High-resolution picture transmission

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An HRPT Image from a NOAA Satellite

Weather satellite pictures are often broadcast as high-resolution picture transmissions (HRPTs), color high-resolution picture transmissions (CHRPTs) for Chinese weather satellite transmissions, or advanced high-resolution picture transmissions (AHRPTs) for EUMETSAT weather satellite transmissions. HRPT transmissions are available around the world and are available from both polar and geostationary weather satellites. The polar satellites rotate in orbits that allow each location on Earth to be covered by the weather satellite twice per day while the geostationary satellites remain in one location at the equator taking weather images of the Earth from that location over the equator. The sensor on weather satellites that picks up the data transmitted in HRPT is referred to as an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR).[1]

Broadcast signal
The working frequency band for HRPT is L Band at 1.670–1.710 GHz and the modulation types are BPSK and QPSK.[2] On NOAA KLM satellites the transmission power is 6.35 Watts, or 38.03 dBm.[3] The METOP-A satellite broadcasts with a bandwidth of 4.5 MHz.[4]

Reception[edit]

Hardware[edit]

In order to receive HRPT transmissions a high gain antenna is required, such as a small satellite dish, a helical antenna, or a crossed yagi. Basic reception equipment includes a parabolic dish antenna attached to an Azimuth-Elevation unit. The HRPT signal is further enhanced with a 1.7 GHz pre-amplifier. An HRPT receiver unit and a dish tracking controller are required to steer the Azimuth-Elevation unit controlling the parabolic dish. As an alternative to receiving direct broadcast from polar orbiting satellites, users in Europe and Africa can also receive rebroadcast data from the EUMETSAT EUMETCAST service via Digital Video Broadcasting using a simple stationary satellite dish.[5]

Software[edit]

Both commercial and free software for demodulating HRPT transmission signals exists: Example of commercial demodulation software is XHRPT Decoder.[6] Free software exists as a part of GNURadio package, the GR-NOAA blocks and flowcharts distributed by Manuel Bülo.[7]

Free software for decoding data packets contained in HRPT is available, for example DWDSAT HRPT Viewer V1.1.0[8] or AAPP[9] with Satpy.[10]

Satellite status[edit]

Organization Satellite Name Orbit Service Frequency Data rate Status
NOAA NOAA-15 Polar HRPT 1702.5 MHz 0.665Mbps[11] Transmitting
NOAA NOAA-18 Polar HRPT 1707.0 MHz 0.665Mbps[11] Transmitting
NOAA NOAA-19 Polar HRPT 1698.0 MHz[12] 0.665Mbps[11] Transmitting
EUMETSAT Metop-A[13] Polar AHRPT 1701.3 MHz 4.66Mbps[14] Offline
EUMETSAT Metop-B Polar AHRPT 1701.3 MHz 4.66Mbps[14] Transmitting
EUMETSAT Metop-C Polar AHRPT 1701.3 MHz 4.66Mbps[14] Transmitting
CMA Fengyun 3A[15] Sun-synchronous AHRPT 1704.5 MHz 4.2Mbps[16] Offline
CMA Fengyun 3B[17] Sun-synchronous AHRPT 1704.5 MHz 4.2Mbps[16] Offline
CMA Fengyun 3C[18] Sun-synchronous AHRPT 1701.3 MHz 4.2Mbps[16] Transmitting
RosHydroMet Meteor-M N2 Sun-synchronous AHRPT 1700.0 MHz[19] 0.665Mbps[19] Offline
RosHydroMet Meteor-M N2-2 Sun-synchronous AHRPT 1700.0 MHz[20] 0.665Mbps[20] Transmitting
RosHydroMet Meteor-M N2-3 Sun-synchronous AHRPT 1700.0 MHz[21] 0.665Mbps[21] Transmitting

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "NOAASIS - NOAA Satellite Information System for NOAA Meteorological / Weather Satellites". Archived from the original on 2006-04-27. Retrieved 2009-04-12.
  2. ^ http://www.scanex.ru/en/stations/default.asp?submenu=alice&id=specifications
  3. ^ "NOAA KLM USer's GUIDE Section 4.1". Archived from the original on 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2009-12-08.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-11-26. Retrieved 2009-12-08.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "EUMETCAST". 5 May 2020.
  6. ^ "USA-Satcom xHRPT decoder setup". Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  7. ^ "A Simple GnuRadio HRPT Decoder". Retrieved 2020-01-05.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ "DWDSAT HRPT Viewer - from SatSignal Software".
  9. ^ "ATOVS and AVHRR Pre-processing Package (AAPP)".
  10. ^ "Satpy".
  11. ^ a b c "NOAA table of Polar-orbiting Satellites Equator Crossing Times and Frequencies". 2011-09-01.
  12. ^ "Operational Satellite Status Information - NOAA Satellite Information System (NOAASIS); Office of Satellite and Product Operations". Archived from the original on 2013-07-03. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
  13. ^ http://www.eumetsat.int/idcplg?IdcService=GET_FILE&dDocName=pdf_td18_metop[permanent dead link]
  14. ^ a b c EUMETSAT Polar System Core Ground Segment:Metop HRPT/LRPT User Station Design Specification REF: EPS-ASPI-DS-0674 DATE: 05/03/03 ISSUE: 1.1
  15. ^ "WMO OSCAR | Satellite: FY-3A".
  16. ^ a b c "– AHRPT on the series of FY-3 satellites is disseminated at 1704.5 MHz with a bandwidth of 6.8 MHz at a data rate of 4.2 Mbps or on Metop at 1701 MHz with a bandwidth of 4.5 MHz at a data rate of 4.66 Mbps ." Meteorological Satellite Communications David F. McGinnis, NOAA Markus Dreis, EUMETSAT 17 September 2009
  17. ^ "WMO OSCAR | Satellite: FY-3B".
  18. ^ "WMO OSCAR | Satellite: FY-3C".
  19. ^ a b "WMO Oscar Meteor-M N2-1". Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  20. ^ a b "WMO Oscar Meteor-M N2-2". Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  21. ^ a b "WMO Oscar Meteor-M N2-3". Retrieved 2023-09-10.