How many angels can dance on the head of a pin?

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Illustration of a pin with a head shaped like a Cherub
Illustration of a pin with a head shaped like a Cherub, from Illustrerad verldshistoria by E. Wallis, volume I, published 1875

"How many angels can dance on the head of a pin?" (alternatively "How many angels can stand on the point of a pin?"[1]) is a phrase that, when used in modern contexts, can be used as a metaphor for wasting time debating topics of no practical value, or on questions whose answers hold no intellectual consequence, while more urgent concerns accumulate.[1][2]

The phrase was originally used in a theological context by 17th century Protestants to mock medieval scholastics such as Duns Scotus[3] and Thomas Aquinas[4] and the angelology of the period in particular.

The phrase has also been associated with the fall of Constantinople, with the assertion that scholars debated the topic while Turks besieged the city.[2][5]


Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica, written c. 1270, includes discussion of several questions regarding angels such as, "Can several angels be in the same place?"[3] However, the idea that such questions had a prominent place in medieval scholarship has been debated, and it has not been proven whether or not this particular question has been debated.[6] One theory is that it is an early modern fabrication,[a] used to discredit scholastic philosophy at a time when it still played a significant role in university education. James Franklin has raised the scholarly issue, and mentions that there is a 17th-century reference in William Chillingworth's Religion of Protestants (1637),[7] where he accuses unnamed scholastics of debating "whether a Million of Angels may not fit upon a Needle's point?" This is earlier than a reference in the 1678 The True Intellectual System Of The Universe by Ralph Cudworth. Helen S. Lang, author of Aristotle's Physics and its Medieval Varieties (1992), says (p. 284):

The question of how many angels can dance on the point of a needle, or the head of a pin, is often attributed to 'late medieval writers'.... In point of fact, the question has never been found in this form…

Peter Harrison (2016) has suggested that the first reference to angels dancing on a needle's point occurs in an expository work by the English divine (minister), William Sclater (1575–1626).[8] In An exposition with notes upon the first Epistle to the Thessalonians (1619), Sclater claimed that scholastic philosophers occupied themselves with such pointless questions as whether angels "did occupie a place; and so, whether many might be in one place at one time; and how many might sit on a Needles point; and six hundred such like needlesse points."[9] Harrison proposes that the reason an English writer first introduced the "needle’s point" into a critique of medieval angelology is that it makes for a pun on "needless point".[8]

A letter written to The Times in 1975[10] identified a close parallel in a 14th-century mystical text, the Swester Katrei. However, the reference is to souls sitting on a needle: tusent selen siczen in dem himelrich uff einer nadel spicz — "in heaven a thousand souls can sit on the point of a needle."[11]

Dorothy L. Sayers argued that the question was "simply a debating exercise" and that the answer "usually adjudged correct" was stated as, "Angels are pure intelligences, not material, but limited, so that they have location in space, but not extension."[12] Sayers compares the question to that of how many people's thoughts can be concentrated upon a particular pin at the same time. She concludes that infinitely many angels can be located on the head of a pin, since they do not occupy any space there:

The practical lesson to be drawn from the argument is not to use words like "there" in a loose, unscientific way, without specifying whether you mean "located there" or "occupying space there."[12]

In Italian,[13] French,[14] Spanish and Portuguese, the conundrum of useless scholarly debates is linked to a similar question of whether angels are sexless or have a sex.[5] In Polish, instead of angels the question is about devils.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ More precisely, in play in the 17th century, and discussed at various levels by the Cambridge Platonists Ralph Cudworth and Henry More, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.


  1. ^ a b Hirsch, E. D. Jr.; Kett, Joseph F.; Trefil, James, eds. (2002). The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (Third ed.). Houghton Mifflin Co. Archived from the original on 3 July 2003.
  2. ^ a b "How many angels can dance on the head of a pin?". Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014.
  3. ^ a b Summa, New advent.
  4. ^ Kennedy, D. J., "Thomism", in the Catholic Encyclopedia)
  5. ^ a b Ramírez, José A. (1975). Las Andanzas Del Diablo: Confidencias de un Abogado Ingenuo. Editorial Planeta. p. 58. ISBN 9788432053375.
  6. ^ Van Asselt, Willem J (2011). Introduction to Reformed Scholasticism. p. 65.
  7. ^ Franklin 1993 p. 127.
  8. ^ a b Peter Harrison, "Angels on Pinheads and Needles’ Points", Notes and Queries, 63 (2016), 45–47.
  9. ^ William Sclater, 'An Exposition with Notes Upon the First and Second Epistles to the Thessalonians, p 385. (Google Books)
  10. ^ Sylla, E. D. (2005). "Swester Katrei and Gregory of Rimini: Angels, God, and Mathematics in the Fourteenth Century". In Koetsier, S.; Bergmans (eds.). Mathematics and the Divine: A Historical Study. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p. 251. ISBN 0444503285. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  11. ^ Ross, George MacDonald (October 1985). "Angels". Philosophy. 60 (234): 495–511. doi:10.1017/S0031819100042534. S2CID 241590062.
  12. ^ a b Sayers, Dorothy L. "The Lost Tools of Learning". Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  13. ^ "Angelo". Dizionario dei modi di dire - (in Italian). Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  14. ^ "Discuter sur le sexe des anges". L'Internaute. CCM Benchmark. Retrieved 14 November 2020.

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