Hermenegildo Arruga

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Hermenegildo Arruga i Liró (March 15, 1886 - May 17, 1972) was a Spanish ophthalmologist known for refining several eye surgeries.


Born in Barcelona, Arruga was the second of three generations of eye surgeons. He entered medical studies at 16 and graduated in 1908, leaving Spain for a while for further study in France and Germany. His mentors included Edmund Landolt, Julius Hirschberg and Félix de Lapersonne. He returned to Barcelona, spending the rest of his life seeing patients there, with the exception of a move to South America during the Spanish Civil War.[1]

Arruga was one of the first surgeons to promote intracapsular cataract extraction and he suggested technical improvements to several other eye surgeries.[2] He won the Gonin Medal in 1950.[3] He was recognized with the Order of Isabella the Catholic in 1956.[4] He received honorary doctorates from the University of Barcelona and Heidelberg University.[5][6] Arruga was named an honorary fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. He was also made a count by the Spanish government.[7]

Arruga died of heart disease in 1972.[8] He was preceded in death by his wife, Teresa Forgas, the mother of his four children. She died following an automobile accident.[1]


  1. ^ a b "Obituary. Hermenegildo Arruga, 1886-1972" (PDF). British Journal of Ophthalmology. 56 (6): 509–510. 1972. doi:10.1136/bjo.56.6.509. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
  2. ^ Ascaso, Francisco J.; Grzybowski, Andrzej (December 2014). "Hermenegildo Arruga (1886-1972): a versatile ophthalmologist who simplified cerclage to retinal surgery". Acta Ophthalmologica. 92 (8): 814–817. doi:10.1111/aos.12345. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
  3. ^ "Hermenegildo Arruga". JAMA Ophthalmology. 125 (6): 788. June 1, 2007. doi:10.1001/archopht.125.6.788. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
  4. ^ "Concesión de condecoraciones". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). April 1, 1956. p. 11. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
  5. ^ "Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). March 13, 1970. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
  6. ^ «El conde de Arruga, doctor "honoris causa" por Heidelberg». La Vanguardia (in Spanish). September 5, 1957, p. 12. ISSN 1133-4835. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
  7. ^ "Institute of Ophthalmology" (PDF). British Journal of Ophthalmology. 34 (8): 516. 1950. PMC 1323622. PMID 18170553. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
  8. ^ Guardiola, E (2004). "Hermenegild Arruga i Liró. Les operacions d'Arruga i altres epònims". Quaderns de la Fundació Dr. Antoni Esteve (in Catalan). 1 (1): 3–8. Retrieved November 26, 2015.