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Fēngyún (simplified Chinese: 风云; traditional Chinese: 風雲; lit. 'wind cloud'), abbreviated FY, are China's weather satellites. China has launched polar orbit and geosynchronous orbit meteorological satellites since 1988. On 11 January 2007 China destroyed one of these satellites (FY-1C, COSPAR 1999-025A) in a test of an anti-satellite missile.
The satellites in the FY-1 and FY-3 series are polar-orbiting sun-synchronous orbits. The satellites in the FY-2 and FY-4 series are in geosynchronous orbit. Chinese participation in the monitoring of auroras for scientific and space weather investigation was initiated with the launch of the Fengyum-3D satellite, which carries a wide-field auroral imager.
Meteorological satellites are important in oceanography, agriculture, forestry, hydrology, aviation, navigation, environmental protection and national defense. They contribute to the national economy and to preventing and mitigating disasters. The latest satellites monitor bad weather around the clock, particularly convective rainstorms, thunderstorms and hailstorms. They also monitor developing sandstorms as well as air quality and provide early warnings.
Current and previous satellites
|Launch date||Satellites||Vehicle||Orbit||In use||resolution||height||diameter|
|1988-09-06 20:30:19||FY-1A||CZ-4||SSO||No||1.08 km||1.2 meter||1.4 meter|
|1990-09-03 00:53||FY-1B||CZ-4||SSO||No||1.08 km||1.8 meter||1.4 meter|
|1997-06-10 12:01:00||FY-2A||CZ-3||GEO 105°E||No||1.25 km||4.5 meter||2.1 meter|
|1999-05-10 01:33:00||FY-1C||CZ-4||SSO||Destroyed in 2007 |
|2000-06-25 11:50:00||FY-2B||CZ-3||GEO 105°E||No||1.25 km||4.5 meter||2.1 meter|
|2002-05-15 01:50:00||FY-1D||CZ-4B||SSO||No||1.08 km||1.8 meter||1.4 meter|
|2004-10-19 01:20:04||FY-2C||CZ-3A||GEO 105°E||No||1.25 km||4.5 meter||2.1 meter|
|2006-12-08 00:53:22||FY-2D||CZ-3A||GEO 86.5°E||Yes||1.25 km||4.5 meter||2.1 meter|
|2008-05-27 03:02:33||FY-3A||CZ-4C||SSO||Yes||250 meter||4.4 meter||2 meter|
|2008-12-23 00:54:04||FY-2E||CZ-3A||GEO 86.5°E||Yes||1.25 km||4.5 meter||2.1 meter|
|2010-11-04 18:37:12||FY-3B||CZ-4C||SSO||Yes||250 meter||4.4 meter||2 meter|
|2012-01-13 00:56:04||FY-2F||CZ-3A||GEO 112.5°E||Yes|
|2013-09-23 03:07:17||FY-3C||CZ-4C||SSO||Yes||250 meter||4.4 meter||2 meter|
|2014-12-31 01:02:04||FY-2G||CZ-3A||GEO 105°E||Yes|
|2016-12-10 16:11:00||FY-4A||CZ-3B||GEO 86.5°E||Yes|
|2017-11-14 18:35||FY-3D||CZ-4C||SSO||Yes||250 meter||4.4 meter||2 meter|
|2021-06-02 16:17||FY-4B||CZ-3B/E||GEO 28.5°||Under preparation|
|2021-07-04 23:28||FY-3E||CZ-4C||SSO 98.7°||Under preparation||250 meter||4.4 meter||2 meter|
The newer FY-3 series is an improved generation of polar orbiting heliosynchronous weather satellites. The FY-4 series is an improved generation of geosynchronous meteorological satellites.
- Lui, A., 2019. Imaging global auroras in space. Light: Science & Applications, 8(1).
- NASA identifies Top Ten space junk missions; Michael Cooney, NetworkWorld, 28 July 2010
- "Concern over China's missile test". BBC News. 2007-01-19.
- Hong Kong Observatory Archived 2008-07-25 at the Wayback Machine
- "FY-2E". National Satellite Meteorological Center of CMA (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- "National Satellite Meteorological Center of CMA". Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Barbosa, Rui C. (22 September 2013). "Chinese Long March 4C launches third Fengyun-3 satellite". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
Launch took place at 03:07UTC from the LC9 Launch Complex of the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, Shanxi Province.
- "FY-2G". National Satellite Meteorological Center of CMA (in Chinese). Archived from the original on December 23, 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- "Satellite: FY-4A". OSCAR – Observing Systems Capability Analysis and Review Tool. World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Rui C. Barbosa (14 November 2017). "Long March 4C launches Fengyun-3D and HEAD-1 co-passenger". NASA Spaceflight.
- Enhong, Zheng (2 June 2021). "长三乙成功发射风云四号B星！台风、沙尘暴"看"得更清楚" [Changsanyi successfully launched the Fengyun-4 B star! Typhoons and sandstorms "see" more clearly] (in Chinese). Retrieved 2 June 2021.
- Gebhardt, Chris (4 July 2021). "China lofts Fengyun 3E polar weather satellite". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 5 July 2021.