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Human-rated or man-rated are terms used to describe the certification of a spacecraft, launch vehicle or airplane[not verified in body] as worthy of transporting humans. NASA and the U.S. GAO now use "human-rating" when describing requirements for these systems, to be gender-neutral.
In spaceflight, a human-rating certification is the assurance that the space system accommodates human needs, effectively utilizes human capabilities, controls hazards with sufficient certainty to be considered safe for human operations, and provides, to the maximum extent practical, the capability to safely recover the crew from hazardous situations. In the United States, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has published NASA Procedural Requirement NPR 8705.2B - Human Rating Requirements for Space Systems, defining the certification process and a set of technical requirements to be applied to its crewed space systems in addition to the standards and requirements that are mandatory for all of NASA's space flight programs.
NASA Commercial Crew Program
In November 2011, Ed Mango, the agency head of the NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP), gave an extended interview on the new NASA requirements for human rating of spacecraft that will fly to the International Space Station (ISS).
The NASA CCP human-rating standards require that the probability of loss on ascent is no more than 1 in 500, and that the probability of loss on descent is no more than 1 in 500. The overall mission loss risk, which includes vehicle risk from micrometeorites and orbital debris while in orbit for up to 210 days is no more than 1 in 270. Maximum sustained G-loads are limited to three Earth-standard g's.
It is noteworthy that the development of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station pre-dates the NASA Human-Rating requirements. After the Challenger and Columbia accidents, the criteria used by NASA for human-rating spacecraft have been made more stringent.
The United Launch Alliance (ULA) published[when?] a paper submitted to AIAA detailing the modifications to its Delta IV and Atlas V launch vehicles that would be needed to conform to NASA Standard 8705.2B. ULA has since been awarded $6.7 million under NASA's Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program for development of an Emergency Detection System, one of the final pieces that would be needed to make these launchers suitable for human spaceflight.
- "Human Rating Requirements for Space Systems". NASA. May 6, 2008.
- Chaikin, Andrew (2011-11-16). "Certified Safe: Planning to operate a taxi service for NASA astronauts? Here’s what’s required.". Air & Space Smithsonian. Retrieved 2011-11-27.
we've separated [the “loss of crew” criteria] into what you need for ascent and what you need for entry. For ascent it’s 1 in 500, and independently for entry it’s 1 in 500. ... The probability for the mission itself is 1 in 270. That is an overall number. That’s loss of crew for the entire mission profile, including ascent, on-orbit, and entry. The thing that drives the 1 in 270 is really micrometeorites and orbital debris ... whatever things that are in space that you can collide with. So that’s what drops that number down, because you’ve got to look at the 210 days, the fact that your heat shield or something might be exposed to whatever that debris is for that period of time. NASA looks at Loss of Vehicle the same as Loss of Crew. If the vehicle is damaged and it may not be detected prior to de-orbit, then you have loss of crew.'
- "Atlas and Delta Capabilities to Launch Crew to Low Earth Orbit" (PDF). United Launch Alliance. n.d. Retrieved 2011-11-27.
- "NASA and ULA confirm Atlas V baseline for human rated launches". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved July 2014.
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