal for the Far East". Chapter VIII: Conventional War Crimes (Atrocities). November 1948. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- Doenecke, Justus D.; Stoler, Mark A. (2005). Debating Franklin D. Roosevelt's Foreign Policies, 1933–1945. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8476-9416-7.
- "The Moscow Declaration on general security". Yearbook of the United Nations 1946–1947. Lake Success, NY: United Nations. 1947. p. 3. OCLC 243471225. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- "Declaration by United Nations". United Nations. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Hoopes, Townsend, and Douglas Brinkley FDR and the Creation of the U.N. (Yale University Press, 1997)
- Gaddis, John Lewis (1972). The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941–1947. Columbia University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-231-12239-9.
- Tien, Hung-mao (1991). "The Constitutional Conundrum and the Need for Reform". In Feldman, Harvey (ed.). Constitutional Reform and the Future of the Republic of China. M.E. Sharpe. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-87332-880-7.
- Ben Westcott; Lily Lee (30 September 2019). "They were born at the start of Communist China. 70 years later, their country is unrecognizable". CNN.
- Editors, History com. "Mao Zedong proclaims People's Republic of China". HISTORY. Retrieved 29 May 2021.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "Red Capture of Hainan Island". The Tuscaloosa News. 9 May 1950. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- "The Tibetans" (PDF). University of Southern California. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- John W. Garver (1997). The Sino-American alliance: Nationalist China and American Cold War strategy in Asia. M.E. Sharpe. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-7656-0025-7. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- Busky, Donald F. (2002) Communism in History and Theory Greenwood Publishing Group. p.11
- "A Country Study: China". loc.gov. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
- Madelyn Holmes (2008). Students and teachers of the new China: thirteen interviews. McFarland. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-7864-3288-2. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
- Mirsky, Jonathan (9 December 2012). "Unnatural Disaster". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- Holmes, Leslie Communism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press 2009) ISBN 978-0-19-955154-5 p. 32 "Most estimates of the number of Chinese dead are in the range of 15 to 30 million"
- Michael Y.M. Kao. "Taiwan's and Beijing's Campaigns for Unification" in Harvey Feldman and Michael Y. M. Kao (eds., 1988): Taiwan in a Time of Transition New York: Paragon House p.188
- Hart-Landsberg, Martin; and Burkett, Paul "China and Socialism: Market Reforms and Class Struggle" Monthly Review Retrieved 30 October 2008
- Harding, Harry (December 1990). "The Impact of Tiananmen on China's Foreign Policy". National Bureau of Asian Research. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- "China's Average Economic Growth in 90s Ranked 1st in World". People's Daily. 1 March 2000. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
- Carter, Shan; Cox, Amanda; Burgess, Joe; Aigner, Erin (26 August 2007). "China's Environmental Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Griffiths, Daniel (16 April 2004). "China worried over pace of growth". BBC News. Retrieved 16 April 2006.
- China: Migrants, Students, Taiwan UC Davis Migration News January 2006
- Cody, Edward (28 January 2006). "In Face of Rural Unrest, China Rolls Out Reforms". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "China frees up bank lending rates". BBC News. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- Evans-Pritchard, Ambrose (23 July 2013). "China eyes fresh stimulus as economy stalls, sets 7pc growth floor". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- Davies, Gavyn (25 November 2012). "The decade of Xi Jinping". Financial Times. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- "China orders government debt audit". BBC News. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- Joong, Shik Kang; Wei, Liao (May 2016). "Chinese Imports: What's Behind the Slowdown?" (PDF). International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- Yglesias, Matthew (15 November 2013). "China ends one child policy". Slate. Archived from the original on 16 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "China's president boosts anti-corruption crackdown after nabbing 1.5M". NBC News.
- "Belt and Road Initiative". World Bank. Archived from the original on 19 February 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- "Xi Jinping calls for strengthening jurisdiction on Hong Kong, Macao at CCP centenary address". ANI News Agency. 1 July 2021. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
- "Nepal and China agree on Mount Everest's height". BBC News. 8 April 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "Lowest Places on Earth". National Park Service. 28 February 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580214B. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. PMC 6207062. PMID 30375988.
- Regional Climate Studies of China. Springer. 2008. p. 1. Bibcode:2008rcsc.book.....F. ISBN 978-3-540-79242-0.
- Waghorn, Terry (7 March 2011). "Fighting Desertification". Forbes. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "Beijing hit by eighth sandstorm". BBC News. 17 April 2006. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- Coonan, Clifford (9 November 2007). "The gathering sandstorm: Encroaching desert, missing water". The Independent. Archived from the original on 24 April 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- Reilly, Michael (24 November 2008). "Himalaya glaciers melting much faster". NBC News. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- China's New Growth Pathway: From the 14th Five-Year Plan to Carbon Neutrality (PDF) (Report). Energy Foundation China. December 2020. p. 24.
- Chow, Gregory (2006) Are Chinese Official Statistics Reliable? CESifo Economic Studies 52. 396-414. 10.1093/cesifo/ifl003
- Liu G., Wang X., Baiocchi G., Casazza M., Meng F., Cai Y., Hao Y., Wu F., Yang Z. (October 2020). "On the accuracy of official Chinese crop production data: Evidence from biophysical indexes of net primary production". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117 (41): 25434–25444. doi:10.1073/pnas.1919850117. PMC 7568317. PMID 32978301.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Countries by commodity". FAOSTAT. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- Williams, Jann (10 December 2009). "Biodiversity Theme Report". Environment.gov.au. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- Countries with the Highest Biological Diversity Archived 26 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Mongabay.com. 2004 data. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "Country Profiles – China". Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "[English translation: China Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan. Years 2011–2030]" (PDF). Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- IUCN Initiatives – Mammals – Analysis of Data – Geographic Patterns 2012 Archived 12 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. IUCN. Retrieved 24 April 2013. Data does not include species in Taiwan.
- Countries with the most bird species Archived 16 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Mongabay.com. 2004 data. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- Countries with the most reptile species. Mongabay.com. 2004 data. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- IUCN Initiatives – Amphibians – Analysis of Data – Geographic Patterns 2012 Archived 12 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. IUCN. Retrieved 24 April 2013. Data does not include species in Taiwan.
- Top 20 countries with most endangered species IUCN Red List Archived 24 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "Nature Reserves". China Internet Information Center. Archived from the original on 15 November 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Turvey, Samuel (2013). "Holocene survival of Late Pleistocene megafauna in China: a critical review of the evidence". Quaternary Science Reviews. 76: 156–166. Bibcode:2013QSRv...76..156T. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.06.030.
- Lander, Brian; Brunson, Katherine (2018). "Wild Mammals of Ancient North China". The Journal of Chinese History. Cambridge University Press. 2 (2): 291–312. doi:10.1017/jch.2017.45. S2CID 90662935.
- Turvey, Samuel (2008). Witness to Extinction: How we failed to save the Yangtze River dolphin. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Countries with the most vascular plant species Archived 12 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Mongabay.com. 2004 data. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- China (3 ed.). Rough Guides. 2003. p. 1213. ISBN 978-1-84353-019-0.
- Conservation Biology: Voices from the Tropics. John Wiley & Sons. 2013. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-118-67981-4.
- Liu, Ji-Kai (2007). "Secondary metabolites from higher fungi in China and their biological activity". Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics. 1 (2): 94. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013.
- Ma, Xiaoying; Ortalano, Leonard (2000). Environmental Regulation in China. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-8476-9399-3.
- "China acknowledges 'cancer villages'". BBC News. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- Soekov, Kimberley (28 October 2012). "Riot police and protesters clash over China chemical plant". BBC News. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "Is air quality in China a social problem?". ChinaPower Project. 15 February 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "Ambient air pollution: A global assessment of exposure and burden of disease". World Health Organization. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
- Chestney, Nina (10 June 2013). "Global carbon emissions hit record high in 2012". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "Each Country's Share of CO2 Emissions | Union of Concerned Scientists". Union of Concerned Scientists. August 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- Jennifer Duggan (25 April 2014). "China's polluters to face large fines under law change". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "China Solar Stocks Are Surging After Xi's 2060 Carbon Pledge". Bloomberg.com. 8 October 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
- "China going carbon neutral before 2060 would lower warming projections by around 0.2 to 0.3 degrees C". Climate Action Tracker. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- Brant, Robin (22 September 2021). "China pledges to stop building new coal energy plants abroad". BBC. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
- "China says progress made on water pollution, but battle remains". South China Morning Post. 1 June 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "China's decade plan for water" Archived 30 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. The Earth Institute. Columbia University. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
- Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
- "China seeks better protection of Yangtze river with landmark law". Reuters. 30 December 2020.
- Friedman, Lisa (25 March 2010). "China Leads Major Countries With $34.6 Billion Invested in Clean Technology". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- Black, Richard (26 March 2010). "China steams ahead on clean energy". BBC News. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- Perkowski, Jack (27 July 2012). "China Leads The World in Renewable Energy Investment". Forbes. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- Bradsher, Keith (30 January 2010). "China leads global race to make clean energy". The New York Times.
- "China's big push for renewable energy". Scientific American. 4 August 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "China to plow $361 billion into renewable fuel by 2020". Reuters. 5 January 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- Mishra, D. P. (1 November 2010). "China tops the world in clean energy production". Ecosensorium. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "2015 Key World Energy Statistics" (PDF). report. International Energy Agency (IEA). Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- 2016 Snapshot of Global Photovoltaic Markets, p.7, International Energy Agency, 2017
- "AWEA 2016 Fourth Quarter Market Report". AWEA. American Wind Energy Association. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- "Renewable Energy Statistics 2019" (PDF). International Renewable Energy Agency. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "Geography". China Internet Information Center. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
- "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China. 20 November 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- "CCP's use of courts to silence peaceful dissent is hallmark of authoritarian regimes: US". Asian News International. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
- Unger, Jonathan; Chan, Anita (January 1995). "China, Corporatism, and the East Asian Model". The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs. 33 (33): 29–53. doi:10.2307/2950087. JSTOR 2950087. S2CID 151206422.
- "Freedom in the World 2011: China". Freedom House. 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- "Consultative Democracy, People's Democracy". www.chinatoday.com.cn. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "Xi reiterates adherence to socialism with Chinese characteristics". Xinhua News Agency. 5 January 2013. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- Wei, Changhao (11 March 2018). "Annotated Translation: 2018 Amendment to the P.R.C. Constitution (Version 2.0)". NPC Observer. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- Hernández, Javier C. (25 October 2017). "China's 'Chairman of Everything': Behind Xi Jinping's Many Titles". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
Mr. Xi's most important title is general secretary, the most powerful position in the Communist Party. In China's one party system, this ranking gives him virtually unchecked authority over the government.
- Phillips, Tom (24 October 2017). "Xi Jinping becomes most powerful leader since Mao with China's change to constitution". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- "Democratic Parties". People's Daily. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "How China is Ruled: National People's Congress". BBC News. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
- The landmark study of military generations and factions is William Whitson's The Chinese High Command, Praeger, 1973
- Alexander Baturo; Robert Elgie (2019). The Politics of Presidential Term Limits. Oxford University Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-19-883740-4.
- Matthew Kroenig (2020). The Return of Great Power Rivalry: Democracy Versus Autocracy from the Ancient World to the U. S. and China. Oxford University Press. pp. 176–177. ISBN 978-0-19-008024-2.
- Susan Shirk (13 November 2012). "China's Next Leaders: A Guide to What's at Stake". China File. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Moore, Malcolm (15 November 2012). "Xi Jinping crowned new leader of China Communist Party". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- "Xi Jinping at China congress calls on party to tighten its grip on the country". The Washington Post. 18 October 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
- "China sounds alarm over fast growing gap between rich and poor". Associated Press. 11 May 2002. Archived from the original on 10 June 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- "A Point of View: Is China more legitimate than the West?". BBC News. 2 November 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- Cary Wu (4 June 2020). "How Chinese citizens view their government's coronavirus response". The Conversation. Archived from the original on March 2021.
- Wu, Cary; Shi, Zhilei; Wilkes, Rima (17 March 2021). "Chinese Citizen Satisfaction with Government Performance during COVID-19". Journal of Contemporary China. 30 (132): 930–944. doi:10.1080/10670564.2021.1893558. S2CID 233700346.
- China, The Washington Post
- Kerry Brown (2013). Contemporary China. Macmillan International Higher Education - University of Sydney. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-137-28159-3.
- Horton, Chris (8 July 2019). "Taiwan's Status Is a Geopolitical Absurdity". The Atlantic.
- "Global Diplomacy Index – Country Rank". Lowy Institute. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- "China now has more diplomatic posts than any other country". BBC News. 27 November 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- "China's population up to 1.412 billion in 2020 despite slowing birth rate". South China Morning Post. 11 May 2021.
- Chang, Eddy (22 August 2004). Perseverance will pay off at the UN Archived 6 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine, The Taipei Times.
- "China says communication with other developing countries at Copenhagen summit transparent". People's Daily. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Bric summit ends in China with plea for more influence". BBC News. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- "Taiwan's Ma to stopover in US: report". Agence France-Presse. 12 January 2010. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015.
- Macartney, Jane (1 February 2010). "China says US arms sales to Taiwan could threaten wider relations". The Times. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- Keith, Ronald C. China from the inside out – fitting the People's republic into the world. PlutoPress. pp. 135–136.
- "An Authoritarian Axis Rising?". The Diplomat. 29 June 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013.
- "China, Russia launch largest ever joint military exercise". Deutsche Welle. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
- "Energy to dominate Russia President Putin's China visit". BBC News. 5 June 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- Gladstone, Rick (19 July 2012). "Friction at the U.N. as Russia and China Veto Another Resolution on Syria Sanctions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- "Xi Jinping: Russia-China ties 'guarantee world peace'". BBC News. 23 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Monaghan, Angela (10 January 2014). "China surpasses US as world's largest trading nation". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- Paris, Costas (27 April 2021). "China's Imports of Commodities Drive a Boom in Dry-Bulk Shipping". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
- Desjardins, Jeff (27 April 2016). "Four Maps Showing China's Rising Dominance in Trade". Visual Capitalist. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "ASEAN Trade by Partner Countries/Regions, 2015" (PDF). ASEAN. November 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
- Harada, Issaku (15 July 2020). "ASEAN becomes China's top trade partner as supply chain evolves". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- Timsit, Annabelle (15 February 2021). "China dethroned the US as Europe's top trade partner in 2020". Quartz. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- "RCEP: A new trade agreement that will shape global economics and politics". Brookings. 16 November 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- Dillon, Dana; and Tkacik, John, Jr.; China's Quest for Asia. Policy Review. December 2005 and January 2006. Issue No. 134. Retrieved 22 April 2006.
- Ruwitch, John (23 October 2009). "Q+A - What is the East Asia Summit all about?". Reuters. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- Smith, Matt (10 October 2000). "Clinton signs China trade bill". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- "US trade gap up on China imports". BBC News. 14 October 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "China resists Obama yuan overture". BBC News. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- Palmer, Doug (24 September 2012). "Obama should call China a currency manipulator: Romney aide". Reuters. Archived from the original on 28 September 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- "US says China not a currency manipulator". BBC News. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- McLaughlin, Abraham (30 March 2005). "A rising China counters US clout in Africa". The Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Archived from the original on 16 August 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- Lyman, Princeton (21 July 2005). "China's Rising Role in Africa". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2007.
- Politzer, Malia (6 August 2008). "China and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- Nyabiage, Jevans (18 January 2020). "China's trade with Africa grows 2.2 per cent in 2019 to US$208 billion". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- Condon, Madison (1 January 2012). "China in Africa: What the Policy of Nonintervention Adds to the Western Development Dilemma". PRAXIS: The Fletcher Journal of Human Security. 27: 5.
- "The U.S. and China Are Battling for Influence in Latin America, and the Pandemic Has Raised the Stakes". Time. 4 February 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- "In Latin America, a Biden White House faces a rising China". Reuters. 14 December 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- "China faces wave of calls for debt relief on 'Belt and Road' projects". Financial Times. 30 April 2020.
- Harry G. Broadman "Afrika´s Silk Road" (2007); Wolf D. Hartmann, Wolfgang Maennig, Run Wang: Chinas neue Seidenstraße. Frankfurt am Main 2017, pp 59; Marcus Hernig: Die Renaissance der Seidenstraße (2018), p 112; Harry de Wilt: Is One Belt, One Road a China crisis for North Sea main ports? in World Cargo News, 17. December 2019; Guido Santevecchi: Di Maio e la Via della Seta: «Faremo i conti nel 2020», siglato accordo su Trieste in Corriere della Sera: 5. November 2019.
- "Chinese Civil War". Cultural-China.com. Archived from the original on 12 September 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
To this day, since no armistice or peace treaty has ever been signed, there is controversy as to whether the Civil War has legally ended.
- "Groundless to view China as expansionist, says Beijing after PM Modi's Ladakh visit". India Today. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
- Fravel, M. Taylor (1 October 2005). "Regime Insecurity and International Cooperation: Explaining China's Compromises in Territorial Disputes". International Security. 30 (2): 46–83. doi:10.1162/016228805775124534. ISSN 0162-2889. S2CID 56347789.
- Fravel, M. Taylor (2008). Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691136097.
- "China denies preparing war over South China Sea shoal". BBC News. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- "How uninhabited islands soured China-Japan ties". BBC News. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- Diamond, Anna Mitchell, Larry (2 February 2018). "China's Surveillance State Should Scare Everyone". The Atlantic. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
- Sorman, Guy (2008). Empire of Lies: The Truth About China in the Twenty-First Century. Encounter Books. pp. 46, 152. ISBN 978-1-59403-284-4.
- "World Report 2009: China". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
- "China Requires Internet Users to Register Names". Associated Press via My Way News. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- Bradsher, Keith (28 December 2012). "China Toughens Its Restrictions on Use of the Internet". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
- King, Gary; Pan, Jennifer; Roberts, Margaret E. (May 2013). "How Censorship in China Allows Government Criticism but Silences Collective Expression" (PDF). American Political Science Review. 107 (2): 326–343. doi:10.1017/S0003055413000014. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
Our central theoretical finding is that, contrary to much research and commentary, the purpose of the censorship program is not to suppress criticism of the state or the Communist Party.
- Raphael, René; Ling, Xi (23 January 2019). "Discipline and Punish: The Birth of China's Social-Credit System". The Nation. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- "China's behavior monitoring system bars some from travel, purchasing property". CBS News. 24 April 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
- Kobie, Nicole (21 January 2019). "The complicated truth about China's social credit system". Wired. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- Tang, Didi (9 January 2014). "Forced abortion highlights abuses in China policy". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- "China bans religious activities in Xinjiang". Financial Times. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- Fan, Maureen; Cha, Ariana Eunjung (24 December 2008). "China's Capital Cases Still Secret, Arbitrary". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
- Millard, Robin (27 March 2012). "Amnesty sees hope in China on death penalty". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Christian Göbel and Lynette H. Ong, "Social unrest in China." Long Briefing, Europe China Research and Academic Network (ECRAN) (2012) p 18. Chatham House
- "U.S., UK, Germany clash with China at U.N. over Xinjiang". Reuters. 12 May 2021.
- Anna Morcom (June 2018). "The Political Potency of Tibetan Identity in Pop Music and Dunglen". Himalaya. Royal Holloway, University of London. 38.
- "Dalai Lama hits out over burnings". 7 November 2011 – via www.bbc.com.
- Diamond, Rayhan Asat, Yonah. "The World's Most Technologically Sophisticated Genocide Is Happening in Xinjiang". Foreign Policy.
- Hatton, Celia (27 June 2013). "China 'moves two million Tibetans'". BBC News. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- "Fresh unrest hits China's Xinjiang". BBC News. 29 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- Graham-Harrison, Emma; Garside, Juliette (24 November 2019). "'Allow no escapes': leak exposes reality of China's vast prison camp network". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "2019 Report on International Religious Freedom: China - Xinjiang". United States Department of State. 2019. Archived from the original on 16 August 2020.
- Denyer, Simon (28 February 2018). "China detains relatives of U.S. reporters in apparent punishment for Xinjiang coverage". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- "China Suppression Of Uighur Minorities Meets U.N. Definition Of Genocide, Report Says". NPR. 4 July 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
- Nebehay, Stephanie (15 September 2020). "Activists decry 'genocide' of China's Uighur minority: letter". Reuters. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
- Gordon, Michael R. (19 January 2021). "U.S. Says China Is Committing 'Genocide' Against Uighur Muslims". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
- "Middle East-North Africa was region with highest restrictions and hostilities in 2014". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 23 June 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "Middle East still home to highest levels of restrictions on religion". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 15 July 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- "China". Global Slavery Index. 2016. Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Pejan, Ramin. "Laogai: "Reform Through Labor" in China". Washington College of Law. Archived from the original on 25 June 2002. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- Davey, Melissa (5 February 2019). "Call for retraction of 400 scientific papers amid fears organs came from Chinese prisoners". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- "The new generals in charge of China's guns". BBC News. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- Perlo-Freeman, Sam (March 2014). "Mar. 2014: Deciphering China's latest defence budget figures". SIPRI. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- Annual Report To Congress – Military Power of the People's Republic of China 2009 (PDF). Defenselink.mil. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- "2021 Military Strength Ranking". Global Firepower. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- "Which Countries Have the Most Nuclear Weapons?". Visual Capitalist. Retrieved 27 November 2021.
- "World Bank World Development Indicators". World Bank. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Kollewe, Justin McCurry Julia (14 February 2011). "China overtakes Japan as world's second-largest economy". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
- "2020: China's GDP expands by 2.3% to top 101.6 trillion yuan". State Council of the People’s Republic of China. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
- CBNEditor (18 January 2021). "China's GDP Breaches 100 Trillion Yuan Threshold after Posting 2.3% Growth in 2020, Disposable Income up 4.7%". China Banking News. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
- "GDP PPP (World Bank)". World Bank. 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "Overview". World Bank. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
- "GDP (current US$) – China". World Bank. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
- "GDP growth (annual %) – China". World Bank. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
- White, Garry (10 February 2013). "China trade now bigger than US". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- Roach, Stephen S. (2 September 2016). "Why China is central to global growth". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Desjardins, Jeff (15 March 2019). "The Economies Adding the Most to Global Growth in 2019". Visual Capitalist. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Maddison, Angus (2007). Contours of the World Economy 1-2030 AD: Essays in Macro-Economic History. Oxford University Press. p. 379. ISBN 978-0-191-64758-1.
- Dahlman, Carl J; Aubert, Jean-Eric. "China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st Century. WBI Development Studies. World Bank Publications". Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- "Angus Maddison. Chinese Economic Performance in the Long Run. Development Centre Studies. Accessed 2007. p.29" (PDF). Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- "Top 10 Largest Stock Exchanges in the World By Market Capitalization". ValueWalk. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- "China's Stock Market Tops $10 Trillion First Time Since 2015". Bloomberg.com. 13 October 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
- "The Global Financial Centres Index 28" (PDF). Long Finance. September 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
- "These will be the most important cities by 2035". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
- Marsh, Peter (13 March 2011). "China noses ahead as top goods producer". Financial Times. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- Levinson, Marc (21 February 2018). "U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists.
- "Report – S&E Indicators 2018 | NSF – National Science Foundation". www.nsf.gov. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
- Shane, Daniel (23 January 2019). "China will overtake the US as the world's biggest retail market this year". CNN. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- Fan, Ziyang; Backaler, Joel (17 September 2018). "Five trends shaping the future of e-commerce in China". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- Lipsman, Andrew (27 June 2019). "Global Ecommerce 2019". eMarketer. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Huang, Echo. "China buys one out of every two electric vehicles sold globally". Quartz. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "China Dominates the Global Lithium Battery Market". Institute for Energy Research. 9 September 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- "China Installs 44.3 Gigawatts Of Solar In 2018". CleanTechnica. 23 January 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "Global PV capacity is expected to reach 969GW by 2025". Power Technology | Energy News and Market Analysis. 21 December 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "Can China's reported growth be trusted?". The Economist. 15 October 2020. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
- Plekhanov, Dmitriy (2017). "Quality of China's Official Statistics: A Brief Review of Academic Perspectives". The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies. Copenhagen Business School. 35 (1): 76. doi:10.22439/cjas.v35i1.5400. ISSN 1395-4199.
- Chen, Wei; Chen, Xilu; Hsieh, Chang-Tai; Song, Zheng (2019). A Forensic Examination of China's National Accounts (PDF). Brookings Institution.
- Wallace, Jeremy (28 December 2015). "Here's why it matters that China is admitting that its statistics are 'unreliable'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
- Clark, Hunter; Pinkovskiy, Maxim; Sala-i-Martin, Xavier (1 August 2020). "China's GDP growth may be understated". China Economic Review. 62: 101243. doi:10.1016/j.chieco.2018.10.010. ISSN 1043-951X. S2CID 157898394.
- Daniel, Rosen; Beibei, Bao (2015). Broken Abacus? A More Accurate Gauge of China's Economy. Center for Strategic and International Studies. pp. X–XV. ISBN 978-1442240841.
China is bigger, not smaller: Our reassessment suggests that China's 2008 GDP was most likely 13.1 to 16.3 percent larger than official figures indicated at the time"
- "China's GDP Growth May Be Understated" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. April 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2021.
- Chandran, Nyshka (16 October 2015). "These guys think China's economy is much larger". CNBC. Retrieved 15 March 2021.
- "Is China Already Number One? New GDP Estimates". Peterson Institute for International Economics. 13 January 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- Fernald, John G.; Malkin, Israel; Spiegel, Mark M. (2013). "On the reliability of Chinese output figures". FRBSF Economic Letter.
- "Informal economy in China and Mongolia". International Labour Organization. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "3 Things to know on China's Poverty Reduction".
- "Forbes Billionaires 2021: The Richest People in the World". Forbes. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
- "Topic: Millionaires in China". Statista. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
- Khan, Yusuf (22 October 2019). "China has overtaken the US to have the most wealthy people in the world | Markets Insider". Business Insider. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
- Dawkins, David (21 October 2019). "China Overtakes U.S. In Global Household Wealth Rankings 'Despite' Trade Tensions – Report". Forbes. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
- "Shimao Shenkong International Center·Hurun Global Rich List 2020". Hurun Report. 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
- Chen, Qin (27 March 2021). "China is now home to two-thirds of the world's top women billionaires, four times more than the US, Hurun research institute reveals". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- "GDP PPP (World Bank)". worldbank.org. World Bank. 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- King, Stephen (2 February 2016). "China's path to tackling regional inequality". Financial Times.
- "China lifting 800 million people out of poverty is historic: World Bank". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 13 October 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "China's Approach to Reduce Poverty: Taking Targeted Measures to Lift People out of Poverty" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Data | The World Bank". datatopics.worldbank.org. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "Is China Succeeding at Eradicating Poverty?". Center for Strategic and International Studies. 23 October 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- "China is already a market economy—Long Yongtu, Secretary General of Boao Forum for Asia". EastDay.com. 2008. Archived from the original on 9 September 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
- "Communism Is Dead, But State Capitalism Thrives". Vahan Janjigian. Forbes. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- "The Winners And Losers In Chinese Capitalism". Gady Epstein. Forbes. 31 August 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- John Lee. "Putting Democracy in China on Hold". The Center for Independent Studies. 26 July 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- "China has socialist market economy in place". People's Daily. 13 July 2005. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "China Is a Private-Sector Economy". Bloomberg Businessweek. 22 August 2005. Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Microsoft Word – China2bandes.doc" (PDF). OECD. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Data shows strength of China's private enterprises". www.ecns.cn. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "China's economy slows but data hints at rebound". BBC News. 18 October 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "China Loses Control of Its Frankenstein Economy". Bloomberg L.P. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- Foley, John (15 July 2013). "The lowdown on China's slowdown: It's not all bad". Fortune. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- "GDP (current US$) – China, Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy". World Bank. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "China's Economic Outlook in Six Charts". International Monetary Fund. 26 July 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Draper, Mark (18 February 2019). "China's middle class doubling to 600 million is a key investment opportunity". Australian Financial Review. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Cheng, Jonathan (18 January 2021). "China is the Only Major Economy to Report Economic Growth for 2020". Wall Street Journal.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- "Global trade growth loses momentum as trade tensions persist". World Trade Organization. 2 April 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
- "UPDATE 1-China's May forex reserves rise unexpectedly to $3.1 trillion". Reuters. 10 June 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
- "China's Foreign-Exchange Reserves Surge, Exceeding $2 Trillion". Bloomberg L.P. 15 July 2009. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
- "China's forex reserves reach USD 2.85 trillion". Smetimes.tradeindia.com. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
- "FDI in Figures" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- Sakib Sherani (17 April 2015). "Pakistan's remittances". dawn.com. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- "Being eaten by the dragon". The Economist. 11 November 2010.
- "Washington learns to treat China with care". CNNMoney.com. 29 July 2009.
- Hornby, Lucy (23 September 2009). "Factbox: US-China Interdependence Outweighs Trade Spat". Reuters. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
- Intellectual Property Rights. Asia Business Council. September 2005. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "MIT CIS: Publications: Foreign Policy Index". MIT Center for International Studies. Archived from the original on 14 February 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Momentary Fund. October 2018. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- Huang, Yukon (Fall 2013). "Does Internationalizing the RMB Make Sense for China?" (PDF). Cato Journal. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- Chan, Norman T.L. (18 February 2014). "Hong Kong as Offshore Renminbi Centre – Past and Prospects". HKMA. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- "RMB Settlement", Kasikorn Research Center, Bangkok, 8 February 2011
- Kramer, Andrew E. (14 December 2010). "Sidestepping the U.S. Dollar, a Russian Exchange Will Swap Rubles and Renminbi". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- Takahashi, Kosuke (2 June 2012). "Japan, China bypass US in currency trade". Asia Times Online. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2013.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- "China and Australia Announce Direct Currency Trading". Department of the Treasury (Australia). Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
Direct trading between the two currencies will commence on the China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) and the Australian foreign exchange market on 10 April 2013.
- "New Initiatives to Strengthen China-Singapore Financial Cooperation". Monetary Authority of Singapore. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- "Chancellor George Osborne cements London as renminbi hub". Financial Times.
The two countries agreed to allow direct renminbi-sterling trading in Shanghai and offshore, making the pound the fourth currency to trade directly against the renminbi, while Chinese banks will be permitted to set up branches in London.
- "Bank of Canada announces signing of reciprocal 3-year Canadian dollar/renminbi bilateral swap arrangement". Bank of Canada. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
As part of the initiative announced today by the Government of Canada to promote increased trade and investment between Canada and China, as well as to support domestic financial stability should market conditions warrant, Governor Stephen S. Poloz and Governor Zhou Xiaochuan of the People's Bank of China have signed an agreement establishing a reciprocal 3-year, Canadian dollar (Can$)/renminbi (RMB) currency swap line.
- "The top 10 most traded currencies in the world". IG. 4 September 2018.
- "RMB now 8th most widely traded currency in the world". Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- Zheping, Huang (14 October 2015). "China's middle class has overtaken the US's to become the world's largest". Quartz. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
- Rubin, Trudy (16 November 2018). "400 million strong and growing: China's massive middle class is its secret weapon". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
- HOMI, KHARAS; MEAGAN, DOOLEY (2020). CHINA'S INFLUENCE ON THE GLOBAL MIDDLE CLASS (PDF). Brookings Institution. p. 1.
- "Rising Wages: Has China Lost Its Global Labor Advantage?". www.iza.org. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- Rapoza, Kenneth (16 August 2017). "China Wage Levels Equal To Or Surpass Parts of Europe". Forbes. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- Frank, Robert (20 October 2020). "China's billionaires see biggest gains ever, adding more than $1.5 trillion to their fortunes". CNBC. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- "Jack Ma Is Still China's Richest Person as Five New Billionaires Minted a Week". www.yicaiglobal.com. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- Moore, Malcolm (7 September 2011). "China's billionaires double in number". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- Duggan, Jennifer (12 January 2013). "Income inequality on the rise in China". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- Tobin, Damian (29 June 2011). "Inequality in China: Rural poverty persists as urban wealth balloons". BBC News. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- Tom (1989), 99; Day & McNeil (1996), 122; Needham (1986e), 1–2, 40–41, 122–123, 228.
- "In Our Time: Negative Numbers". BBC News. 9 March 2006. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- Struik, Dirk J. (1987). A Concise History of Mathematics. New York: Dover Publications. pp. 32–33. "In these matrices we find negative numbers, which appear here for the first time in history."
- Chinese Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology. 179. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1996. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-0-7923-3463-7.
- Frank, Andre (2001). "Review of The Great Divergence". Journal of Asian Studies. 60 (1): 180–182. doi:10.2307/2659525. JSTOR 2659525.
- Yu, Q. Y. (1999). The Implementation of China's Science and Technology Policy. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-56720-332-5.
- Vogel, Ezra F. (2011). Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China. Harvard University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-674-05544-5.
- DeGlopper, Donald D. (1987). "Soviet Influence in the 1950s". China: a country study. Library of Congress.
- Gibbs, Samuel (1 August 2018). "Huawei beats Apple to become second-largest smartphone maker". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 August 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- Jia, Hepeng (9 September 2014). "R&D share for basic research in China dwindles". Chemistry World. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- Normile, Dennis (10 October 2018). "Surging R&D spending in China narrows gap with United States". Science. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
- "China Has Surpassed the U.S. in R&D Spending, According to New National Academy of Arts and Sciences Report - ASME". www.asme.org. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
- "China spent an estimated $279 billion on R&D last year". CNBC. 26 February 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
- "Gross domestic spending on R&D". OECD. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
- Kang, David; Segal, Adam (March 2006). "The Siren Song of Technonationalism". Far Eastern Economic Review. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- "World Intellectual Property Indicators: Filings for Patents, Trademarks, Industrial Designs Reach Record Heights in 2018". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
- "China Becomes Top Filer of International Patents in 2019". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
- Dutta, Soumitra; Lanvin, Bruno; Wunsch-Vincent, Sacha; León, Lorena Rivera; World Intellectual Property Organization (2021). "Global Innovation Index 2021, 14th Edition". World Intellectual Property Organization. Global Innovation Index. doi:10.34667/tind.44315. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
- "Global Innovation Index 2019". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
- "RTD - Item". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
- "Global Innovation Index". INSEAD Knowledge. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
- "WIPO experts call China's IP system role model". Xinhua News Agency. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
- Chadwick, Jonathan (9 March 2018). "Huawei the biggest filer of patents with the EPO in 2017". ZDNet. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957". Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998". Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009". Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- "Yuan T. Lee – Biographical". Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- "Nobel Prize announcement" (PDF). NobelPrize.org. Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- Albers, Donald J.; Alexanderson, G. L.; Reid, Constance. International Mathematical Congresses. An Illustrated History 1893-1986. Rev. ed. including ICM 1986. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986
- Colvin, Geoff (29 July 2010). "Desperately seeking math and science majors". CNN. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- Orszag, Peter R. (12 September 2018). "China is Overtaking the U.S. in Scientific Research". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 20 February 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "Who's afraid of Huawei?". The Economist. 4 August 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- "Shares in China's Lenovo rise on profit surge". New Straits Times. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 17 August 2012.
- "Lenovo ousts HP as world's top PC maker, says Gartner". BBC News. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "China retakes supercomputer crown". BBC News. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- Williams, Christopher (12 November 2012). "'Titan' supercomputer is world's most powerful". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- Tartar, Andre (12 June 2019). "China Sets the Pace in Race to Build the Factory of the Future". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Long, Wei (25 April 2000). "China Celebrates 30th Anniversary of First Satellite Launch". Space daily. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016.
- Amos, Jonathan (29 September 2011). "Rocket launches Chinese space lab". BBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- Rincon, Paul (14 December 2013). "China lands Jade Rabbit robot rover on Moon". BBC News. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- "QUESS launched from the cosmodrome on Gobi desert". Spaceflights.news. 17 August 2016. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- "China launches world's first quantum science satellite". physicsworld.com. 16 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- Lyons, Kate. "Chang'e 4 landing: China probe makes historic touchdown on far side of the moon". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- "China sends world's first 6G test satellite into orbit". Retrieved 7 November 2020.
- "China launches 'world's first 6G experiment satellite'". Anadolu Agency. 6 November 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
- "Moon rock samples brought to Earth for first time in 44 years". Christian Science Monitor. 17 December 2020. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
- "China succeeds on country's first Mars landing attempt with Tianwen-1". NASASpaceFlight.com. 15 May 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
- Qu, Hongbin. "China's infrastructure builds foundation for growth". HSBC. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
- "China has built the world's largest bullet-train network". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
- "Countries or Jurisdictions Ranked by Number of 150m+ Completed Buildings". The Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- "Three Gorges Dam: The World's Largest Hydroelectric Plant". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
- "Shock Finding? China Is The World's Biggest Energy Producer". Forbes. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
- Gao, Ryan Woo (12 June 2020). "China set to complete Beidou network rivalling GPS in global navigation". Reuters. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
- Dollar, David (October 2020). "Seven years into China's Belt and Road". Brookings. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
- Cai, Peter. "Understanding China's Belt and Road Initiative". Lowy Institute. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- "China: mobile users 2018". Statista. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- McCarthy, Niall. "China Now Boasts More Than 800 Million Internet Users And 98% Of Them Are Mobile [Infographic]". Forbes. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "China breaks 1B 4G subscriber mark". Mobile World Live. 22 January 2018. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- Woyke, Elizabeth. "China is racing ahead in 5G. Here's what that means". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "China: China Telecom broadband customers 2017 | Statistic". Statista. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Parietti, Melissa. "The World's Top 10 Telecommunications Companies". Investopedia. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "Blog: China operator H1 2018 scorecard". Mobile World Live. 21 August 2018. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "China ranked in top 5 for 4G penetration · TechNode". TechNode. 8 November 2018. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- Engleman, Eric (8 October 2012). "Huawei, ZTE Provide Opening for China Spying, Report Says". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- "China's Beidou GPS-substitute opens to public in Asia". BBC News. 27 December 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
- "China's BeiDou officially goes global – Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "China Is Building a $9 Billion Rival to the American-Run GPS". Bloomberg. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "China promises state support to keep BeiDou system at cutting edge". South China Morning Post. 3 August 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- "China: total highway length 2017 | Statistic". Statista. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Road Traffic Accidents Increase Dramatically Worldwide". Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "China: number of fatalities in traffic accidents 2017 | Statistic". Statista. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "Bike-Maker Giant Says Fitness Lifestyle Boosting China Sales". Bloomberg News. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- "Chinese Railways Carry Record Passengers, Freight" Xinhua 21 June 2007
- 2013年铁道统计公报 (in Chinese). National Railway Administration of the People's Republic of China. 10 April 2014. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014.
- "China's trains desperately overcrowded for Lunar New Year". Seattle Times. 22 January 2009.
- "Full steam ahead for China's rail network, despite debt concerns". South China Morning Post. 21 January 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
- "Countries With the Most High Speed Rail". WorldAtlas. 19 April 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
- 陈子琰. "China's railways report 3.57b passenger trips in 2019". global.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
- "China opens world's longest high-speed rail route". BBC. 26 December 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- "Top ten fastest trains in the world" railway-technology.com 29 August 2013
- "China's Building Push Goes Underground". The Wall Street Journal. 10 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "China builds more urban rail transit lines in 2020--China Economic Net". en.ce.cn. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
- Goh, Brenda (16 May 2016). "China to let more cities build metro systems – Economic Information Daily". Reuters. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
- "Top 50 World Container Ports" World Shipping Council Archived 27 August 2013 at Archive-It Accessed 2 June 2014
- Hook, Leslie (14 May 2013). "China: High and dry: Water shortages put a brake on economic growth". Financial Times. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Website of the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation" (PDF). JMP (WHO and UNICEF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- Wang, Yue (20 February 2014). "Chinese Minister Speaks Out Against South-North Water Diversion Project". Forbes. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Population Growth Rate". CIA. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- "The American Dream Is Alive. In China". The New York Times. 18 November 2018. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- Lahiri, Zheping Huang, Tripti; Lahiri, Zheping Huang, Tripti. "China's path out of poverty can never be repeated at scale by any other country". Quartz. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- hermesauto (7 December 2018). "After 40 years, China aims to close chapter on poverty". The Straits Times. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "China Unemployment Rate [1999 – 2019] [Data & Charts]". www.ceicdata.com. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "China formalizes easing of one-child policy". USA Today. 28 December 2013.
- "Top legislature amends law to allow all couples to have two children". Xinhua News Agency. 27 December 2015.
- "The most surprising demographic crisis". The Economist. 5 May 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
- Feng, Wang; Yong, Cai; Gu, Baochang (2012). "Population, Policy, and Politics: How Will History Judge China's One-Child Policy?" (PDF). Population and Development Review. 38: 115–29. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00555.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- Whyte, Martin K.; Wang, Feng; Cai, Yong (2015). "Challenging Myths about China's One-Child Policy" (PDF). The China Journal. 74: 144–159. doi:10.1086/681664. PMC 6701844. PMID 31431804.
- Goodkind, Daniel (2017). "The Astonishing Population Averted by China's Birth Restrictions: Estimates, Nightmares, and Reprogrammed Ambitions". Demography. 54 (4): 1375–1400. doi:10.1007/s13524-017-0595-x. PMID 28762036. S2CID 13656899.
- Parry, Simon (9 January 2005). "Shortage of girls forces China to criminalize selective abortion". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "Chinese facing shortage of wives". BBC News. 12 January 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
- "Chinese mainland gender ratios most balanced since 1950s: census data". Xinhua. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "The odds that you will give birth to a boy or girl depend on where in the world you live". Pew Research Center. 24 September 2013.
- "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 28 April 2011. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Lilly, Amanda (7 July 2009). "A Guide to China's Ethnic Groups". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 December 2013.
- China's Geography: Globalization and the Dynamics of Political, Economic, and Social Change. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 2011. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-7425-6784-9.
- "Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Languages of China – from Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International.
- Kaplan, Robert B.; Richard B. Baldauf (2008). Language Planning and Policy in Asia: Japan, Nepal, Taiwan and Chinese characters. Multilingual Matters. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-84769-095-1.
- "Languages". 2005. Gov.cn. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language (Order of the President No.37)". Chinese Government. 31 October 2000. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
For purposes of this Law, the standard spoken and written Chinese language means Putonghua (a common speech with pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect) and the standardized Chinese characters.
- Rough Guide Phrasebook: Mandarin Chinese. Rough Guides. 2011. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4053-8884-9.
- General Information of the People's Republic of China (PRC): Languages, chinatoday.com, retrieved 17 April 2008
- "Urban population (% of total)". World Bank. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- "Preparing for China's urban billion". McKinsey Global Institute. February 2009. pp. 6, 52. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Urbanisation: Where China's future will happen". The Economist. 19 April 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- FlorCruz, Jaime A. (20 January 2012). "China's urban explosion: A 21st century challenge". CNN. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Maggie Hiufu Wong. "Megacities and more: A guide to China's most impressive urban centers". CNN. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
- 张洁. "Chongqing, Chengdu top new first-tier cities by population". global.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- "China: Administrative Division (Provinces and Prefectures) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- Demographia (March 2013). Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (9th ed.). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2013.
- OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015. OECD Urban Policy Reviews. OECD. 18 April 2015. p. 37. doi:10.1787/9789264230040-en. ISBN 9789264230033.
- 2015年重庆常住人口3016.55万人 继续保持增长态势 (in Chinese). Chongqing News. 28 January 2016. Archived from the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
- "Tabulation of the China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017". China Statistics Press.
- Francesco Sisci. "China's floating population a headache for census". The Straits Times. 22 September 2000.
- Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China(MOHURD) (2019). 中国城市建设统计年鉴2018 [China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018] (in Chinese). Beijing: China Statistic Publishing House.
- August 2018 (PDF). Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics (Report). Census and Statistics Department. August 2018. p. 4.
- Chongqing Statistics Bureau (2019). 重庆统计年鉴2019 [Chongqing Statistical Yearbook 2019] (in Chinese). Beijing: China Statistic Publishing House. p. 613. ISBN 978-7-5037-8854-3.
- "Peking University". Times Higher Education (THE). 18 September 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
- "Overall Ranking, Best Chinese Universities Rankings - 2019". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
- "Compulsory Education Law of the People's Republic of China - Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China". en.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- "MOE press conference to highlight educational milestones achieved during the 13th Five-Year Plan period - Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China". en.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- "China's higher education students exceed 30 million". People's Daily. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- "School enrollment, tertiary (% gross) - China | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- "Major educational achievements in China in 2020 - Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China". en.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- "Vocational education entering a new development stage - Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China". en.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- "China Case Study: Situation Analysis of the Effect of and Response to COVID-19 in Asia" (PDF). UNICEF. August 2021. p. 21. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- "China pledges free 9-year education in rural west". China Economic Net. 21 February 2006. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- "In Education, China Takes the Lead". The New York Times. 16 January 2013.
- "MOE releases 2020 Statistical Bulletin on Educational Spending - Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China". en.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- "Chinese Education: The Truth Behind the Boasts". Bloomberg Businessweek. 4 April 2013.
- "Major educational achievements in China in 2020 - Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China". en.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- Galtung, Marte Kjær; Stenslie, Stig (2014). 49 Myths about China. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 189. ISBN 978-1-4422-3622-6.
- "Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above) – China". World Bank. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- "PISA 2018 Results". OECD. 3 December 2019. Archived from the original on 3 December 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
- "International Mathematical Olympiad Cumulative results by country". www.imo-official.org. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- "International Physics Olympiad: List of Countries". ipho-unofficial.org. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- "International Olympiad in Informatics Statistics: China Results". stats.ioinformatics.org. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- "International Chemistry Olympiad: List of Countries". www.icho-official.org. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- "全国高等学校名单 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". www.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- 关晓萌. "China's higher education system is world's largest, officials say". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- "ShanghaiRanking's Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020 Press Release". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
- "U.S. News Unveils 2021 Best Global Universities Rankings". US News and World Report. 20 October 2020. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- "Media | CWUR | Center for World University Rankings". cwur.org. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
- "Statistics of Academic Ranking of World Universities - 2020". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
- "World University Rankings 2021". Times Higher Education (THE). 25 August 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
- "Asia University Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). 28 May 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2020.